Tomcat 6 --- 你很少使用的安全管理SecurityManager

试想一下,如果你的JSP页面中包含一句代码“System.exit(1);”,你的web应用访问到该JSP时,会发生什么? 一般使用tomcat可能都没有注意到这个问题,本篇主要讲述tomcat 6中SecurityManager的管理机制,尽量使用简单明了的图片表示其中关系。 其他知识参考tomcat文档翻译。如有错误,请予指正。

理解java.policy

  Java是一门安全性很高的语言,因此也会考虑到用户代码对整个系统的侵入性。试想一下,如果你引用了一个jar包,里面包含了依据system.exit(),每次执行到这里都直接退出,会不会很蛋疼!

  Java开发者肯定想过如此的问题,所以引入了java安全策略机制,利用一个配置文件来管理所有的代码权限。

  JDK中就有这样的文件,就是  jre/lib/security/java.policy  ,参考下该文件,就能理解其中的关系:

// default permissions granted to all domains
grant {
        // Allows any thread to stop itself using the java.lang.Thread.stop()
        // method that takes no argument.
        // Note that this permission is granted by default only to remain
        // backwards compatible.
        // It is strongly recommended that you either remove this permission
        // from this policy file or further restrict it to code sources
        // that you specify, because Thread.stop() is potentially unsafe.
        // See the API specification of java.lang.Thread.stop() for more
        // information.
        permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "stopThread";

        // allows anyone to listen on dynamic ports
        permission java.net.SocketPermission "localhost:0", "listen";

        // "standard" properies that can be read by anyone

        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.version", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.vendor", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.vendor.url", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.class.version", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "os.name", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "os.version", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "os.arch", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "file.separator", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "path.separator", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "line.separator", "read";

        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.specification.version", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.specification.vendor", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.specification.name", "read";

        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.vm.specification.version", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.vm.specification.vendor", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.vm.specification.name", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.vm.version", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.vm.vendor", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.vm.name", "read";
};

  上面给出了基本的权限,例如任何人都可以监听动态端口,以及一些读操作。

  基本过程如下面的图所示:

  用户如果启用了安全管理,即在执行时添加了-Djava.security.manager, 就会在执行某些操作前 先读取 权限文件java.policy,检查是否具体相应权限。

  当然也可以自己定义安全文件,一般有两种方式:

  一种是自己创建SecuirtyManager类,创建一些checkXXX的方法,进行验证;

  另一种就是创建my.policy文件(名字随意),按照规定的语法配置权限,然后启动时添加-Djava.security.manager-Djava.security.policy=xxxx/my.policy参数。

  关于java本身的安全管理不是本篇的重点,下面介绍下tomcat中的安全策略。

理解tomcat中的Security

  Tomcat中的安全管理原理基本与前面JDK中的security类似,只是启动时需要在start后面添加-security参数,tomcat会自动读取 conf/catalina.policy 文件中的权限配置。启动命令如下:

F:apache-tomcat-xxx/bin/startup.bat -security

  catalina.policy中默认已经配置了很多的安全策略,这里就不多说明了,下个部分会针对某一特定文件进行说明:

// Licensed to the Apache Software Foundation (ASF) under one or more
// contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file distributed with
// this work for additional information regarding copyright ownership.
// The ASF licenses this file to You under the Apache License, Version 2.0
// (the "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance with
// the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//     http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
// distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
// WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
// See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
// limitations under the License.

// ============================================================================
// catalina.policy - Security Policy Permissions for Tomcat 6
//
// This file contains a default set of security policies to be enforced (by the
// JVM) when Catalina is executed with the "-security" option.  In addition
// to the permissions granted here, the following additional permissions are
// granted to the codebase specific to each web application:
//
// * Read access to its document root directory
// * Read, write and delete access to its working directory
// ============================================================================


// ========== SYSTEM CODE PERMISSIONS =========================================


// These permissions apply to javac
grant codeBase "file:${java.home}/lib/-" {
        permission java.security.AllPermission;
};

// These permissions apply to all shared system extensions
grant codeBase "file:${java.home}/jre/lib/ext/-" {
        permission java.security.AllPermission;
};

// These permissions apply to javac when ${java.home] points at $JAVA_HOME/jre
grant codeBase "file:${java.home}/../lib/-" {
        permission java.security.AllPermission;
};

// These permissions apply to all shared system extensions when
// ${java.home} points at $JAVA_HOME/jre
grant codeBase "file:${java.home}/lib/ext/-" {
        permission java.security.AllPermission;
};


// ========== CATALINA CODE PERMISSIONS =======================================


// These permissions apply to the daemon code
grant codeBase "file:${catalina.home}/bin/commons-daemon.jar" {
        permission java.security.AllPermission;
};

// These permissions apply to the logging API
// Note: If tomcat-juli.jar is in ${catalina.base} and not in ${catalina.home},
// update this section accordingly.
//  grant codeBase "file:${catalina.base}/bin/tomcat-juli.jar" {..}
grant codeBase "file:${catalina.home}/bin/tomcat-juli.jar" {
        permission java.io.FilePermission
         "${java.home}${file.separator}lib${file.separator}logging.properties", "read"; 

        permission java.io.FilePermission
         "${catalina.base}${file.separator}conf${file.separator}logging.properties", "read";
        permission java.io.FilePermission
         "${catalina.base}${file.separator}logs", "read, write";
        permission java.io.FilePermission
         "${catalina.base}${file.separator}logs${file.separator}*", "read, write";

        permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "shutdownHooks";
        permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "getClassLoader";
        permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "setContextClassLoader";

        permission java.util.logging.LoggingPermission "control";

        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.util.logging.config.class", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.util.logging.config.file", "read";
        permission java.util.PropertyPermission "catalina.base", "read";

        // Note: To enable per context logging configuration, permit read access to
        // the appropriate file. Be sure that the logging configuration is
        // secure before enabling such access.
        // E.g. for the examples web application (uncomment and unwrap
        // the following to be on a single line):
        // permission java.io.FilePermission "${catalina.base}${file.separator}
        //  webapps${file.separator}examples${file.separator}WEB-INF
        //  ${file.separator}classes${file.separator}logging.properties", "read";
};

// These permissions apply to the server startup code
grant codeBase "file:${catalina.home}/bin/bootstrap.jar" {
        permission java.security.AllPermission;
};

// These permissions apply to the servlet API classes
// and those that are shared across all class loaders
// located in the "lib" directory
grant codeBase "file:${catalina.home}/lib/-" {
        permission java.security.AllPermission;
};


// If using a per instance lib directory, i.e. ${catalina.base}/lib,
// then the following permission will need to be uncommented
// grant codeBase "file:${catalina.base}/lib/-" {
//         permission java.security.AllPermission;
// };


// ========== WEB APPLICATION PERMISSIONS =====================================


// These permissions are granted by default to all web applications
// In addition, a web application will be given a read FilePermission
// and JndiPermission for all files and directories in its document root.
grant { 
    // Required for JNDI lookup of named JDBC DataSource's and
    // javamail named MimePart DataSource used to send mail
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.home", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.naming.*", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "javax.sql.*", "read";

    // OS Specific properties to allow read access
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "os.name", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "os.version", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "os.arch", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "file.separator", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "path.separator", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "line.separator", "read";

    // JVM properties to allow read access
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.version", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.vendor", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.vendor.url", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.class.version", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.specification.version", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.specification.vendor", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.specification.name", "read";

    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.vm.specification.version", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.vm.specification.vendor", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.vm.specification.name", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.vm.version", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.vm.vendor", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "java.vm.name", "read";

    // Required for OpenJMX
    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "getAttribute";

    // Allow read of JAXP compliant XML parser debug
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "jaxp.debug", "read";

    // Precompiled JSPs need access to these packages.
    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessClassInPackage.org.apache.jasper.el";
    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessClassInPackage.org.apache.jasper.runtime";
    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessClassInPackage.org.apache.jasper.runtime.*";
    
    // Precompiled JSPs need access to these system properties.
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission
     "org.apache.jasper.runtime.BodyContentImpl.LIMIT_BUFFER", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "org.apache.el.parser.COERCE_TO_ZERO", "read";
};


// The Manager application needs access to the following packages to support the
// session display functionality. These settings support the following
// configurations:
// - default CATALINA_HOME == CATALINA_BASE
// - CATALINA_HOME != CATALINA_BASE, per instance Manager in CATALINA_BASE
// - CATALINA_HOME != CATALINA_BASE, shared Manager in CATALINA_HOME
grant codeBase "file:${catalina.base}/webapps/manager/-" {
    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessClassInPackage.org.apache.catalina";
    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessClassInPackage.org.apache.catalina.manager";
    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessClassInPackage.org.apache.catalina.manager.util";
};
grant codeBase "file:${catalina.home}/webapps/manager/-" {
    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessClassInPackage.org.apache.catalina";
    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessClassInPackage.org.apache.catalina.manager";
    permission java.lang.RuntimePermission "accessClassInPackage.org.apache.catalina.manager.util";
};

// You can assign additional permissions to particular web applications by
// adding additional "grant" entries here, based on the code base for that
// application, /WEB-INF/classes/, or /WEB-INF/lib/ jar files.
//
// Different permissions can be granted to JSP pages, classes loaded from
// the /WEB-INF/classes/ directory, all jar files in the /WEB-INF/lib/
// directory, or even to individual jar files in the /WEB-INF/lib/ directory.
//
// For instance, assume that the standard "examples" application
// included a JDBC driver that needed to establish a network connection to the
// corresponding database and used the scrape taglib to get the weather from
// the NOAA web server.  You might create a "grant" entries like this:
//
// The permissions granted to the context root directory apply to JSP pages.
// grant codeBase "file:${catalina.base}/webapps/examples/-" {
//      permission java.net.SocketPermission "dbhost.mycompany.com:5432", "connect";
//      permission java.net.SocketPermission "*.noaa.gov:80", "connect";
// };
//
// The permissions granted to the context WEB-INF/classes directory
// grant codeBase "file:${catalina.base}/webapps/examples/WEB-INF/classes/-" {
// };
//
// The permission granted to your JDBC driver
// grant codeBase "jar:file:${catalina.base}/webapps/examples/WEB-INF/lib/driver.jar!/-" {
//      permission java.net.SocketPermission "dbhost.mycompany.com:5432", "connect";
// };
// The permission granted to the scrape taglib
// grant codeBase "jar:file:${catalina.base}/webapps/examples/WEB-INF/lib/scrape.jar!/-" {
//      permission java.net.SocketPermission "*.noaa.gov:80", "connect";
// };

  这里需要注意的是其配置语法:

grant [signedBy <signer>,] [codeBase <code source>] {
  permission  <class>  [<name> [, <action list>]];
};

  都要按照上面的格式进行配置。其中:

  codeBase 是通过URL的方式指定文件,可以使用变量${java.home}或者${catalina.home}来表示JDK和tomcat的根目录。

  class 指定了相应的操作

  [name,[,action]] name指定具体的操作或者文件,action指定可选的动作(比如read write等等)。

  具体的配置样例,可以参考上面的默认文件。

  另外要说明的就是都可以配置哪些操作,也就是permission后面都可以跟哪些类,他们的作用都是什么?

  上面列表中,最常用的java.io.FilePermission用于文件的操作、java.lang.RuntimePermission(可以通过禁用该权限达到防止system.exit(1)的目的)等等。

Security配置实战

  在tomcat中配置security,可以按照下面几个步骤:

  1 在样例代码中执行特殊权限操作:

<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=utf-8"
    import="java.net.*,java.io.*"
    pageEncoding="utf-8"%>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/html4/loose.dtd">
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8">
<title>security Test</title>
</head>
<body>
    <h1>security Test</h1>
    <hr>
    <%!
    String txt2String(File file){
        String result = "";
        try{
            BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(new FileReader(file));//构造一个BufferedReader类来读取文件
            String s = null;
            while((s = br.readLine())!=null){//使用readLine方法,一次读一行
                result = result + "\n" +s;
            }
            br.close();    
        }catch(Exception e){
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
        return result;
    }
    %>
    <%
    //是否启用了security,如果没有启用会输入null。
    System.out.println("SecurityManager: " + System.getSecurityManager());
    File file = new File("C:/Users/Administrator/Desktop/test.txt");
    //执行文件读操作,即java.io.FilePermission
    System.out.println(txt2String(file));
    //执行获取文件属性操作,即java.util.PropertyPermission
    System.out.println(System.getProperty("file.encoding"));
    %>
</body>
</html>

  当访问该页面时,会自动执行下面的代码,如果不具有相应的权限,会直接报错:

    //执行文件读操作,即java.io.FilePermission
    System.out.println(txt2String(file));
    //执行获取文件属性操作,即java.util.PropertyPermission
    System.out.println(System.getProperty("file.encoding"));

  2 配置安全策略文件catalina.policy:

  只需要在catalina.policy末尾添加如下的配置即可:

grant { 
    permission java.io.FilePermission "C:/Users/Administrator/Desktop/test.txt", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "file.encoding", "read";
};

  3 在命令行中添加-security启动

  访问JSP执行代码,样例中访问 http://localhost:8080/JSPTest/securityTest.jsp

  可以看到控制台正常输出:

对比下正常启动的输出,SecurityManager会输出null(此时,如果JSP中有system.exit(1);程序就会直接退出):

如果没有配置读写文件的权限,会报错(注释掉安全配置的第一句):

grant { 
    //permission java.io.FilePermission "C:/Users/Administrator/Desktop/test.txt", "read";
    permission java.util.PropertyPermission "file.encoding", "read";
};

如果没有配置获取文件属性权限,则会报错:

grant { 
    permission java.io.FilePermission "C:/Users/Administrator/Desktop/test.txt", "read";
    //permission java.util.PropertyPermission "file.encoding", "read";
};

  因此,如果在安全管理模式下,进行了越权的操作,就会报错有的甚至直接导致程序退出。

通过报错信息,可以快速的知道缺乏什么权限,根绝该报错就可以方便的配置安全策略。

参考

【1】Java.security.policy文件:http://www.tmser.com/post-187.html

【2】Java安全管理器:http://bubuko.com/infodetail-306759.html

【3】tomcat 6.0 security manager:http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-6.0-doc/security-manager-howto.html

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