Hadoop基础教程-第11章 Hive:SQL on Hadoop(11.2 Hive安装与配置)(草稿)

第11章 Hive:SQL on Hadoop

11.2 Hive安装与配置

11.2.1 安装元数据库

Hive的元数据和数据是分开存放的,数据存放在HDFS上,而元数据库默认是存储在Hive自带的Derby数据库。由于Derby只支持同时一个用户访问Hive,所以我们将换成MySQL/MariaDB作为Hive元数据库。

(1)安装数据库 CentOS 6.x系统可以安装MySQL,CentOS 7.x系统可以直接安装MariaDB

[root@node3 ~]# yum install -y mariadb mariadb-server
Loaded plugins: fastestmirror
base                                                                                                                                                                  | 3.6 kB  00:00:00     
extras                                                                                                                                                                | 3.4 kB  00:00:00     
updates                                                                                                                                                               | 3.4 kB  00:00:00     
updates/7/x86_64/primary_db                                                                                                                                           | 7.8 MB  00:00:07     
Determining fastest mirrors
 * base: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * extras: mirrors.aliyun.com
 * updates: mirrors.aliyun.com
Resolving Dependencies
--> Running transaction check
---> Package mariadb.x86_64 1:5.5.52-1.el7 will be installed
---> Package mariadb-server.x86_64 1:5.5.52-1.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: perl-DBI for package: 1:mariadb-server-5.5.52-1.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: perl-DBD-MySQL for package: 1:mariadb-server-5.5.52-1.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: perl(Data::Dumper) for package: 1:mariadb-server-5.5.52-1.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: perl(DBI) for package: 1:mariadb-server-5.5.52-1.el7.x86_64
--> Running transaction check
---> Package perl-DBD-MySQL.x86_64 0:4.023-5.el7 will be installed
---> Package perl-DBI.x86_64 0:1.627-4.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: perl(RPC::PlServer) >= 0.2001 for package: perl-DBI-1.627-4.el7.x86_64
--> Processing Dependency: perl(RPC::PlClient) >= 0.2000 for package: perl-DBI-1.627-4.el7.x86_64
---> Package perl-Data-Dumper.x86_64 0:2.145-3.el7 will be installed
--> Running transaction check
---> Package perl-PlRPC.noarch 0:0.2020-14.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: perl(Net::Daemon) >= 0.13 for package: perl-PlRPC-0.2020-14.el7.noarch
--> Processing Dependency: perl(Net::Daemon::Test) for package: perl-PlRPC-0.2020-14.el7.noarch
--> Processing Dependency: perl(Net::Daemon::Log) for package: perl-PlRPC-0.2020-14.el7.noarch
--> Processing Dependency: perl(Compress::Zlib) for package: perl-PlRPC-0.2020-14.el7.noarch
--> Running transaction check
---> Package perl-IO-Compress.noarch 0:2.061-2.el7 will be installed
--> Processing Dependency: perl(Compress::Raw::Zlib) >= 2.061 for package: perl-IO-Compress-2.061-2.el7.noarch
--> Processing Dependency: perl(Compress::Raw::Bzip2) >= 2.061 for package: perl-IO-Compress-2.061-2.el7.noarch
---> Package perl-Net-Daemon.noarch 0:0.48-5.el7 will be installed
--> Running transaction check
---> Package perl-Compress-Raw-Bzip2.x86_64 0:2.061-3.el7 will be installed
---> Package perl-Compress-Raw-Zlib.x86_64 1:2.061-4.el7 will be installed
--> Finished Dependency Resolution

Dependencies Resolved

=============================================================================================================================================================================================
 Package                                                 Arch                                   Version                                           Repository                            Size
=============================================================================================================================================================================================
Installing:
 mariadb                                                 x86_64                                 1:5.5.52-1.el7                                    base                                 8.7 M
 mariadb-server                                          x86_64                                 1:5.5.52-1.el7                                    base                                  11 M
Installing for dependencies:
 perl-Compress-Raw-Bzip2                                 x86_64                                 2.061-3.el7                                       base                                  32 k
 perl-Compress-Raw-Zlib                                  x86_64                                 1:2.061-4.el7                                     base                                  57 k
 perl-DBD-MySQL                                          x86_64                                 4.023-5.el7                                       base                                 140 k
 perl-DBI                                                x86_64                                 1.627-4.el7                                       base                                 802 k
 perl-Data-Dumper                                        x86_64                                 2.145-3.el7                                       base                                  47 k
 perl-IO-Compress                                        noarch                                 2.061-2.el7                                       base                                 260 k
 perl-Net-Daemon                                         noarch                                 0.48-5.el7                                        base                                  51 k
 perl-PlRPC                                              noarch                                 0.2020-14.el7                                     base                                  36 k

Transaction Summary
=============================================================================================================================================================================================
Install  2 Packages (+8 Dependent packages)

Total download size: 21 M
Installed size: 107 M
Downloading packages:
(1/10): perl-Compress-Raw-Bzip2-2.061-3.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                |  32 kB  00:00:00     
(2/10): perl-Compress-Raw-Zlib-2.061-4.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                 |  57 kB  00:00:00     
(3/10): perl-DBD-MySQL-4.023-5.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                         | 140 kB  00:00:00     
(4/10): perl-DBI-1.627-4.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                               | 802 kB  00:00:00     
(5/10): perl-Data-Dumper-2.145-3.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                       |  47 kB  00:00:00     
(6/10): perl-IO-Compress-2.061-2.el7.noarch.rpm                                                                                                                       | 260 kB  00:00:00     
(7/10): perl-Net-Daemon-0.48-5.el7.noarch.rpm                                                                                                                         |  51 kB  00:00:00     
(8/10): perl-PlRPC-0.2020-14.el7.noarch.rpm                                                                                                                           |  36 kB  00:00:00     
(9/10): mariadb-5.5.52-1.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                               | 8.7 MB  00:00:09     
mariadb-server-5.5.52-1.el7.x8 FAILED                                          
http://mirrors.aliyuncs.com/centos/7/os/x86_64/Packages/mariadb-server-5.5.52-1.el7.x86_64.rpm: [Errno 14] curl#7 - "Failed connect to mirrors.aliyuncs.com:80; Connection refused"00:10 ETA 
Trying other mirror.
(10/10): mariadb-server-5.5.52-1.el7.x86_64.rpm                                                                                                                       |  11 MB  00:00:11     
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total                                                                                                                                                        662 kB/s |  21 MB  00:00:32     
Running transaction check
Running transaction test
Transaction test succeeded
Running transaction
  Installing : perl-Data-Dumper-2.145-3.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                      1/10 
  Installing : perl-Net-Daemon-0.48-5.el7.noarch                                                                                                                                        2/10 
  Installing : 1:perl-Compress-Raw-Zlib-2.061-4.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                              3/10 
  Installing : 1:mariadb-5.5.52-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                            4/10 
  Installing : perl-Compress-Raw-Bzip2-2.061-3.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                               5/10 
  Installing : perl-IO-Compress-2.061-2.el7.noarch                                                                                                                                      6/10 
  Installing : perl-PlRPC-0.2020-14.el7.noarch                                                                                                                                          7/10 
  Installing : perl-DBI-1.627-4.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                              8/10 
  Installing : perl-DBD-MySQL-4.023-5.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                        9/10 
  Installing : 1:mariadb-server-5.5.52-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                    10/10 
  Verifying  : perl-Compress-Raw-Bzip2-2.061-3.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                               1/10 
  Verifying  : 1:mariadb-5.5.52-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                            2/10 
  Verifying  : perl-Data-Dumper-2.145-3.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                      3/10 
  Verifying  : 1:mariadb-server-5.5.52-1.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                     4/10 
  Verifying  : perl-PlRPC-0.2020-14.el7.noarch                                                                                                                                          5/10 
  Verifying  : 1:perl-Compress-Raw-Zlib-2.061-4.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                              6/10 
  Verifying  : perl-Net-Daemon-0.48-5.el7.noarch                                                                                                                                        7/10 
  Verifying  : perl-DBI-1.627-4.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                              8/10 
  Verifying  : perl-IO-Compress-2.061-2.el7.noarch                                                                                                                                      9/10 
  Verifying  : perl-DBD-MySQL-4.023-5.el7.x86_64                                                                                                                                       10/10 

Installed:
  mariadb.x86_64 1:5.5.52-1.el7                                                             mariadb-server.x86_64 1:5.5.52-1.el7                                                            

Dependency Installed:
  perl-Compress-Raw-Bzip2.x86_64 0:2.061-3.el7        perl-Compress-Raw-Zlib.x86_64 1:2.061-4.el7        perl-DBD-MySQL.x86_64 0:4.023-5.el7        perl-DBI.x86_64 0:1.627-4.el7           
  perl-Data-Dumper.x86_64 0:2.145-3.el7               perl-IO-Compress.noarch 0:2.061-2.el7              perl-Net-Daemon.noarch 0:0.48-5.el7        perl-PlRPC.noarch 0:0.2020-14.el7       

Complete!
[root@node3 ~]# 

(2)数据库配置 启动MariaDB

[root@node3 ~]# systemctl start mariadb

设置开机启动

[root@node3 ~]# systemctl enable mariadb
Created symlink from /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/mariadb.service to /usr/lib/systemd/system/mariadb.service.

运行脚本mysql_secure_installation

[root@node3 ~]# mysql_secure_installation

NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB
      SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE!  PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY!

In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current
password for the root user.  If you've just installed MariaDB, and
you haven't set the root password yet, the password will be blank,
so you should just press enter here.

Enter current password for root (enter for none): 
OK, successfully used password, moving on...

Setting the root password ensures that nobody can log into the MariaDB
root user without the proper authorisation.

Set root password? [Y/n] y
New password: 
Re-enter new password: 
Password updated successfully!
Reloading privilege tables..
 ... Success!


By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone
to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for
them.  This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation
go a bit smoother.  You should remove them before moving into a
production environment.

Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'.  This
ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network.

Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] n
 ... skipping.

By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can
access.  This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed
before moving into a production environment.

Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] n
 ... skipping.

Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far
will take effect immediately.

Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] y
 ... Success!

Cleaning up...

All done!  If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB
installation should now be secure.

Thanks for using MariaDB!
[root@node3 ~]# 

登录MySQL,查询mysql.user表。如果存在用户名空或密码空的记录,请删除。

[root@node3 ~]# mysql -uroot -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 7
Server version: 5.5.52-MariaDB MariaDB Server

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]> select Host,User,Password from mysql.user;
+-----------+------+-------------------------------------------+
| Host      | User | Password                                  |
+-----------+------+-------------------------------------------+
| localhost | root | *6BB4837EB74329105EE4568DDA7DC67ED2CA2AD9 |
| node3     | root | *6BB4837EB74329105EE4568DDA7DC67ED2CA2AD9 |
| 127.0.0.1 | root | *6BB4837EB74329105EE4568DDA7DC67ED2CA2AD9 |
| ::1       | root | *6BB4837EB74329105EE4568DDA7DC67ED2CA2AD9 |
+-----------+------+-------------------------------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

授权,可以远程访问

MariaDB [(none)]> grant all on *.* to root@'%' identified by '123456' with grant option;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> flush privileges;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [(none)]> quit
Bye
[root@node3 ~]# 

11.2.2 下载Hive软件包

https://hive.apache.org/

Downloads–>Download a release now!

http://www.apache.org/dyn/closer.cgi/hive/

选择stable-2 –> 下载apache-hive-2.1.1-bin.tar.gz

由于Hive是Hadoop的一个客户端,可以独立于集群之外。由于我们的Linux虚拟机只有3台,我们将刚才下载的Hive软件包通过XShell上传到node3节点。

11.2.3 Hive安装与配置

(1)解压缩Hive软件包到/opt目录

[root@node3 ~]# tar -zxvf apache-hive-2.1.1-bin.tar.gz -C /opt

(2)为了与其他组件保持一致,重命名Hive根目录

[root@node3 ~]# cd /opt
[root@node3 opt]# ls
apache-hive-2.1.1-bin  data  hadoop-2.7.3  hbase-1.2.6  jdk1.8.0_112  zookeeper-3.4.10
[root@node3 opt]# mv apache-hive-2.1.1-bin/ hive-2.1.1
[root@node3 opt]# ll
total 4
drwxr-xr-x   3 root root   25 Jul 12 10:13 data
drwxr-xr-x  10 root root  161 May 14 09:14 hadoop-2.7.3
drwxr-xr-x   8 root root  172 Jul 23 10:37 hbase-1.2.6
drwxr-xr-x   9 root root  171 Aug  6 03:56 hive-2.1.1
drwxr-xr-x.  8   10  143  255 Sep 23  2016 jdk1.8.0_112
drwxr-xr-x  10 root root 4096 Jul  7 10:17 zookeeper-3.4.10
[root@node3 opt]# 

(3)设置Hive环境变量 编辑文件

[root@node3 opt]# vi /etc/profile.d/custom.sh

增加下面内容

#Hive path
export HIVE_HOME=/opt/hive-2.1.1
export PATH=$PATH:$HIVE_HOME/bin

source一下

[root@node3 opt]# source /etc/profile.d/custom.sh

(4)将MySQL驱动程序复制到Hive的lib目录下面

MySQL的JDBC驱动程序可以从MySQL官网下载 https://dev.mysql.com/downloads/connector/j/ 选择一个熟悉的压缩方式,单击Download按钮

找到“No thanks, just start my download.”超链接,单击该链接即可下载。这里我们右键复制该链接的地址https://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/Connector-J/mysql-connector-java-5.1.43.tar.gz

下面可以直接在node3节点直接下载JDBC驱动程序了

[root@node3 ~]# wget https://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/Connector-J/mysql-connector-java-5.1.43.tar.gz
--2017-08-06 04:22:47--  https://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/Connector-J/mysql-connector-java-5.1.43.tar.gz
Resolving dev.mysql.com (dev.mysql.com)... 137.254.60.11
Connecting to dev.mysql.com (dev.mysql.com)|137.254.60.11|:443... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 302 Found
Location: https://cdn.mysql.com//Downloads/Connector-J/mysql-connector-java-5.1.43.tar.gz [following]
--2017-08-06 04:22:49--  https://cdn.mysql.com//Downloads/Connector-J/mysql-connector-java-5.1.43.tar.gz
Resolving cdn.mysql.com (cdn.mysql.com)... 184.85.114.192
Connecting to cdn.mysql.com (cdn.mysql.com)|184.85.114.192|:443... connected.
HTTP request sent, awaiting response... 200 OK
Length: 3462610 (3.3M) [application/x-tar-gz]
Saving to: ‘mysql-connector-java-5.1.43.tar.gz’

100%[===================================================================================================================================================>] 3,462,610   19.8KB/s   in 2m 39s 

2017-08-06 04:25:29 (21.2 KB/s) - ‘mysql-connector-java-5.1.43.tar.gz’ saved [3462610/3462610]

[root@node3 ~]#

然后解压缩

[root@node3 ~]# tar -zxvf mysql-connector-java-5.1.43.tar.gz
[root@node3 ~]# cd mysql-connector-java-5.1.43
[root@node3 mysql-connector-java-5.1.43]# ls
build.xml  CHANGES  COPYING  mysql-connector-java-5.1.43-bin.jar  README  README.txt  src

其中,mysql-connector-java-5.1.43-bin.jar文件就是我们需要jar包,直接将该jar移动到hive的lib目录下即可。

[root@node3 mysql-connector-java-5.1.43]# mv mysql-connector-java-5.1.43-bin.jar /opt/hive-2.1.1/lib/

(5)编辑配置文件

[root@node3 ~]# cd /opt/hive-2.1.1/conf/
[root@node3 conf]# vi hive-site.xml
[root@node3 conf]# cat hive-site.xml 
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<?xml-stylesheet type="text/xsl" href="configuration.xsl"?>
<configuration>
    <property>
          <name>hive.metastore.local</name>
          <!--本地存储,MySQL和hive安装在同一节点-->
          <value>true</value>
    </property>
    <property>
          <name>javax.jdo.option.ConnectionURL</name>
          <value>jdbc:mysql://node3:3306/hive?createDatabaseIfNotExist=true</value>      
    </property>
    <property>
          <name>javax.jdo.option.ConnectionDriverName</name>
          <value>com.mysql.jdbc.Driver</value>
    </property>
    <property>          
          <name>javax.jdo.option.ConnectionUserName</name>        
          <!--mysql数据库用户名-->            
          <value>root</value>
    </property>
    <property>
          <name>javax.jdo.option.ConnectionPassword</name>
          <value>123456</value>
    </property>
</configuration>
[root@node3 conf]# 

(6)元数据初始化 从官方文档https://cwiki.apache.org/confluence/display/Hive/GettingStarted可知”Starting from Hive 2.1, we need to run the schematool command below as an initialization step.”,也就是说从Hive 2.1开始,我们需要在下面运行schematool命令作为初始化步骤。

[root@node3 ~]# schematool -dbType mysql -initSchema
SLF4J: Class path contains multiple SLF4J bindings.
SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/opt/hive-2.1.1/lib/log4j-slf4j-impl-2.4.1.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
SLF4J: Found binding in [jar:file:/opt/hadoop-2.7.3/share/hadoop/common/lib/slf4j-log4j12-1.7.10.jar!/org/slf4j/impl/StaticLoggerBinder.class]
SLF4J: See http://www.slf4j.org/codes.html#multiple_bindings for an explanation.
SLF4J: Actual binding is of type [org.apache.logging.slf4j.Log4jLoggerFactory]
Metastore connection URL:    jdbc:mysql://node3:3306/hive?createDatabaseIfNotExist=true
Metastore Connection Driver :    com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
Metastore connection User:   root
Starting metastore schema initialization to 2.1.0
Initialization script hive-schema-2.1.0.mysql.sql
Initialization script completed
schemaTool completed
[root@node3 ~]# 

登录MySQL/MariaDB即可看到生成的hive数据库

[root@node3 ~]# mysql -uroot -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 11
Server version: 5.5.52-MariaDB MariaDB Server

Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.

Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.

MariaDB [(none)]> use hive;
Reading table information for completion of table and column names
You can turn off this feature to get a quicker startup with -A

Database changed
MariaDB [hive]> show tables;
+---------------------------+
| Tables_in_hive            |
+---------------------------+
| AUX_TABLE                 |
| BUCKETING_COLS            |
| CDS                       |
| COLUMNS_V2                |
| COMPACTION_QUEUE          |
| COMPLETED_COMPACTIONS     |
| COMPLETED_TXN_COMPONENTS  |
| DATABASE_PARAMS           |
| DBS                       |
| DB_PRIVS                  |
| DELEGATION_TOKENS         |
| FUNCS                     |
| FUNC_RU                   |
| GLOBAL_PRIVS              |
| HIVE_LOCKS                |
| IDXS                      |
| INDEX_PARAMS              |
| KEY_CONSTRAINTS           |
| MASTER_KEYS               |
| NEXT_COMPACTION_QUEUE_ID  |
| NEXT_LOCK_ID              |
| NEXT_TXN_ID               |
| NOTIFICATION_LOG          |
| NOTIFICATION_SEQUENCE     |
| NUCLEUS_TABLES            |
| PARTITIONS                |
| PARTITION_EVENTS          |
| PARTITION_KEYS            |
| PARTITION_KEY_VALS        |
| PARTITION_PARAMS          |
| PART_COL_PRIVS            |
| PART_COL_STATS            |
| PART_PRIVS                |
| ROLES                     |
| ROLE_MAP                  |
| SDS                       |
| SD_PARAMS                 |
| SEQUENCE_TABLE            |
| SERDES                    |
| SERDE_PARAMS              |
| SKEWED_COL_NAMES          |
| SKEWED_COL_VALUE_LOC_MAP  |
| SKEWED_STRING_LIST        |
| SKEWED_STRING_LIST_VALUES |
| SKEWED_VALUES             |
| SORT_COLS                 |
| TABLE_PARAMS              |
| TAB_COL_STATS             |
| TBLS                      |
| TBL_COL_PRIVS             |
| TBL_PRIVS                 |
| TXNS                      |
| TXN_COMPONENTS            |
| TYPES                     |
| TYPE_FIELDS               |
| VERSION                   |
| WRITE_SET                 |
+---------------------------+
57 rows in set (0.00 sec)

MariaDB [hive]> 

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导读:直播行业的竞争越来越激烈,进过18年这波洗牌后,已经度过了蛮荒暴力期,剩下的都是在不断追求体验。最近在帮做直播优化首开,通过多种方案并行,把首开降到500...

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来自专栏数据库新发现

Use Orastress! to test your database

http://www.eygle.com/special/Use.Orastress.2.Test.Oracle.db.htm

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来自专栏专注数据中心高性能网络技术研发

[RoCE]RDMA over Converged Ethernet模式以及配置

[阅读本文之前需要现有RDMA的基础知识] 1.RDMA over Converged Ethernet(RoCE) Remote Direct Memory ...

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来自专栏Hadoop实操

答应我,别在CDH5中使用ORC好吗

当我们在使用ORC文件格式创建Hive表,并且对Hive表的schema进行更改后,然后进行如insert into…select或insert overwri...

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来自专栏别先生

实验手册——搜狗搜索日志分析系统

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来自专栏杨建荣的学习笔记

MySQL中使用undrop来恢复drop的表(上)

MySQL中可以使用编程语言(比如Python)来解析binlog中DML的逆操作来达到闪回的效果,如果数据不多,手工解析也可以。这也是现在大家碰到的很多DML...

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来自专栏开发之途

Android Permission访问权限大全

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