Java之HashMap源码解读

HashMap一直是数组加链表的数据结构,在数组的某个下标位置,有多次碰撞,则使用链表数据结果存储。在jdk1.8中,引入了红黑二叉查找树的数据结构。刚开始产生碰撞时,碰撞处仍然是链表结构,当链表的长度超过源码设定值8以后,该处的链表将转为红黑二叉树。相比以前,查询效率会高很多,同时代码也变得有一定的复杂度。

废话不多说,直接上代码(删除了一些注释),相关解读在代码中文注释中。

package java.util;
import java.io.*;

/**
 * <p><strong>Note that this implementation is not synchronized.</strong>
 * If multiple threads access a hash map concurrently, and at least one of
 * the threads modifies the map structurally, it <i>must</i> be
 * synchronized externally.  (A structural modification is any operation
 * that adds or deletes one or more mappings; merely changing the value
 * associated with a key that an instance already contains is not a
 * structural modification.)  This is typically accomplished by
 * synchronizing on some object that naturally encapsulates the map.
 * 请注意,此实现不同步。如果多个线程同时访问哈希映射,并且至少有一个线程在结构上修改了map,
 * 那么它必须在外部同步。这通常是通过在自然封装map的某个对象上进行同步来完成的。
 *
 */

//注意,HashMap实现了Map、Cloneable和Serilizable接口
public class HashMap<K,V> extends AbstractMap<K,V> implements Map<K,V>, Cloneable, Serializable{

    /**
     * The default initial capacity - MUST be a power of two.
     * 默认的初始容量 - 必须是2的幂。
     */
    static final int DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY = 16;

    /**
     * The maximum capacity, used if a higher value is implicitly specified by either of the constructors with arguments.
     * 最大容量,如果任何具有参数的构造函数隐式指定较高的值,则使用该容量。
     * MUST be a power of two <= 1<<30.
     */
    static final int MAXIMUM_CAPACITY = 1 << 30;

    /**
     * The load factor used when none specified in constructor.
     * 没有在构造函数中指定时使用的加载因子
     */
    static final float DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR = 0.75f;

    /**
     * The table, resized as necessary. Length MUST Always be a power of two.
     * 表格根据需要调整大小,其长度必须是2的幂。
     * 注意transient关键字修饰的变量不再能被序列化。transient关键字只能修饰变量,而不能修饰方法和类
     */
    transient Entry<K,V>[] table;

    /**
     * The number of key-value mappings contained in this map.
     * 键值对的数量
     */
    transient int size;

    /**
     * The next size value at which to resize (capacity * load factor).
     * 下一个调整大小的值(容量*加载因子)
     * @serial
     */
    int threshold;

    /**
     * The load factor for the hash table.
     * 散列表的加载因子。
     * @serial
     */
    final float loadFactor;


    transient int modCount;


    static final int ALTERNATIVE_HASHING_THRESHOLD_DEFAULT = Integer.MAX_VALUE;


    /**
     * If {@code true} then perform alternative hashing of String keys to reduce
     * the incidence of collisions due to weak hash code calculation.
     * 如果{true},则执行字符串键的替代哈希以减少由于哈希码计算较弱而导致的冲突发生。
     */
    transient boolean useAltHashing;

    /**
     * A randomizing value associated with this instance that is applied to
     * hash code of keys to make hash collisions harder to find.
     */
    transient final int hashSeed = sun.misc.Hashing.randomHashSeed(this);

    /**
     * Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the specified initial
     * capacity and load factor.
     *
     * @param  initialCapacity the initial capacity
     * @param  loadFactor      the load factor
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is negative
     *         or the load factor is nonpositive
     */
    public HashMap(int initialCapacity, float loadFactor) {
        if (initialCapacity < 0)
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal initial capacity: " +
                                               initialCapacity);
        if (initialCapacity > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY)
            initialCapacity = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;
        if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
            throw new IllegalArgumentException("Illegal load factor: " +
                                               loadFactor);

        // Find a power of 2 >= initialCapacity
        int capacity = 1;
        while (capacity < initialCapacity)
            capacity <<= 1;

        this.loadFactor = loadFactor;
        threshold = (int)Math.min(capacity * loadFactor, MAXIMUM_CAPACITY + 1);
        table = new Entry[capacity];
        useAltHashing = sun.misc.VM.isBooted() &&
                (capacity >= Holder.ALTERNATIVE_HASHING_THRESHOLD);
        init();
    }

    /**
     * Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the specified initial
     * capacity and the default load factor (0.75).
     *
     * @param  initialCapacity the initial capacity.
     * @throws IllegalArgumentException if the initial capacity is negative.
     */
    public HashMap(int initialCapacity) {
        this(initialCapacity, DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR);
    }

    /**
     * Constructs an empty <tt>HashMap</tt> with the default initial capacity
     * (16) and the default load factor (0.75).
     * 使用默认初始容量(16)和默认加载因子(0.75)构造一个空的HashMap。
     */
    public HashMap() {
        this(DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY, DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR);
    }

    /**
     * Constructs a new <tt>HashMap</tt> with the same mappings as the
     * specified <tt>Map</tt>.  The <tt>HashMap</tt> is created with
     * default load factor (0.75) and an initial capacity sufficient to
     * hold the mappings in the specified <tt>Map</tt>.
     *
     * @param   m the map whose mappings are to be placed in this map
     * @throws  NullPointerException if the specified map is null
     */
    public HashMap(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {
        this(Math.max((int) (m.size() / DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR) + 1,
                      DEFAULT_INITIAL_CAPACITY), DEFAULT_LOAD_FACTOR);
        putAllForCreate(m);
    }

    // internal utilities

    /**
     * Initialization hook for subclasses. This method is called
     * in all constructors and pseudo-constructors (clone, readObject)
     * after HashMap has been initialized but before any entries have
     * been inserted.  (In the absence of this method, readObject would
     * require explicit knowledge of subclasses.)
     */
    void init() {
    }

    /**
     * Retrieve object hash code and applies a supplemental hash function to the
     * result hash, which defends against poor quality hash functions.  This is
     * critical because HashMap uses power-of-two length hash tables, that
     * otherwise encounter collisions for hashCodes that do not differ
     * in lower bits. Note: Null keys always map to hash 0, thus index 0.
     * 检索参数k的哈希码,并将附加哈希函数应用于结果哈希,该哈希函数防止质量差的哈希函数。 
     * 这是至关重要的,因为HashMap使用两个长度的哈希表,否则会碰到hashCode的冲突,
     * 这些hashCodes在低位上没有区别。 注意:空键总是映射到散列0,因此索引为0。
     * 
     * jdk1.8的hash计算方式
     * int h;
     * return (key == null) ? 0 : (h = key.hashCode()) ^ (h >>> 16);
     * key.hashCode()函数调用的是key键值类型自带的哈希函数,返回int型散列值。
     * 乘法运算比除法来的省事(对CPU而言),所以把除法换成乘法和一个移位操作
     */
    final int hash(Object k) {
        int h = 0;
        if (useAltHashing) {
            //如果key对象是字符串,则换个方式生成hash值
            if (k instanceof String) {
                return sun.misc.Hashing.stringHash32((String) k);
            }
            h = hashSeed;
        }
        //添加生成因子
        h ^= k.hashCode();

        // This function ensures that hashCodes that differ only by
        // constant multiples at each bit position have a bounded
        // number of collisions (approximately 8 at default load factor).
        h ^= (h >>> 20) ^ (h >>> 12);
        return h ^ (h >>> 7) ^ (h >>> 4);
    }

    /**
     * Returns index for hash code h.
     */
    static int indexFor(int h, int length) {
        return h & (length-1);
    }

    /**
     * Returns the number of key-value mappings in this map.
     * 返回键值对的数量
     */
    public int size() {
        return size;
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this map contains no key-value mappings.
     * 判定键值对是否空
     */
    public boolean isEmpty() {
        return size == 0;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the value to which the specified key is mapped,
     * or {@code null} if this map contains no mapping for the key.
     *
     * <p>More formally, if this map contains a mapping from a key
     * {@code k} to a value {@code v} such that {@code (key==null ? k==null :
     * key.equals(k))}, then this method returns {@code v}; otherwise
     * it returns {@code null}.  (There can be at most one such mapping.)
     *
     * <p>A return value of {@code null} does not <i>necessarily</i>
     * indicate that the map contains no mapping for the key; it's also
     * possible that the map explicitly maps the key to {@code null}.
     * The {@link #containsKey containsKey} operation may be used to
     * distinguish these two cases.
     *
     * @see #put(Object, Object)
     */
    public V get(Object key) {
        if (key == null)//如果key为空,调用专有方法gutForNullKey()处理
            return getForNullKey();
        Entry<K,V> entry = getEntry(key);

        return null == entry ? null : entry.getValue();
    }

    /**
     * Offloaded version of get() to look up null keys.  Null keys map
     * to index 0.  This null case is split out into separate methods
     * for the sake of performance in the two most commonly used
     * operations (get and put), but incorporated with conditionals in
     * others.
     * 查找null键对应值get()的替换版本。Null键映射到索引0,为了在两个最常用的操作(get和put)中执行性能,将这个空值分解为单独的方法,但在其他条件中并入了条件。
     */
    private V getForNullKey() {
        //遍历table[0]对应的链表,查找key是null的节点
        for (Entry<K,V> e = table[0]; e != null; e = e.next) {
            if (e.key == null)
                return e.value;
        }
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this map contains a mapping for the specified key.
     * 如果此映射包含指定键的映射,则返回true。
     */
    public boolean containsKey(Object key) {
        return getEntry(key) != null;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the entry associated with the specified key in the HashMap.  
     * Returns null if the HashMap contains no mapping for the key.
     * 返回与HashMap中的指定键关联的实体。 如果HashMap不包含密钥的映射关系,则返回null。
     */
    final Entry<K,V> getEntry(Object key) {
        //通过key值获得hash码
        int hash = (key == null) ? 0 : hash(key);
        //indexFor(hash, table.length)获得对应table中的索引
        for (Entry<K,V> e = table[indexFor(hash, table.length)];
             e != null;
             e = e.next) {//遍历该链表
            Object k;
            //hash码相同,且对象相同key值相同
            if (e.hash == hash &&
                ((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k))))
                return e;
        }
        return null;
    }


    /**
     * Associates the specified value with the specified key in this map.
     * If the map previously contained a mapping for the key, the old
     * value is replaced.
     *
     * @param key key with which the specified value is to be associated
     * @param value value to be associated with the specified key
     * @return the previous value associated with <tt>key</tt>, or
     *         <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for <tt>key</tt>.
     *         (A <tt>null</tt> return can also indicate that the map
     *         previously associated <tt>null</tt> with <tt>key</tt>.)
     */
    public V put(K key, V value) {
        if (key == null)//如果key为空,调用putForNullKey()处理
            return putForNullKey(value);
        //通过key值获得hash码(看hash函数,是通过右移位,这种方式使数据散列均匀)
        int hash = hash(key);
        //通过indexFor()获得对应table中的索引
        int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
        //取出table表中的元素,并循环单链表,判断key是否存在
        for (Entry<K,V> e = table[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
            Object k;
            //hash码相同,且对象相同key值相同
            if (e.hash == hash && ((k = e.key) == key || key.equals(k))) {
                //新值替换旧值,并返回旧值
                V oldValue = e.value;
                e.value = value;
                e.recordAccess(this);
                return oldValue;
            }
        }
        //key不存在时,加入新的元素
        modCount++;
        addEntry(hash, key, value, i);
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * Offloaded version of put for null keys
     * 对于null键的替换版本
     */
    private V putForNullKey(V value) {
        for (Entry<K,V> e = table[0]; e != null; e = e.next) {
            if (e.key == null) {
                V oldValue = e.value;
                e.value = value;
                e.recordAccess(this);
                return oldValue;
            }
        }
        modCount++;
        addEntry(0, null, value, 0);
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * This method is used instead of put by constructors and
     * pseudoconstructors (clone, readObject).  It does not resize the table,
     * check for comodification, etc.  It calls createEntry rather than
     * addEntry.
     */
    private void putForCreate(K key, V value) {
        int hash = null == key ? 0 : hash(key);
        int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);

        /**
         * Look for preexisting entry for key.  This will never happen for
         * clone or deserialize.  It will only happen for construction if the
         * input Map is a sorted map whose ordering is inconsistent w/ equals.
         */
        for (Entry<K,V> e = table[i]; e != null; e = e.next) {
            Object k;
            if (e.hash == hash &&
                ((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k)))) {
                e.value = value;
                return;
            }
        }

        createEntry(hash, key, value, i);
    }

    private void putAllForCreate(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {
        for (Map.Entry<? extends K, ? extends V> e : m.entrySet())
            putForCreate(e.getKey(), e.getValue());
    }

    /**
     * Rehashes the contents of this map into a new array with a
     * larger capacity.  This method is called automatically when the
     * number of keys in this map reaches its threshold.
     *
     * If current capacity is MAXIMUM_CAPACITY, this method does not
     * resize the map, but sets threshold to Integer.MAX_VALUE.
     * This has the effect of preventing future calls.
     *
     * @param newCapacity the new capacity, MUST be a power of two;
     *        must be greater than current capacity unless current
     *        capacity is MAXIMUM_CAPACITY (in which case value
     *        is irrelevant).
     */
    void resize(int newCapacity) {
        Entry[] oldTable = table;
        int oldCapacity = oldTable.length;
        if (oldCapacity == MAXIMUM_CAPACITY) {
            threshold = Integer.MAX_VALUE;
            return;
        }

        Entry[] newTable = new Entry[newCapacity];
        boolean oldAltHashing = useAltHashing;
        useAltHashing |= sun.misc.VM.isBooted() &&
                (newCapacity >= Holder.ALTERNATIVE_HASHING_THRESHOLD);
        boolean rehash = oldAltHashing ^ useAltHashing;
        transfer(newTable, rehash);
        table = newTable;
        threshold = (int)Math.min(newCapacity * loadFactor, MAXIMUM_CAPACITY + 1);
    }

    /**
     * Transfers all entries from current table to newTable.
     */
    void transfer(Entry[] newTable, boolean rehash) {
        int newCapacity = newTable.length;
        for (Entry<K,V> e : table) {
            while(null != e) {
                Entry<K,V> next = e.next;
                if (rehash) {
                    e.hash = null == e.key ? 0 : hash(e.key);
                }
                int i = indexFor(e.hash, newCapacity);
                e.next = newTable[i];
                newTable[i] = e;
                e = next;
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Copies all of the mappings from the specified map to this map.
     * These mappings will replace any mappings that this map had for
     * any of the keys currently in the specified map.
     *
     * @param m mappings to be stored in this map
     * @throws NullPointerException if the specified map is null
     */
    public void putAll(Map<? extends K, ? extends V> m) {
        int numKeysToBeAdded = m.size();
        if (numKeysToBeAdded == 0)
            return;

        /*
         * Expand the map if the map if the number of mappings to be added
         * is greater than or equal to threshold.  This is conservative; the
         * obvious condition is (m.size() + size) >= threshold, but this
         * condition could result in a map with twice the appropriate capacity,
         * if the keys to be added overlap with the keys already in this map.
         * By using the conservative calculation, we subject ourself
         * to at most one extra resize.
         */
        if (numKeysToBeAdded > threshold) {
            int targetCapacity = (int)(numKeysToBeAdded / loadFactor + 1);
            if (targetCapacity > MAXIMUM_CAPACITY)
                targetCapacity = MAXIMUM_CAPACITY;
            int newCapacity = table.length;
            while (newCapacity < targetCapacity)
                newCapacity <<= 1;
            if (newCapacity > table.length)
                resize(newCapacity);
        }

        for (Map.Entry<? extends K, ? extends V> e : m.entrySet())
            put(e.getKey(), e.getValue());
    }

    /**
     * Removes the mapping for the specified key from this map if present.
     *
     * @param  key key whose mapping is to be removed from the map
     * @return the previous value associated with <tt>key</tt>, or
     *         <tt>null</tt> if there was no mapping for <tt>key</tt>.
     *         (A <tt>null</tt> return can also indicate that the map
     *         previously associated <tt>null</tt> with <tt>key</tt>.)
     */
    public V remove(Object key) {
        Entry<K,V> e = removeEntryForKey(key);
        return (e == null ? null : e.value);
    }

    /**
     * Removes and returns the entry associated with the specified key
     * in the HashMap.  Returns null if the HashMap contains no mapping
     * for this key.
     */
    final Entry<K,V> removeEntryForKey(Object key) {
        int hash = (key == null) ? 0 : hash(key);
        int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
        Entry<K,V> prev = table[i];
        Entry<K,V> e = prev;

        while (e != null) {
            Entry<K,V> next = e.next;
            Object k;
            if (e.hash == hash &&
                ((k = e.key) == key || (key != null && key.equals(k)))) {
                modCount++;
                size--;
                if (prev == e)
                    table[i] = next;
                else
                    prev.next = next;
                e.recordRemoval(this);
                return e;
            }
            prev = e;
            e = next;
        }

        return e;
    }

    /**
     * Special version of remove for EntrySet using {@code Map.Entry.equals()}
     * for matching.
     */
    final Entry<K,V> removeMapping(Object o) {
        if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
            return null;

        Map.Entry<K,V> entry = (Map.Entry<K,V>) o;
        Object key = entry.getKey();
        int hash = (key == null) ? 0 : hash(key);
        int i = indexFor(hash, table.length);
        Entry<K,V> prev = table[i];
        Entry<K,V> e = prev;

        while (e != null) {
            Entry<K,V> next = e.next;
            if (e.hash == hash && e.equals(entry)) {
                modCount++;
                size--;
                if (prev == e)
                    table[i] = next;
                else
                    prev.next = next;
                e.recordRemoval(this);
                return e;
            }
            prev = e;
            e = next;
        }

        return e;
    }

    /**
     * Removes all of the mappings from this map.
     * The map will be empty after this call returns.
     */
    public void clear() {
        modCount++;
        Entry[] tab = table;
        for (int i = 0; i < tab.length; i++)
            tab[i] = null;
        size = 0;
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this map maps one or more keys to the
     * specified value.
     *
     * @param value value whose presence in this map is to be tested
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if this map maps one or more keys to the
     *         specified value
     */
    public boolean containsValue(Object value) {
        if (value == null)
            return containsNullValue();

        Entry[] tab = table;
        for (int i = 0; i < tab.length ; i++)
            for (Entry e = tab[i] ; e != null ; e = e.next)
                if (value.equals(e.value))
                    return true;
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Special-case code for containsValue with null argument
     */
    private boolean containsNullValue() {
        Entry[] tab = table;
        for (int i = 0; i < tab.length ; i++)
            for (Entry e = tab[i] ; e != null ; e = e.next)
                if (e.value == null)
                    return true;
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Returns a shallow copy of this <tt>HashMap</tt> instance: the keys and
     * values themselves are not cloned.
     *
     * @return a shallow copy of this map
     */
    public Object clone() {
        HashMap<K,V> result = null;
        try {
            result = (HashMap<K,V>)super.clone();
        } catch (CloneNotSupportedException e) {
            // assert false;
        }
        result.table = new Entry[table.length];
        result.entrySet = null;
        result.modCount = 0;
        result.size = 0;
        result.init();
        result.putAllForCreate(this);

        return result;
    }

    static class Entry<K,V> implements Map.Entry<K,V> {
        final K key;
        V value;
        Entry<K,V> next;
        int hash;

        /**
         * Creates new entry.
         */
        Entry(int h, K k, V v, Entry<K,V> n) {
            value = v;
            next = n;
            key = k;
            hash = h;
        }

        public final K getKey() {
            return key;
        }

        public final V getValue() {
            return value;
        }

        public final V setValue(V newValue) {
            V oldValue = value;
            value = newValue;
            return oldValue;
        }

        public final boolean equals(Object o) {
            if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
                return false;
            Map.Entry e = (Map.Entry)o;
            Object k1 = getKey();
            Object k2 = e.getKey();
            if (k1 == k2 || (k1 != null && k1.equals(k2))) {
                Object v1 = getValue();
                Object v2 = e.getValue();
                if (v1 == v2 || (v1 != null && v1.equals(v2)))
                    return true;
            }
            return false;
        }

        public final int hashCode() {
            return (key==null   ? 0 : key.hashCode()) ^
                   (value==null ? 0 : value.hashCode());
        }

        public final String toString() {
            return getKey() + "=" + getValue();
        }

        /**
         * This method is invoked whenever the value in an entry is
         * overwritten by an invocation of put(k,v) for a key k that's already
         * in the HashMap.
         */
        void recordAccess(HashMap<K,V> m) {
        }

        /**
         * This method is invoked whenever the entry is
         * removed from the table.
         */
        void recordRemoval(HashMap<K,V> m) {
        }
    }

    /**
     * Adds a new entry with the specified key, value and hash code to
     * the specified bucket.  It is the responsibility of this
     * method to resize the table if appropriate.
     *
     * Subclass overrides this to alter the behavior of put method.
     */
    void addEntry(int hash, K key, V value, int bucketIndex) {
        if ((size >= threshold) && (null != table[bucketIndex])) {
            resize(2 * table.length);
            hash = (null != key) ? hash(key) : 0;
            bucketIndex = indexFor(hash, table.length);
        }

        createEntry(hash, key, value, bucketIndex);
    }

    /**
     * Like addEntry except that this version is used when creating entries
     * as part of Map construction or "pseudo-construction" (cloning,
     * deserialization).  This version needn't worry about resizing the table.
     *
     * Subclass overrides this to alter the behavior of HashMap(Map),
     * clone, and readObject.
     */
    void createEntry(int hash, K key, V value, int bucketIndex) {
        Entry<K,V> e = table[bucketIndex];
        table[bucketIndex] = new Entry<>(hash, key, value, e);
        size++;
    }

    private abstract class HashIterator<E> implements Iterator<E> {
        Entry<K,V> next;        // next entry to return
        int expectedModCount;   // For fast-fail
        int index;              // current slot
        Entry<K,V> current;     // current entry

        HashIterator() {
            expectedModCount = modCount;
            if (size > 0) { // advance to first entry
                Entry[] t = table;
                while (index < t.length && (next = t[index++]) == null)
                    ;
            }
        }

        public final boolean hasNext() {
            return next != null;
        }

        final Entry<K,V> nextEntry() {
            if (modCount != expectedModCount)
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
            Entry<K,V> e = next;
            if (e == null)
                throw new NoSuchElementException();

            if ((next = e.next) == null) {
                Entry[] t = table;
                while (index < t.length && (next = t[index++]) == null)
                    ;
            }
            current = e;
            return e;
        }

        public void remove() {
            if (current == null)
                throw new IllegalStateException();
            if (modCount != expectedModCount)
                throw new ConcurrentModificationException();
            Object k = current.key;
            current = null;
            HashMap.this.removeEntryForKey(k);
            expectedModCount = modCount;
        }
    }

    private final class ValueIterator extends HashIterator<V> {
        public V next() {
            return nextEntry().value;
        }
    }

    private final class KeyIterator extends HashIterator<K> {
        public K next() {
            return nextEntry().getKey();
        }
    }

    private final class EntryIterator extends HashIterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> {
        public Map.Entry<K,V> next() {
            return nextEntry();
        }
    }

    // Subclass overrides these to alter behavior of views' iterator() method
    Iterator<K> newKeyIterator()   {
        return new KeyIterator();
    }
    Iterator<V> newValueIterator()   {
        return new ValueIterator();
    }
    Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> newEntryIterator()   {
        return new EntryIterator();
    }


    // Views

    private transient Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet = null;

    /**
     * Returns a {@link Set} view of the keys contained in this map.
     * The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
     * reflected in the set, and vice-versa.  If the map is modified
     * while an iteration over the set is in progress (except through
     * the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation), the results of
     * the iteration are undefined.  The set supports element removal,
     * which removes the corresponding mapping from the map, via the
     * <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>, <tt>Set.remove</tt>,
     * <tt>removeAll</tt>, <tt>retainAll</tt>, and <tt>clear</tt>
     * operations.  It does not support the <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt>
     * operations.
     */
    public Set<K> keySet() {
        Set<K> ks = keySet;
        return (ks != null ? ks : (keySet = new KeySet()));
    }

    private final class KeySet extends AbstractSet<K> {
        public Iterator<K> iterator() {
            return newKeyIterator();
        }
        public int size() {
            return size;
        }
        public boolean contains(Object o) {
            return containsKey(o);
        }
        public boolean remove(Object o) {
            return HashMap.this.removeEntryForKey(o) != null;
        }
        public void clear() {
            HashMap.this.clear();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns a {@link Collection} view of the values contained in this map.
     * The collection is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
     * reflected in the collection, and vice-versa.  If the map is
     * modified while an iteration over the collection is in progress
     * (except through the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation),
     * the results of the iteration are undefined.  The collection
     * supports element removal, which removes the corresponding
     * mapping from the map, via the <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>,
     * <tt>Collection.remove</tt>, <tt>removeAll</tt>,
     * <tt>retainAll</tt> and <tt>clear</tt> operations.  It does not
     * support the <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt> operations.
     */
    public Collection<V> values() {
        Collection<V> vs = values;
        return (vs != null ? vs : (values = new Values()));
    }

    private final class Values extends AbstractCollection<V> {
        public Iterator<V> iterator() {
            return newValueIterator();
        }
        public int size() {
            return size;
        }
        public boolean contains(Object o) {
            return containsValue(o);
        }
        public void clear() {
            HashMap.this.clear();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Returns a {@link Set} view of the mappings contained in this map.
     * The set is backed by the map, so changes to the map are
     * reflected in the set, and vice-versa.  If the map is modified
     * while an iteration over the set is in progress (except through
     * the iterator's own <tt>remove</tt> operation, or through the
     * <tt>setValue</tt> operation on a map entry returned by the
     * iterator) the results of the iteration are undefined.  The set
     * supports element removal, which removes the corresponding
     * mapping from the map, via the <tt>Iterator.remove</tt>,
     * <tt>Set.remove</tt>, <tt>removeAll</tt>, <tt>retainAll</tt> and
     * <tt>clear</tt> operations.  It does not support the
     * <tt>add</tt> or <tt>addAll</tt> operations.
     *
     * @return a set view of the mappings contained in this map
     */
    public Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet() {
        return entrySet0();
    }

    private Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> entrySet0() {
        Set<Map.Entry<K,V>> es = entrySet;
        return es != null ? es : (entrySet = new EntrySet());
    }

    private final class EntrySet extends AbstractSet<Map.Entry<K,V>> {
        public Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> iterator() {
            return newEntryIterator();
        }
        public boolean contains(Object o) {
            if (!(o instanceof Map.Entry))
                return false;
            Map.Entry<K,V> e = (Map.Entry<K,V>) o;
            Entry<K,V> candidate = getEntry(e.getKey());
            return candidate != null && candidate.equals(e);
        }
        public boolean remove(Object o) {
            return removeMapping(o) != null;
        }
        public int size() {
            return size;
        }
        public void clear() {
            HashMap.this.clear();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Save the state of the <tt>HashMap</tt> instance to a stream (i.e.,
     * serialize it).
     *
     * @serialData The <i>capacity</i> of the HashMap (the length of the
     *             bucket array) is emitted (int), followed by the
     *             <i>size</i> (an int, the number of key-value
     *             mappings), followed by the key (Object) and value (Object)
     *             for each key-value mapping.  The key-value mappings are
     *             emitted in no particular order.
     */
    private void writeObject(java.io.ObjectOutputStream s)
        throws IOException
    {
        Iterator<Map.Entry<K,V>> i =
            (size > 0) ? entrySet0().iterator() : null;

        // Write out the threshold, loadfactor, and any hidden stuff
        s.defaultWriteObject();

        // Write out number of buckets
        s.writeInt(table.length);

        // Write out size (number of Mappings)
        s.writeInt(size);

        // Write out keys and values (alternating)
        if (size > 0) {
            for(Map.Entry<K,V> e : entrySet0()) {
                s.writeObject(e.getKey());
                s.writeObject(e.getValue());
            }
        }
    }

    private static final long serialVersionUID = 362498820763181265L;

    /**
     * Reconstitute the {@code HashMap} instance from a stream (i.e.,
     * deserialize it).
     */
    private void readObject(java.io.ObjectInputStream s)
         throws IOException, ClassNotFoundException
    {
        // Read in the threshold (ignored), loadfactor, and any hidden stuff
        s.defaultReadObject();
        if (loadFactor <= 0 || Float.isNaN(loadFactor))
            throw new InvalidObjectException("Illegal load factor: " +
                                               loadFactor);

        // set hashSeed (can only happen after VM boot)
        Holder.UNSAFE.putIntVolatile(this, Holder.HASHSEED_OFFSET,
                sun.misc.Hashing.randomHashSeed(this));

        // Read in number of buckets and allocate the bucket array;
        s.readInt(); // ignored

        // Read number of mappings
        int mappings = s.readInt();
        if (mappings < 0)
            throw new InvalidObjectException("Illegal mappings count: " +
                                               mappings);

        int initialCapacity = (int) Math.min(
                // capacity chosen by number of mappings
                // and desired load (if >= 0.25)
                mappings * Math.min(1 / loadFactor, 4.0f),
                // we have limits...
                HashMap.MAXIMUM_CAPACITY);
        int capacity = 1;
        // find smallest power of two which holds all mappings
        while (capacity < initialCapacity) {
            capacity <<= 1;
        }

        table = new Entry[capacity];
        threshold = (int) Math.min(capacity * loadFactor, MAXIMUM_CAPACITY + 1);
        useAltHashing = sun.misc.VM.isBooted() &&
                (capacity >= Holder.ALTERNATIVE_HASHING_THRESHOLD);

        init();  // Give subclass a chance to do its thing.

        // Read the keys and values, and put the mappings in the HashMap
        for (int i=0; i<mappings; i++) {
            K key = (K) s.readObject();
            V value = (V) s.readObject();
            putForCreate(key, value);
        }
    }

    // These methods are used when serializing HashSets
    int   capacity()     { return table.length; }
    float loadFactor()   { return loadFactor;   }
}

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