Akka(33): Http:Marshalling,to Json

  Akka-http是一项系统集成工具。这主要依赖系统之间的数据交换功能。因为程序内数据表达形式与网上传输的数据格式是不相同的,所以需要对程序高级结构化的数据进行转换(marshalling or serializing)成为可在网上传输的数据格式。由于可能涉及到异类系统集成,网上传输数据格式是一个公开的标准,这样大家才都可以进行解析。Json就是是一个目前业界普遍接受的网上交换数据格式。当然,所谓的数据格式转换应该是双向的,还需要包括把接收的网上传输数据转换成程序高级结构化数据。

Akka-http网上交换数据转换代表把一个高级结构类型T的实例转换成简单的目标类型如MessageEntity,它代表http消息中的数据部分(entity-body),最后产生Json进行交换。Akka-http用Marshaller[A,B]类型来进行类型A的实例到类型B实例的转换。Marshaller[A,B]定义如下:

sealed abstract class Marshaller[-A, +B] {

  def apply(value: A)(implicit ec: ExecutionContext): Future[List[Marshalling[B]]]

  def map[C](f: B ⇒ C): Marshaller[A, C] =
    Marshaller(implicit ec ⇒ value ⇒ this(value).fast map (_ map (_ map f)))
...
}

//#marshaller-creation
object Marshaller
  extends GenericMarshallers
  with PredefinedToEntityMarshallers
  with PredefinedToResponseMarshallers
  with PredefinedToRequestMarshallers {

  /**
   * Creates a [[Marshaller]] from the given function.
   */
  def apply[A, B](f: ExecutionContext ⇒ A ⇒ Future[List[Marshalling[B]]]): Marshaller[A, B] =
    new Marshaller[A, B] {
      def apply(value: A)(implicit ec: ExecutionContext) =
        try f(ec)(value)
        catch { case NonFatal(e) ⇒ FastFuture.failed(e) }
    }
...
}

构建函数apply[A,B]包嵌了个操作函数:A=>Future[List[Marshalling[B]]],至于为什么不采用更简单直接的方式A=>B是因为:

1、转换的过程是异步non-blocking的,所以返回Future[??]

2、可能有多种转换目标数据格式如XML,Json:所以用List[??]表达

3、如果需要在产生最终目标格式数据前能获取或者修改数据的属性,就需要在数据源与目标数据之间设一个中间层结果,Marshalling[B]就是这样一个中间抽象层类型。通过Marshalling类型可以在数据实际产生之前获取或修改数据属性:

/**
 * Describes one possible option for marshalling a given value.
 */
sealed trait Marshalling[+A] {
  def map[B](f: A ⇒ B): Marshalling[B]

  /**
   * Converts this marshalling to an opaque marshalling, i.e. a marshalling result that
   * does not take part in content type negotiation. The given charset is used if this
   * instance is a `WithOpenCharset` marshalling.
   */
  def toOpaque(charset: HttpCharset): Marshalling[A]
}

object Marshalling {

  /**
   * A Marshalling to a specific [[akka.http.scaladsl.model.ContentType]].
   */
  final case class WithFixedContentType[A](
    contentType: ContentType,
    marshal:     () ⇒ A) extends Marshalling[A] {
    def map[B](f: A ⇒ B): WithFixedContentType[B] = copy(marshal = () ⇒ f(marshal()))
    def toOpaque(charset: HttpCharset): Marshalling[A] = Opaque(marshal)
  }

  /**
   * A Marshalling to a specific [[akka.http.scaladsl.model.MediaType]] with a flexible charset.
   */
  final case class WithOpenCharset[A](
    mediaType: MediaType.WithOpenCharset,
    marshal:   HttpCharset ⇒ A) extends Marshalling[A] {
    def map[B](f: A ⇒ B): WithOpenCharset[B] = copy(marshal = cs ⇒ f(marshal(cs)))
    def toOpaque(charset: HttpCharset): Marshalling[A] = Opaque(() ⇒ marshal(charset))
  }

  /**
   * A Marshalling to an unknown MediaType and charset.
   * Circumvents content negotiation.
   */
  final case class Opaque[A](marshal: () ⇒ A) extends Marshalling[A] {
    def map[B](f: A ⇒ B): Opaque[B] = copy(marshal = () ⇒ f(marshal()))
    def toOpaque(charset: HttpCharset): Marshalling[A] = this
  }
}

我们可以在Marshalling类型里对消息内容类型(message-content-type)进行操作。为了方便操作,Akka-http提供了下面这几个类型别名:

type ToEntityMarshaller[T] = Marshaller[T, MessageEntity]
type ToByteStringMarshaller[T] = Marshaller[T, ByteString]
type ToHeadersAndEntityMarshaller[T] = Marshaller[T, (immutable.Seq[HttpHeader], MessageEntity)]
type ToResponseMarshaller[T] = Marshaller[T, HttpResponse]
type ToRequestMarshaller[T] = Marshaller[T, HttpRequest]

基本上是以目标数据类型来分类代表的。Akka-http提供了许多类型的预设实例到Mashalling转换:

PredefinedToEntityMarshallers
Array[Byte]
ByteString
Array[Char]
String
akka.http.scaladsl.model.FormData
akka.http.scaladsl.model.MessageEntity
T <: akka.http.scaladsl.model.Multipart
PredefinedToResponseMarshallers
T, if a ToEntityMarshaller[T] is available
HttpResponse
StatusCode
(StatusCode, T), if a ToEntityMarshaller[T] is available
(Int, T), if a ToEntityMarshaller[T] is available
(StatusCode, immutable.Seq[HttpHeader], T), if a ToEntityMarshaller[T] is available
(Int, immutable.Seq[HttpHeader], T), if a ToEntityMarshaller[T] is available
PredefinedToRequestMarshallers
HttpRequest
Uri
(HttpMethod, Uri, T), if a ToEntityMarshaller[T] is available
(HttpMethod, Uri, immutable.Seq[HttpHeader], T), if a ToEntityMarshaller[T] is available
GenericMarshallers
Marshaller[Throwable, T]
Marshaller[Option[A], B], if a Marshaller[A, B] and an EmptyValue[B] is available
Marshaller[Either[A1, A2], B], if a Marshaller[A1, B] and a Marshaller[A2, B] is available
Marshaller[Future[A], B], if a Marshaller[A, B] is available
Marshaller[Try[A], B], if a Marshaller[A, B] is available

Akka-http还提供了一个工具类Marshal:

class Marshal[A](val value: A) {
  /**
   * Marshals `value` using the first available [[Marshalling]] for `A` and `B` provided by the given [[Marshaller]].
   * If the marshalling is flexible with regard to the used charset `UTF-8` is chosen.
   */
  def to[B](implicit m: Marshaller[A, B], ec: ExecutionContext): Future[B] =
    m(value).fast.map {
      _.head match {
        case Marshalling.WithFixedContentType(_, marshal) ⇒ marshal()
        case Marshalling.WithOpenCharset(_, marshal)      ⇒ marshal(HttpCharsets.`UTF-8`)
        case Marshalling.Opaque(marshal)                  ⇒ marshal()
      }
    }

  /**
   * Marshals `value` to an `HttpResponse` for the given `HttpRequest` with full content-negotiation.
   */
  def toResponseFor(request: HttpRequest)(implicit m: ToResponseMarshaller[A], ec: ExecutionContext): Future[HttpResponse] = {
    import akka.http.scaladsl.marshalling.Marshal._
    val ctn = ContentNegotiator(request.headers)

    m(value).fast.map { marshallings ⇒
      val supportedAlternatives: List[ContentNegotiator.Alternative] =
        marshallings.collect {
          case Marshalling.WithFixedContentType(ct, _) ⇒ ContentNegotiator.Alternative(ct)
          case Marshalling.WithOpenCharset(mt, _)      ⇒ ContentNegotiator.Alternative(mt)
        }(collection.breakOut)
      val bestMarshal = {
        if (supportedAlternatives.nonEmpty) {
          ctn.pickContentType(supportedAlternatives).flatMap {
            case best @ (_: ContentType.Binary | _: ContentType.WithFixedCharset | _: ContentType.WithMissingCharset) ⇒
              marshallings collectFirst { case Marshalling.WithFixedContentType(`best`, marshal) ⇒ marshal }
            case best @ ContentType.WithCharset(bestMT, bestCS) ⇒
              marshallings collectFirst {
                case Marshalling.WithFixedContentType(`best`, marshal) ⇒ marshal
                case Marshalling.WithOpenCharset(`bestMT`, marshal)    ⇒ () ⇒ marshal(bestCS)
              }
          }
        } else None
      } orElse {
        marshallings collectFirst { case Marshalling.Opaque(marshal) ⇒ marshal }
      } getOrElse {
        throw UnacceptableResponseContentTypeException(supportedAlternatives.toSet)
      }
      bestMarshal()
    }
  }
}

我们可以用Marshal.to和toResponseFor(request)把Akka-http提供的预设可转换类实例转换成相关的toResponseMarshallable类实例。因为Server-Directive如complete接受一个toResponseMarshallable来构建HttpResponse:

  /**
   * Completes the request using the given arguments.
   *
   * @group route
   */
  def complete(m: ⇒ ToResponseMarshallable): StandardRoute =
    StandardRoute(_.complete(m))

在另一个对象里提供了ToResponseMarshallable隐式转换:

/** Something that can later be marshalled into a response */
trait ToResponseMarshallable {
  type T
  def value: T
  implicit def marshaller: ToResponseMarshaller[T]

  def apply(request: HttpRequest)(implicit ec: ExecutionContext): Future[HttpResponse] =
    Marshal(value).toResponseFor(request)
}

object ToResponseMarshallable {
  implicit def apply[A](_value: A)(implicit _marshaller: ToResponseMarshaller[A]): ToResponseMarshallable =
    new ToResponseMarshallable {
      type T = A
      def value: T = _value
      def marshaller: ToResponseMarshaller[T] = _marshaller
    }

  implicit val marshaller: ToResponseMarshaller[ToResponseMarshallable] =
    Marshaller { implicit ec ⇒ marshallable ⇒ marshallable.marshaller(marshallable.value) }
}

只要在可视域内(implicit scope)能发现Marshaller[A,B]的隐式实例就能满足complete入参要求了。下面是一些Marshal用例:

import akka.util.ByteString
import akka.http.scaladsl.model.{HttpResponse, MessageEntity}
import akka.http.scaladsl.marshalling.Marshal
import akka.http.scaladsl.model._

object Marshalling  {

  val string = "Yeah"
  val entityFuture = Marshal(string).to[MessageEntity]
  val errorMsg = "Easy, pal!"
  val responseFuture = Marshal(420 -> errorMsg).to[HttpResponse]
  val request = HttpRequest(headers = List(headers.Accept(MediaTypes.`application/json`)))
  val responseText = "Plaintext"
  val respFuture = Marshal(responseText).toResponseFor(request) // with content negotiation!
  val bsFuture = Marshal("oh my!").to[ByteString]
  val reqFuture = Marshal("can you?").to[HttpRequest]
  val resp = reqFuture.flatMap {r => Marshal("ok").toResponseFor(r)}
  
}

那么对于那些自定义的类型U,由于不可能有预设定对应的Marshaller[U,B],应该怎么办?如简单的case class:

  case class User(id: Int, name: String)
  case class Item(id: Int, name: String, price: Double)
  val john = Marshal(User(1,"John")).to[MessageEntity]
  val fruit = Marshal(Item(1,"banana", 3.5)).to[MessageEntity]

  val route =
    get {
      path("items") {
        complete(fruit)
      } ~
      path("users") {
        complete(john)
      }
    }

看来把User,Item类型实例转成ToResponseMarshallable是没有问题的。但是,通过隐式转换ToResponseMarshallable被转换成Marshaller[U,B],而实例化这个类型的过程即构建网上传输格式的数据时需要更多的支持。这个可网上传输的消息是通过Json、XML这样的数据描述语言来产生具体数据的。Akka-http通过akka-http-spray-json模块直接支持由Spray-Json实现的Json读写工具库。具体Json读写是通过RootJsonFormat[T]作为接口实现的:

/**
 * A special JsonFormat signaling that the format produces a legal JSON root object, i.e. either a JSON array
 * or a JSON object.
 */
trait RootJsonFormat[T] extends JsonFormat[T] with RootJsonReader[T] with RootJsonWriter[T]

RootJsonFormat[T]代表T类型实例的Json转换。RootJsonFormat[T]的继承父辈包括:
/**
  * Provides the JSON deserialization and serialization for type T.
 */
trait JsonFormat[T] extends JsonReader[T] with JsonWriter[T]

/**
 * A special JsonReader capable of reading a legal JSON root object, i.e. either a JSON array or a JSON object.
 */
@implicitNotFound(msg = "Cannot find RootJsonReader or RootJsonFormat type class for ${T}")
trait RootJsonReader[T] extends JsonReader[T]

/**
 * A special JsonWriter capable of writing a legal JSON root object, i.e. either a JSON array or a JSON object.
 */
@implicitNotFound(msg = "Cannot find RootJsonWriter or RootJsonFormat type class for ${T}")
trait RootJsonWriter[T] extends JsonWriter[T]

它们又继承了具体的Json读写工具类:

/**
  * Provides the JSON deserialization for type T.
 */
@implicitNotFound(msg = "Cannot find JsonReader or JsonFormat type class for ${T}")
trait JsonReader[T] {
  def read(json: JsValue): T
}

object JsonReader {
  implicit def func2Reader[T](f: JsValue => T): JsonReader[T] = new JsonReader[T] {
    def read(json: JsValue) = f(json)
  }
}

/**
  * Provides the JSON serialization for type T.
 */
@implicitNotFound(msg = "Cannot find JsonWriter or JsonFormat type class for ${T}")
trait JsonWriter[T] {
  def write(obj: T): JsValue
}

object JsonWriter {
  implicit def func2Writer[T](f: T => JsValue): JsonWriter[T] = new JsonWriter[T] {
    def write(obj: T) = f(obj)
  }
}

它们提供了函数JsValue=>T到JsonReader[T]及T=>JsValue到JsonWriter直接的隐式转换。Akka-http的Json解决方案是典型的type-class模式:是一种可以即兴创建功能的类型继承模式(add-hoc polymorphism)。它的特征就是在可视域内(implicit scope)应不同功能要求提供不同的功能实现类型的隐式实例(implicit instance)。具体用例如下:

trait Formats extends SprayJsonSupport with DefaultJsonProtocol
object Converters extends Formats {
  case class User(id: Int, name: String)
  case class Item(id: Int, name: String, price: Double)
  implicit val itemFormat = jsonFormat3(Item.apply)
  implicit val userFormat = jsonFormat2(User.apply)
}

jsonFormatXX是Spray-Json提供的Json读写实现。我们把这个隐式实例置于当前可视域内即完成了与Akka-http的对接。我们来看看JsonFormat的定义:

trait ProductFormatsInstances { self: ProductFormats with StandardFormats =>
  // Case classes with 1 parameters

  def jsonFormat1[P1 :JF, T <: Product :ClassManifest](construct: (P1) => T): RootJsonFormat[T] = {
    val Array(p1) = extractFieldNames(classManifest[T])
    jsonFormat(construct, p1)
  }
  def jsonFormat[P1 :JF, T <: Product](construct: (P1) => T, fieldName1: String): RootJsonFormat[T] = new RootJsonFormat[T]{
    def write(p: T) = {
      val fields = new collection.mutable.ListBuffer[(String, JsValue)]
      fields.sizeHint(1 * 2)
      fields ++= productElement2Field[P1](fieldName1, p, 0)
      JsObject(fields: _*)
    }
    def read(value: JsValue) = {
      val p1V = fromField[P1](value, fieldName1)
      construct(p1V)
    }
  }
...
}

我们看到了jsonFormat返回结果类型是RootJsonFormat[T]。如果有个case class T,通过jsonFormat可以获得read(value: JsValue)及write(p:T)这两个具体的Json读写函数。Spray-Json提供的预设了Json转换的类型包括下面各类别:

/**
  * Provides all the predefined JsonFormats.
 */
trait DefaultJsonProtocol
        extends BasicFormats
        with StandardFormats
        with CollectionFormats
        with ProductFormats
        with AdditionalFormats

object DefaultJsonProtocol extends DefaultJsonProtocol

例如BasicFormat:

/**
  * Provides the JsonFormats for the most important Scala types.
 */
trait BasicFormats {

  implicit object IntJsonFormat extends JsonFormat[Int] {
    def write(x: Int) = JsNumber(x)
    def read(value: JsValue) = value match {
      case JsNumber(x) => x.intValue
      case x => deserializationError("Expected Int as JsNumber, but got " + x)
    }
  }
...
}

这些类型的Json转换已经是具体的read/write操作了。在SprayJsonSupport trait里有最终的Marshaller[U,B]链接:

/**
 * A trait providing automatic to and from JSON marshalling/unmarshalling using an in-scope *spray-json* protocol.
 */
trait SprayJsonSupport {
...
  implicit def sprayJsonUnmarshaller[T](implicit reader: RootJsonReader[T]): FromEntityUnmarshaller[T] =
    sprayJsValueUnmarshaller.map(jsonReader[T].read)
...
  //#sprayJsonMarshallerConverter
  implicit def sprayJsonMarshaller[T](implicit writer: RootJsonWriter[T], printer: JsonPrinter = CompactPrinter): ToEntityMarshaller[T] =
    sprayJsValueMarshaller compose writer.write
...
}

我们在上面提到过FromEntityUnmarshaller[T]和ToEntityMarshaller[T]的是Marshaller[A,B]的别名:

  type FromEntityUnmarshaller[T] = Unmarshaller[HttpEntity, T]

  type ToEntityMarshaller[T] = Marshaller[T, MessageEntity]

既然Akka-http的Json实现方式是type-class模式的,那么我们就试试其它Json库的功能实现方式,如:Json4s。我们需要在build.sbt中加入下面的依赖:

  "de.heikoseeberger" %% "akka-http-json4s" % "1.19.0-M2",
  "org.json4s" %% "json4s-jackson" % "3.6.0-M1",
  "org.json4s" %% "json4s-ext" % "3.6.0-M1",

akka-http-Json4s通过trait Json4sSupport提供了Json4s实现方式:

trait Json4sSupport {
...
  /**
    * HTTP entity => `A`
    *
    * @tparam A type to decode
    * @return unmarshaller for `A`
    */
  implicit def unmarshaller[A: Manifest](implicit serialization: Serialization,
                                         formats: Formats): FromEntityUnmarshaller[A] = ...

  /**
    * `A` => HTTP entity
    *
    * @tparam A type to encode, must be upper bounded by `AnyRef`
    * @return marshaller for any `A` value
    */
  implicit def marshaller[A <: AnyRef](implicit serialization: Serialization,
                                       formats: Formats,
                                       shouldWritePretty: ShouldWritePretty =
                                         ShouldWritePretty.False): ToEntityMarshaller[A] = ...

同样提供了FromEntityUnMarshaller[A]和ToEntityMarshaller[A]这两类的隐式实例。Serialization提供了Json的具体读写函数:

trait Serialization {
  import java.io.{Reader, Writer}
  /** Serialize to String.
   */
  def write[A <: AnyRef](a: A)(implicit formats: Formats): String
...
  /** Deserialize from a String.
   */
  def read[A](json: String)(implicit formats: Formats, mf: Manifest[A]): A = read(StringInput(json))
...
}

Formats就是Json4s提供的所有Json转换预设类:

trait Formats extends Serializable { self: Formats =>
...
  def withBigInt: Formats = copy(wWantsBigInt = true)

  def withLong: Formats = copy(wWantsBigInt = false)

  def withBigDecimal: Formats = copy(wWantsBigDecimal = true)

...
}

看起来我们只需在可视域内提供Serialization和Formats类型的隐式实例就行了:

import de.heikoseeberger.akkahttpjson4s.Json4sSupport
import org.json4s.jackson
trait JsonCodec extends Json4sSupport {
  import org.json4s.DefaultFormats
  import org.json4s.ext.JodaTimeSerializers
  implicit val serilizer = jackson.Serialization
  implicit val formats = DefaultFormats ++ JodaTimeSerializers.all
}
object JsConverters extends JsonCodec

看看具体用例:

  import scala.collection.mutable._
  case class User(id: Int, name: String)
  class Item(id: Int, name: String, price: Double)
  object AnyPic {
    val area = 10
    val title = "a picture"
    val data = ArrayBuffer[Byte](1,2,3)
  }
  
  val john = Marshal(User(1,"John")).to[MessageEntity]
  val fruit = Marshal(new Item(1,"banana", 3.5)).to[MessageEntity]
  val pic = Marshal(AnyPic).to[MessageEntity]

不但省却了重复的JsonFormatXX,而且功能更加灵活强大:因为不再局限于case class这一种自定义类型了,在无需额外代码情况下class,object等全部都支持。

下面是本篇讨论示范的源代码:

build.sbt

name := "learn-http"

version := "0.1"

scalaVersion := "2.12.3"

libraryDependencies ++= Seq(
  "de.heikoseeberger" %% "akka-http-json4s" % "1.19.0-M2",
  "org.json4s" %% "json4s-jackson" % "3.6.0-M1",
  "org.json4s" %% "json4s-ext" % "3.6.0-M1",
  "com.typesafe.akka" %% "akka-http" % "10.0.10",
  "com.typesafe.akka" %% "akka-actor" % "2.5.4",
  "com.typesafe.akka" %% "akka-stream" % "2.5.4",
  "com.typesafe.akka" %% "akka-http-spray-json" % "10.0.10"
)

Marshalling

import akka.actor._
import akka.stream._
import akka.util.ByteString
import akka.http.scaladsl.marshalling.Marshal
import akka.http.scaladsl.model._
import akka.http.scaladsl.server.Directives._
import akka.http.scaladsl.marshallers.sprayjson._
import spray.json._

trait Formats extends SprayJsonSupport with DefaultJsonProtocol
object Converters extends Formats {
  case class User(id: Int, name: String)
  case class Item(id: Int, name: String, price: Double)
  implicit val itemFormat = jsonFormat3(Item.apply)
  implicit val userFormat = jsonFormat2(User.apply)
}


object Marshalling {
  import Converters._
  implicit val httpSys = ActorSystem("httpSystem")
  implicit val httpMat = ActorMaterializer()
  implicit val httpEC = httpSys.dispatcher



  val string = "Yeah"
  val entityFuture = Marshal(string).to[MessageEntity]
  val errorMsg = "Easy, pal!"
  val responseFuture = Marshal(420 -> errorMsg).to[HttpResponse]
  val request = HttpRequest(headers = List(headers.Accept(MediaTypes.`application/json`)))
  val responseText = "Plaintext"
  val respFuture = Marshal(responseText).toResponseFor(request)

//  val bsFuture = Marshal("oh my!").to[ByteString]
  //  val reqFuture = Marshal(400).to[HttpRequest]
  //  val resp = reqFuture.flatMap {r => Marshal("ok").toResponseFor(r)}


  val john = Marshal(User(1,"John")).to[MessageEntity]
  val fruit = Marshal(Item(1,"banana", 3.5)).to[MessageEntity]

  val route =
    get {
      path("items") {
        complete(fruit)
      } ~
        path("users") {
          complete(john)
        }
    }

}

Json4sMarshalling

import akka.actor._
import akka.stream._
import akka.http.scaladsl.marshalling.Marshal
import akka.http.scaladsl.model._
import akka.http.scaladsl.server.Directives._
import de.heikoseeberger.akkahttpjson4s.Json4sSupport
import org.json4s.jackson
trait JsonCodec extends Json4sSupport {
  import org.json4s.DefaultFormats
  import org.json4s.ext.JodaTimeSerializers
  implicit val serilizer = jackson.Serialization
  implicit val formats = DefaultFormats ++ JodaTimeSerializers.all
}
object JsConverters extends JsonCodec


object Json4sMarshalling {
  import JsConverters._
  implicit val httpSys = ActorSystem("httpSystem")
  implicit val httpMat = ActorMaterializer()
  implicit val httpEC = httpSys.dispatcher

  val string = "Yeah"
  val entityFuture = Marshal(string).to[MessageEntity]
  val errorMsg = "Easy, pal!"
  val responseFuture = Marshal(420 -> errorMsg).to[HttpResponse]
  val request = HttpRequest(headers = List(headers.Accept(MediaTypes.`application/json`)))
  val responseText = "Plaintext"
  val respFuture = Marshal(responseText).toResponseFor(request)




  import scala.collection.mutable._
  case class User(id: Int, name: String)
  class Item(id: Int, name: String, price: Double)
  object AnyPic {
    val area = 10
    val title = "a picture"
    val data = ArrayBuffer[Byte](1,2,3)
  }

  val john = Marshal(User(1,"John")).to[MessageEntity]
  val fruit = Marshal(new Item(1,"banana", 3.5)).to[MessageEntity]
  val pic = Marshal(AnyPic).to[MessageEntity]

  val route =
    get {
      path("items") {
        complete(fruit)
      } ~
        path("users") {
          complete(john)
        } ~
      path("pic") {
        complete(pic)
      }
    }

}

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