Hadoop基础教程-第10章 HBase:Hadoop数据库(10.7 HBase 批量导入)

第10章 HBase:Hadoop数据库

10.7 HBase 批量导入

10.7.1 批量导入数据的方法

向HBase表中导入一条数据可以使用HBase Shell的put命令或HBase API的Put类,但是面对海量数据如何批量导入呢? 一般有三种方法:ImportTsv工具、编写MapReduce程序和Hive外表。本节重点介绍ImportTsv工具和编写MapReduce程序两种方法,Hive外表将在第11章介绍。

10.7.2 ImportTsv

(1)介绍

ImportTsv是HBase官方提供了基于mapreduce进行批量数据导入的工具,ImportTsv可以将HDFS上的TSV格式(默认制表符分隔\t,或者自定义分隔符的其他格式数据文件也可,逗号‘,’分隔的txt亲测可以)的数据文件通过命令简单方便地导入到HBase中,对于大数据量的导入非常实用。

(2)准备数据

生成数据

[root@node1 ~]# cd data
[root@node1 data]# ls
books.txt  cite75_99.txt  ncdc.txt  rs.txt  temperature.txt  word1.txt
[root@node1 data]# vi gen.sh
[root@node1 data]# cat gen.sh 
#!/bin/sh

for i in {1..100000};do
        echo -e $i'\t'$RANDOM'\t'$RANDOM'\t'$RANDOM
done;
[root@node1 data]# sh gen.sh > mydata.txt
[root@node1 data]# tail -5 mydata.txt
99996   6512    21537   7475
99997   9544    22444   1030
99998   18157   11864   16616
99999   28231   10187   21657
100000  21188   27568   14994
[root@node1 data]# 

将生成的数据上传到HDFS

[root@node1 data]# hdfs dfs -mkdir -p input
[root@node1 data]# hdfs dfs -put mydata.txt input
[root@node1 data]# hdfs dfs -ls input
Found 1 items
-rw-r--r--   3 root supergroup    2287354 2017-08-05 05:30 input/mydata.txt
[root@node1 data]#

(3)创建表

[root@node1 data]# hbase shell
SLF4J: Class path contains multiple SLF4J bindings.
SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/opt/hbase-1.2.6/lib/slf4j-log4j12-1.7.5.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/opt/hadoop-2.7.3/share/hadoop/common/lib/slf4j-log4j12-1.7.10.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
SLF4J: See http://www.slf4j.org/codes.html#multiple_bindings for an explanation.
SLF4J: Actual binding is of type [org.slf4j.impl.Log4jLoggerFactory]
HBase Shell; enter 'help<RETURN>' for list of supported commands.
Type "exit<RETURN>" to leave the HBase Shell
Version 1.2.6, rUnknown, Mon May 29 02:25:32 CDT 2017

hbase(main):001:0> create 'mydata','info'
0 row(s) in 1.8170 seconds

=> Hbase::Table - mydata
hbase(main):002:0> quit
[root@node1 data]#

(4)上传数据 执行导入命令: hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.mapreduce.ImportTsv -Dimporttsv.columns=HBASE_ROW_KEY,info:data1,info:data2,info:data3 mydata input/mydata.txt

[root@node1 ~]# hbase org.apache.hadoop.hbase.mapreduce.ImportTsv \
> -Dimporttsv.columns=HBASE_ROW_KEY,info:data1,info:data2,info:data3 mydata input/mydata.txt
SLF4J: Class path contains multiple SLF4J bindings.
SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/opt/hbase-1.2.6/lib/slf4j-log4j12-1.7.5.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/opt/hadoop-2.7.3/share/hadoop/common/lib/slf4j-log4j12-1.7.10.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
SLF4J: See http://www.slf4j.org/codes.html#multiple_bindings for an explanation.
SLF4J: Actual binding is of type [org.slf4j.impl.Log4jLoggerFactory]
2017-08-05 05:37:23,936 INFO  [main] zookeeper.RecoverableZooKeeper: Process identifier=hconnection-0x292b08d6 connecting to ZooKeeper ensemble=node1:2181,node2:2181,node3:2181
2017-08-05 05:37:23,970 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:zookeeper.version=3.4.6-1569965, built on 02/20/2014 09:09 GMT
2017-08-05 05:37:23,970 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:host.name=node1
2017-08-05 05:37:23,971 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:java.version=1.8.0_112
2017-08-05 05:37:23,971 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:java.vendor=Oracle Corporation
2017-08-05 05:37:23,971 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:java.home=/opt/jdk1.8.0_112/jre
2017-08-05 05:37:23,971 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:java.class.path=/opt/hbase-1.2.6/conf:/opt/jdk1.8.0_112/lib/tools.jar:/opt/hbase-1.2.6:/opt/hbase-
2017-08-05 05:37:23,979 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:java.library.path=/opt/hadoop-2.7.3/lib/native
2017-08-05 05:37:23,979 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:java.io.tmpdir=/tmp
2017-08-05 05:37:23,979 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:java.compiler=<NA>
2017-08-05 05:37:23,979 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:os.name=Linux
2017-08-05 05:37:23,979 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:os.arch=amd64
2017-08-05 05:37:23,979 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:os.version=3.10.0-514.el7.x86_64
2017-08-05 05:37:23,979 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:user.name=root
2017-08-05 05:37:23,979 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:user.home=/root
2017-08-05 05:37:23,979 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Client environment:user.dir=/root
2017-08-05 05:37:23,981 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Initiating client connection, connectString=node1:2181,node2:2181,node3:2181 sessionTimeout=90000 watcher=hconnection-0x292b08d60x0, quorum=node1:2181,node2:2181,node3:2181, baseZNode=/hbase
2017-08-05 05:37:24,030 INFO  [main-SendThread(node1:2181)] zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Opening socket connection to server node1/192.168.80.131:2181. Will not attempt to authenticate using SASL (unknown error)
2017-08-05 05:37:24,055 INFO  [main-SendThread(node1:2181)] zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Socket connection established to node1/192.168.80.131:2181, initiating session
2017-08-05 05:37:24,103 INFO  [main-SendThread(node1:2181)] zookeeper.ClientCnxn: Session establishment complete on server node1/192.168.80.131:2181, sessionid = 0x15dafce38380006, negotiated timeout = 40000
2017-08-05 05:37:26,136 INFO  [main] Configuration.deprecation: io.bytes.per.checksum is deprecated. Instead, use dfs.bytes-per-checksum
2017-08-05 05:37:26,351 INFO  [main] client.ConnectionManager$HConnectionImplementation: Closing zookeeper sessionid=0x15dafce38380006
2017-08-05 05:37:26,372 INFO  [main] zookeeper.ZooKeeper: Session: 0x15dafce38380006 closed
2017-08-05 05:37:26,372 INFO  [main-EventThread] zookeeper.ClientCnxn: EventThread shut down
2017-08-05 05:37:26,977 INFO  [main] Configuration.deprecation: io.bytes.per.checksum is deprecated. Instead, use dfs.bytes-per-checksum
2017-08-05 05:37:31,821 INFO  [main] input.FileInputFormat: Total input paths to process : 1
2017-08-05 05:37:32,132 INFO  [main] mapreduce.JobSubmitter: number of splits:1
2017-08-05 05:37:32,460 INFO  [main] Configuration.deprecation: io.bytes.per.checksum is deprecated. Instead, use dfs.bytes-per-checksum
2017-08-05 05:37:33,154 INFO  [main] mapreduce.JobSubmitter: Submitting tokens for job: job_1501893260326_0001
2017-08-05 05:37:34,742 INFO  [main] impl.YarnClientImpl: Submitted application application_1501893260326_0001
2017-08-05 05:37:34,945 INFO  [main] mapreduce.Job: The url to track the job: http://node1:8088/proxy/application_1501893260326_0001/
2017-08-05 05:37:34,946 INFO  [main] mapreduce.Job: Running job: job_1501893260326_0001
2017-08-05 05:37:56,389 INFO  [main] mapreduce.Job: Job job_1501893260326_0001 running in uber mode : false
2017-08-05 05:37:56,390 INFO  [main] mapreduce.Job:  map 0% reduce 0%
2017-08-05 05:38:17,452 INFO  [main] mapreduce.Job:  map 15% reduce 0%
2017-08-05 05:38:20,567 INFO  [main] mapreduce.Job:  map 46% reduce 0%
2017-08-05 05:38:23,686 INFO  [main] mapreduce.Job:  map 71% reduce 0%
2017-08-05 05:38:26,787 INFO  [main] mapreduce.Job:  map 100% reduce 0%
2017-08-05 05:38:27,826 INFO  [main] mapreduce.Job: Job job_1501893260326_0001 completed successfully
2017-08-05 05:38:28,034 INFO  [main] mapreduce.Job: Counters: 31
    File System Counters
        FILE: Number of bytes read=0
        FILE: Number of bytes written=150773
        FILE: Number of read operations=0
        FILE: Number of large read operations=0
        FILE: Number of write operations=0
        HDFS: Number of bytes read=2287457
        HDFS: Number of bytes written=0
        HDFS: Number of read operations=2
        HDFS: Number of large read operations=0
        HDFS: Number of write operations=0
    Job Counters 
        Launched map tasks=1
        Data-local map tasks=1
        Total time spent by all maps in occupied slots (ms)=27098
        Total time spent by all reduces in occupied slots (ms)=0
        Total time spent by all map tasks (ms)=27098
        Total vcore-seconds taken by all map tasks=27098
        Total megabyte-seconds taken by all map tasks=27748352
    Map-Reduce Framework
        Map input records=100000
        Map output records=100000
        Input split bytes=103
        Spilled Records=0
        Failed Shuffles=0
        Merged Map outputs=0
        GC time elapsed (ms)=946
        CPU time spent (ms)=12890
        Physical memory (bytes) snapshot=128389120
        Virtual memory (bytes) snapshot=2108084224
        Total committed heap usage (bytes)=30474240
    ImportTsv
        Bad Lines=0
    File Input Format Counters 
        Bytes Read=2287354
    File Output Format Counters 
        Bytes Written=0
[root@node1 ~]# 

(5)查看导入结果

[root@node2 ~]# hbase shell
SLF4J: Class path contains multiple SLF4J bindings.
SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/opt/hbase-1.2.6/lib/slf4j-log4j12-1.7.5.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/opt/hadoop-2.7.3/share/hadoop/common/lib/slf4j-log4j12-1.7.10.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
SLF4J: See http://www.slf4j.org/codes.html#multiple_bindings for an explanation.
SLF4J: Actual binding is of type [org.slf4j.impl.Log4jLoggerFactory]
HBase Shell; enter 'help<RETURN>' for list of supported commands.
Type "exit<RETURN>" to leave the HBase Shell
Version 1.2.6, rUnknown, Mon May 29 02:25:32 CDT 2017

hbase(main):001:0> count 'mydata'
Current count: 1000, row: 10897                                                                                                                                                              
Current count: 2000, row: 11797                                                                                                                                                              
Current count: 3000, row: 12697                                                                                                                                                              
Current count: 4000, row: 13597                                                                                                                                                              
Current count: 5000, row: 14497                                                                                                                                                              
Current count: 6000, row: 15397                                                                                                                                                              
Current count: 7000, row: 16297                                                                                                                                                              
Current count: 8000, row: 17197                                                                                                                                                              
Current count: 9000, row: 18097                                                                                                                                                              
Current count: 10000, row: 18998                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 11000, row: 19898                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 12000, row: 20797                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 13000, row: 21697                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 14000, row: 22597                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 15000, row: 23497                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 16000, row: 24397                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 17000, row: 25297                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 18000, row: 26197                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 19000, row: 27097                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 20000, row: 27998                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 21000, row: 28898                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 22000, row: 29798                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 23000, row: 30697                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 24000, row: 31597                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 25000, row: 32497                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 26000, row: 33397                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 27000, row: 34297                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 28000, row: 35197                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 29000, row: 36097                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 30000, row: 36998                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 31000, row: 37898                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 32000, row: 38798                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 33000, row: 39698                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 34000, row: 40597                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 35000, row: 41497                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 36000, row: 42397                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 37000, row: 43297                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 38000, row: 44197                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 39000, row: 45097                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 40000, row: 45998                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 41000, row: 46898                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 42000, row: 47798                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 43000, row: 48698                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 44000, row: 49598                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 45000, row: 50497                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 46000, row: 51397                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 47000, row: 52297                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 48000, row: 53197                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 49000, row: 54097                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 50000, row: 54998                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 51000, row: 55898                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 52000, row: 56798                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 53000, row: 57698                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 54000, row: 58598                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 55000, row: 59498                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 56000, row: 60397                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 57000, row: 61297                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 58000, row: 62197                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 59000, row: 63097                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 60000, row: 63998                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 61000, row: 64898                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 62000, row: 65798                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 63000, row: 66698                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 64000, row: 67598                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 65000, row: 68498                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 66000, row: 69398                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 67000, row: 70297                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 68000, row: 71197                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 69000, row: 72097                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 70000, row: 72998                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 71000, row: 73898                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 72000, row: 74798                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 73000, row: 75698                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 74000, row: 76598                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 75000, row: 77498                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 76000, row: 78398                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 77000, row: 79298                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 78000, row: 80197                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 79000, row: 81097                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 80000, row: 81998                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 81000, row: 82898                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 82000, row: 83798                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 83000, row: 84698                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 84000, row: 85598                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 85000, row: 86498                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 86000, row: 87398                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 87000, row: 88298                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 88000, row: 89198                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 89000, row: 90097                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 90000, row: 90998                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 91000, row: 91898                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 92000, row: 92798                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 93000, row: 93698                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 94000, row: 94598                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 95000, row: 95498                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 96000, row: 96398                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 97000, row: 97298                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 98000, row: 98198                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 99000, row: 99098                                                                                                                                                             
Current count: 100000, row: 99999                                                                                                                                                            
100000 row(s) in 14.6730 seconds

=> 100000
hbase(main):002:0> get 'mydata','1'
COLUMN                                           CELL                                                                                                                                        
 info:data1                                      timestamp=1501925842893, value=14506                                                                                                        
 info:data2                                      timestamp=1501925842893, value=10037                                                                                                        
 info:data3                                      timestamp=1501925842893, value=10938                                                                                                        
3 row(s) in 0.1180 seconds

hbase(main):003:0> 

10.7.3 MapReduce

package hbaseDemo.dao;

import java.io.IOException;
import org.apache.hadoop.conf.Configuration;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.client.Put;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.mapreduce.TableOutputFormat;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.mapreduce.TableReducer;
import org.apache.hadoop.hbase.util.Bytes;
import org.apache.hadoop.io.LongWritable;
import org.apache.hadoop.io.NullWritable;
import org.apache.hadoop.io.Text;
import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Job;
import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Mapper;
import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.lib.input.FileInputFormat;
import org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.lib.input.TextInputFormat;

public class BatchImport {

    public static class BatchImportMapper extends Mapper<LongWritable, Text, LongWritable, Text> {
        protected void map(LongWritable key, Text value, Context context)
                throws java.io.IOException, InterruptedException {
            // super.setup( context );
            //System.out.println(key + ":" + value);
            context.write(key, value);
        };
    }

    static class BatchImportReducer extends TableReducer<LongWritable, Text, NullWritable> {
        protected void reduce(LongWritable key, Iterable<Text> values, Context context)
                throws IOException, InterruptedException {
            for (Text text : values) {
                final String[] splited = text.toString().split("\t");
                final Put put = new Put(Bytes.toBytes(splited[0]));// 第一列行键
                put.addColumn(Bytes.toBytes("info"), Bytes.toBytes("data1"), Bytes.toBytes(splited[1]));
                put.addColumn(Bytes.toBytes("info"), Bytes.toBytes("data2"), Bytes.toBytes(splited[2]));
                put.addColumn(Bytes.toBytes("info"), Bytes.toBytes("data3"), Bytes.toBytes(splited[3]));
                context.write(NullWritable.get(), put);
            }
        };
    }

    /**
     * 之前一直报错,failed on connection exception 拒绝连接:nb0:8020
     * 因为namenode节点不在192.168.1.160上,而在192.168.1.161和192.168.1.162
     * @param args
     * @throws Exception
     */
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        final Configuration conf = new Configuration();
        conf.set("hbase.rootdir", "hdfs://cetc32/hbase");
        // 设置Zookeeper,直接设置IP地址
        conf.set("hbase.zookeeper.quorum", "192.168.1.160,192.168.1.161,192.168.1.162");
        // 设置hbase表名称(先在shell下创建一个表:create 'mydata','info')
        conf.set(TableOutputFormat.OUTPUT_TABLE, "mydata");
        // 将该值改大,防止hbase超时退出
        conf.set("dfs.socket.timeout", "180000");

        //System.setProperty("HADOOP_USER_NAME", "root");
        // 设置fs.defaultFS
        conf.set("fs.defaultFS", "hdfs://192.168.1.161:8020");
        // 设置yarn.resourcemanager节点
        conf.set("yarn.resourcemanager.hostname", "nb1");

        Job job = Job.getInstance(conf);
        job.setJobName("HBaseBatchImport");
        job.setMapperClass(BatchImportMapper.class);
        job.setReducerClass(BatchImportReducer.class);
        // 设置map的输出,不设置reduce的输出类型
        job.setMapOutputKeyClass(LongWritable.class);
        job.setMapOutputValueClass(Text.class);

        job.setInputFormatClass(TextInputFormat.class);
        // 不再设置输出路径,而是设置输出格式类型
        job.setOutputFormatClass(TableOutputFormat.class);

        FileInputFormat.setInputPaths(job, "hdfs://192.168.1.161:8020/user/root/input/mydata.txt");

        boolean flag=job.waitForCompletion(true);
        System.out.println(flag);
    }
}

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