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cobbler自动安装系统(Centos7.X)

环境:

[root@kickstart ~]# cat /etc/redhat-release
CentOS Linux release 7.4.1708 (Core)
[root@kickstart ~]# uname -r
3.10.0-693.el7.x86_64
[root@kickstart ~]# getenforce
Disabled
[root@kickstart ~]# systemctl status  firewalld.service
● firewalld.service - firewalld - dynamic firewall daemon
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/firewalld.service; disabled; vendor preset: enabled)
   Active: inactive (dead)
     Docs: man:firewalld(1)
[root@kickstart ~]# hostname -I
10.0.0.201 172.16.1.201

前言

cobbler安装比较简单,主要是网页操作,点点点,相对于PXE+kickstart网络安装更简单。

如果大家不了解PXE+kickstart网络安装系统过程原理的话,建议大家去看看我写的 <PXE+kickstart网络安装CentOS7.4系统及过程中各种报错>   <-- 快戳我

cobbler安装

1、下载cobbler及相关软件

[root@Cobbler ~]# yum -y install cobbler cobbler-web dhcp tftp-server pykickstart httpd

2、检查更改配置

注意:CentOS7上需要启动httpd服务和cobbler服务才能检查

[root@Cobbler ~]# systemctl start cobblerd.service httpd.service
[root@Cobbler ~]# cobbler check
The following are potential configuration items that you may want to fix:

1 : The 'server' field in /etc/cobbler/settings must be set to something other than localhost, or kickstarting features will not work.  This should be a resolvable hostname or IP for the boot server as reachable by all machines that will use it.
2 : For PXE to be functional, the 'next_server' field in /etc/cobbler/settings must be set to something other than 127.0.0.1, and should match the IP of the boot server on the PXE network.
3 : change 'disable' to 'no' in /etc/xinetd.d/tftp
4 : Some network boot-loaders are missing from /var/lib/cobbler/loaders, you may run 'cobbler get-loaders' to download them, or, if you only want to handle x86/x86_64 netbooting, you may ensure that you have installed a *recent* version of the syslinux package installed and can ignore this message entirely.  Files in this directory, should you want to support all architectures, should include pxelinux.0, menu.c32, elilo.efi, and yaboot. The 'cobbler get-loaders' command is the easiest way to resolve these requirements.
5 : enable and start rsyncd.service with systemctl
6 : debmirror package is not installed, it will be required to manage debian deployments and repositories
7 : The default password used by the sample templates for newly installed machines (default_password_crypted in /etc/cobbler/settings) is still set to 'cobbler' and should be changed, try: "openssl passwd -1 -salt 'random-phrase-here' 'your-password-here'" to generate new one
8 : fencing tools were not found, and are required to use the (optional) power management features. install cman or fence-agents to use them

Restart cobblerd and then run 'cobbler sync' to apply changes.

根据这些检查条目,进行更改相关的检查项

sed -i 's/server: 127.0.0.1/server: 172.16.1.202/' /etc/cobbler/settings
sed -i 's/next_server: 127.0.0.1/next_server: 172.16.1.202/' /etc/cobbler/settings
sed -i 's/manage_dhcp: 0/manage_dhcp: 1/' /etc/cobbler/settings
sed -i 's/pxe_just_once: 0/pxe_just_once: 1/' /etc/cobbler/settings
sed -ri "/default_password_crypted/s#(.*: ).*#\1\"`openssl passwd -1 -salt 'oldboy' '123456'`\"#" /etc/cobbler/settings
sed -i 's#yes#no#' /etc/xinetd.d/tftp

systemctl start rsyncd
systemctl enable rsyncd
systemctl enable tftp.socket
systemctl start tftp.socket 
systemctl restart cobblerd.service

修改dhcp模板配置文件

sed -i.ori 's#192.168.1#172.16.1#g;22d;23d' /etc/cobbler/dhcp.template

同步所有配置

注意:不同步会报错

[root@Cobbler ~]# cobbler sync
task started: 2017-11-15_101915_sync
task started (id=Sync, time=Wed Nov 15 10:19:15 2017)
running pre-sync triggers
cleaning trees
removing: /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/images
copying bootloaders
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/pxelinux.0 -> /var/lib/tftpboot/pxelinux.0
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/menu.c32 -> /var/lib/tftpboot/menu.c32
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/yaboot -> /var/lib/tftpboot/yaboot
trying hardlink /usr/share/syslinux/memdisk -> /var/lib/tftpboot/memdisk
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/grub-x86.efi -> /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/grub-x86.efi
trying hardlink /var/lib/cobbler/loaders/grub-x86_64.efi -> /var/lib/tftpboot/grub/grub-x86_64.efi
copying distros to tftpboot
copying images
generating PXE configuration files
generating PXE menu structure
rendering DHCP files
generating /etc/dhcp/dhcpd.conf
rendering TFTPD files
generating /etc/xinetd.d/tftp
cleaning link caches
running post-sync triggers
running python triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/sync/post/*
running python trigger cobbler.modules.sync_post_restart_services
running: dhcpd -t -q
received on stdout: 
received on stderr: 
running: service dhcpd restart
received on stdout: 
received on stderr: Redirecting to /bin/systemctl restart dhcpd.service

running shell triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/sync/post/*
running python triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/change/*
running python trigger cobbler.modules.scm_track
running shell triggers from /var/lib/cobbler/triggers/change/*
*** TASK COMPLETE ***

cobbler使用操作

博主使用虚拟机操作

https://10.0.0.202/cobbler_web    浏览器访问网址
账号密码默认均为cobbler

导入镜像(import DVD)

 说明:首先虚拟机保证下列以操作

根据镜像位置,进行挂载

image.png
因为镜像位置写的mnt,所以要将镜像挂载到mnt下
[root@Cobbler pxelinux.cfg]# mount /dev/cdrom /mnt/
[root@Cobbler pxelinux.cfg]# df -h
Filesystem      Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/sda3        98G  5.8G   93G   6% /
devtmpfs        902M     0  902M   0% /dev
tmpfs           912M     0  912M   0% /dev/shm
tmpfs           912M  8.7M  903M   1% /run
tmpfs           912M     0  912M   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
/dev/sda1      1014M  135M  880M  14% /boot
tmpfs           183M     0  183M   0% /run/user/0
/dev/sr0        4.3G  4.3G     0 100% /mnt
查看进程,看是否在导入
[root@Cobbler ~]# ps -ef|grep rsync
root    15923      1  0 09:49 ?    00:00:00 /usr/bin/rsync --daemon --no-detach
root    17237  15973 15 10:53 ?    00:00:03 rsync -a /mnt/ /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS7.4-x86_64 --progress
root    17238  17237  0 10:53 ?    00:00:00 rsync -a /mnt/ /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS7.4-x86_64 --progress
root    17239  17238 11 10:53 ?    00:00:02 rsync -a /mnt/ /var/www/cobbler/ks_mirror/CentOS7.4-x86_64 --progress

 ks文件组成

命令段

    install开头,到%pre

包组段

    以%packages开头,以%end结束

脚本段

    以%post开头,以%end结束,在安装完系统之后执行的相关Linux命令、脚本

    以%pre开头,以%end结束,在安装完系统之前执行的相关Linux命令、脚本

kickstart文件语法检查

下载语法检查软件

yum install pykickstart -y

检查命令

[root@CentOS7 tftpboot]# ksvalidator /var/www/html/ks_config/CentOS-7-ks.cfg 
说明:请记住这个验证工具有其局限性。Kickstart 文件可能会很复杂;ksvalidator 可保证其语法正确,且该文件不包含淘汰的选项,
但它无法保证安装会成功。它也不会尝试验证 Kickstart 文件的 %pre、%post 和 %packages 部分。

root加密密码生成

密码:123456

[root@CentOS7 ~]# python -c 'import crypt; print(crypt.crypt("123456"))'
$6$02PfimLMqN53z6Io$ov2Xbjm7ZC36X2tFvqnI0HymvqMY0vI/UOCxze0L/zMX722PkDJOz/JTWwVHaksawGf/bfR0k3GCpubodKTdV0

CentOS7的ks文件添加

CentOS7 ks文件内容

# Cobbler for Kickstart Configurator for CentOS 7 by yao zhang
install
url --url=$tree
text
lang en_US.UTF-8
keyboard us
zerombr
bootloader --location=mbr --driveorder=sda --append="crashkernel=auto rhgb quiet"
#Network information
$SNIPPET('network_config')
#network --bootproto=dhcp --device=eth0 --onboot=yes --noipv6 --hostname=CentOS7
timezone --utc Asia/Shanghai
authconfig --enableshadow --passalgo=sha512
rootpw  --iscrypted $default_password_crypted
clearpart --all --initlabel
part /boot --fstype xfs --size 1024
part swap --size 1024
part / --fstype xfs --size 1 --grow
firstboot --disable
selinux --disabled
firewall --disabled
logging --level=info
reboot

%pre
$SNIPPET('log_ks_pre')
$SNIPPET('kickstart_start')
$SNIPPET('pre_install_network_config')
# Enable installation monitoring
$SNIPPET('pre_anamon')
%end

%packages
@^minimal
@compat-libraries
@core
@debugging
@development
bash-completion
chrony
dos2unix
kexec-tools
lrzsz
nmap
sysstat
telnet
tree
vim
wget
%end

%post
systemctl disable postfix.service
%end

关于ks文件内容的详解在我写的 <PXE+kickstart网络安装CentOS7.4系统及过程中各种报错> 里有解释

修改镜像变量属性

自定义安装系统

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