详解 MySQL 5.7 新的权限与安全问题

1、新版 MySQL 权限问题: 

问题:SQL Error (1130): Host '192.168.1.100' is not allowed to connect to this MySQL server     说明所连接的用户帐号没有远程连接的权限,只能在本机(localhost)登录。     需更改 mysql 数据库里的 user表里的 host项:把localhost改称%     mysql>use mysql;     mysql>update user set host = '%'  where user ='root';     mysql>flush privileges;     mysql>select 'host','user' from user where user='root';     旧版本 MySQL 可以 IP 授权与修改密码同时进行: GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY '123456' WITH GRANT OPTION;  注意0:授权可以用上述语句,但是修改密码新版 MySQL 不能再用 WITH GRANT OPTION 了:Using GRANT statement to modify existing user properties other than privileges is deprecated and will be removed in future release. Use ALTER USER statement for this operation. ALTER USER 'root'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'pwd';

注意1:MySQL 用户权限标示是 user 和 host 组成的二元组,上述语句需要确保该二元组存在,否则会报错:

    mysql> ALTER USER 'root'@'%' IDENTIFIED BY 'pwd';     ERROR 1396 (HY000): Operation ALTER USER failed for 'root'@'%'     mysql> create user 'root'@'%' identified by 'pwd';     Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

    mysql> GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'%' WITH GRANT OPTION;     Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

    mysql>  show grants for current_user();     +---------------------------------------------------------------------+     | Grants for root@localhost                                           |     +---------------------------------------------------------------------+     | GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'root'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION |     | GRANT PROXY ON ''@'' TO 'root'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION        |     +---------------------------------------------------------------------+     2 rows in set (0.00 sec)     如果使用 ALTER USER 'root'@'%' IDENTIFIED WITH sha256_password BY 'pwd'; 指定加密方式则可能在客户端连接时有问题: 注意2:ERROR 2059 (HY000): Authentication plugin 'sha256_password' cannot be loaded: No such file or directory update user set plugin='mysql_native_password' where user = 'root' and host = '%';     update mysql.user set password=PASSWORD("pwd") where User='root'; 注意3:ERROR 1054 (42S22): Unknown column 'password' in 'field list' update mysql.user set authentication_string=password("pwd") where user='root'; 注意4:'PASSWORD' is deprecated and will be removed in a future release.      password 即将被废弃,官方不建议用继续使用了,建议使用第1点中的 ALTER USER 语法去管理用户属性。

Access denied for user 'root'@'IP地址' ,是因为相应的主机没有对应的访问权限

--开放权限如下
use mysql;
update user u set u.host = '%' where u.user = 'root' limit 1;
flush privileges;

--查看用户权限
show grants for current_user();

--mysql不推荐通过修改表的方式修改用户密码
INSERT or UPDATE statements for the mysql.user table that refer to literal passwords are logged as is,so you should avoid such statements
--通过客户端sql修改
MariaDB [mysql]>  UPDATE user SET Password = password('123456') WHERE User = 'root' ;
--此时可在binglog中可以看到明文的密码
[root@rudy_01 3306]# mysqlbinlog binlog.000006 --start-position=4224 >/tmp/test.sql
[root@rudy_01 3306]# cat /tmp/test.sql 
SET @@session.collation_database=DEFAULT/*!*/;
UPDATE user SET Password = password('123456') WHERE User = 'root'

--在 mysql 5.7 中 password 字段已经不存在了
mysql> UPDATE user SET Password = password('123456') WHERE User = 'root' ;
ERROR 1054 (42S22): Unknown column 'Password' in 'field list'

mysql> desc user;
+------------------------+-----------------------------------+------+-----+-----------------------+-------+
| Field                  | Type                              | Null | Key | Default               | Extra |
+------------------------+-----------------------------------+------+-----+-----------------------+-------+
| Host                   | char(60)                          | NO   | PRI |                       |       |
| User                   | char(32)                          | NO   | PRI |                       |       |
| Select_priv            | enum('N','Y')                     | NO   |     | N                     |       |

--注意出于安全考虑,alter user 时提示更新的是 0 条数据,但实际 password 已更新
mysql> select host,user,authentication_string,password_last_changed from user where user='root' and host='%';
+------+------+-------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
| host | user | authentication_string                     | password_last_changed |
+------+------+-------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
| %    | root | *6BB4837EB74329105EE4568DDA7DC67ED2CA2AD9 | 2016-01-08 15:38:13   |
+------+------+-------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
1 row in set (0.04 sec)

--提示更新0条,使用此方法不需要再 flush privileges
If you modify the grant tables indirectly using account-management statements such as GRANT, REVOKE,SET PASSWORD, or RENAME USER, 
the server notices these changes and loads the grant tables into memory again immediately.
mysql>  alter user 'root'@'%' identified by '12345678';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
--实际已更新
mysql>  select host,user,authentication_string,password_last_changed from user where user='root' and host='%';
+------+------+-------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
| host | user | authentication_string                     | password_last_changed |
+------+------+-------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
| %    | root | *84AAC12F54AB666ECFC2A83C676908C8BBC381B1 | 2016-01-08 15:53:09   |
+------+------+-------------------------------------------+-----------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

--在binlog中查出的sql如下
[root@rudy mysql]# cat /tmp/test.sql
SET @@session.collation_database=DEFAULT/*!*/;
ALTER USER 'root'@'%' IDENTIFIED WITH 'mysql_native_password' AS '*6BB4837EB74329105EE4568DDA7DC67ED2CA2AD9'


--mysql对于密码有3种检验策略,默认validate_password_policy为MEDIUM
? LOW policy tests password length only. Passwords must be at least 8 characters long.
? MEDIUM policy adds the conditions that passwords must contain at least 1 numeric character, 1 lowercase and uppercase character, and 1 special (nonalphanumeric) character.
? STRONG policy adds the condition that password substrings of length 4 or longer must not match words

--注意validate_password默认是没有安装的
If the validate_password plugin is not installed, the validate_password_xxx system variables are not available, 
passwords in statements are not checked, and VALIDATE_PASSWORD_STRENGTH() always returns 0.
 
 
--检验密码复杂度 
mysql> select VALIDATE_PASSWORD_STRENGTH('abc1235jeme');
+-------------------------------------------+
| VALIDATE_PASSWORD_STRENGTH('abc1235jeme') |
+-------------------------------------------+
|                                         0 |
+-------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
--查找安装的插件,发现找不到validate_password
mysql> show plugins;
--手动安装
mysql> INSTALL PLUGIN validate_password SONAME 'validate_password.so';
mysql> show plugins;
+----------------------------+----------+--------------------+----------------------+---------+
| Name                       | Status   | Type               | Library              | License |
+----------------------------+----------+--------------------+----------------------+---------+
| validate_password          | ACTIVE   | VALIDATE PASSWORD  | validate_password.so | GPL     |
+----------------------------+----------+--------------------+----------------------+---------+
45 rows in set (0.04 sec)
--再次检验密码复杂度 
mysql> select VALIDATE_PASSWORD_STRENGTH('abc1235jeme');
+-------------------------------------------+
| VALIDATE_PASSWORD_STRENGTH('abc1235jeme') |
+-------------------------------------------+
|                                        50 |
+-------------------------------------------+

--安装validate_password插件后,就必需符合validate_password_policy的要求,否则语句执行出错
mysql> alter user 'root'@'%' identified by '123456';
ERROR 1819 (HY000): Your password does not satisfy the current policy requirements

2、主从复制遇到的权限及异常问题

1、主从均需重启mysql服务
/etc/init.d/mysqld restart
或者:
sudo service mysqld restart 

2、主配置:增加从机复制账户并授权,以便从机远程登录过来复制 binlog
create user 'replicationUsername'@'%' identified by 'Passwd';
GRANT REPLICATION SLAVE,RELOAD,SUPER ON *.* TO 'name'@'%'  WITH GRANT OPTION;
show master status;

3、从配置:
stop slave;
CHANGE MASTER TO
  MASTER_HOST='110.126.103.126',
  MASTER_USER='replicationUsername',
  MASTER_PASSWORD='Passwd',
  MASTER_PORT=3306,
  MASTER_LOG_FILE='mysql-bin.000001',
  MASTER_LOG_POS=154,
  MASTER_CONNECT_RETRY=10;
start slave;
show slave status\G

4、Slave_SQL_Running: No
    1.程序可能在slave上进行了写操作
    2.也可能是slave机器重起后,事务回滚造成的.
    3.也可能遇到各种SQL错误导致 SQL 线程中断退出。
    解决方法:
stop slave;
set global sql_slave_skip_counter = 1 ;
start slave;
    之后Slave会和Master去同步 主要看:
从机:show slave status\G
Slave_IO_Running: Yes
Slave_SQL_Running: Yes
Seconds_Behind_Master是否为0,0就是已经同步了
主机:show processlist\G
如果出现Command: Binlog Dump,则说明配置成功.

5、测试:
create database db_test_slave;  
use db_test_slave;  
create table tb_test(id int(3), name varchar(50));  
insert into tb_test values(1,'hello slave');  
show databases;  

6、slave 从零开始同步 master 所有数据库:
(1)master操作:
RESET MASTER;
FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK;
SHOW MASTER STATUS;

candidates=$(echo "show databases" | mysql -uroot -pPASSWD| grep -Ev "^(Database|sys|mysql|performance_schema|information_schema)$")
mysqldump -uroot -pPASSWD --databases ${candidates} --single-transaction > mysqldump.sql
UNLOCK TABLES;

(2)slave操作:
nc -l 12345 < <(cat mysqldump.sql) ##主
nc -n 10.48.186.32 12345 > mysqldump.sql 

STOP SLAVE;
mysql -uroot -pPASSWD < mysqldump.sql

show master status; --主

CHANGE MASTER TO
  MASTER_HOST='10.48.186.32',
  MASTER_USER='birepl',
  MASTER_PASSWORD='PASSWD',
  MASTER_PORT=3306,
  MASTER_LOG_FILE='mysql-bin.000001',
  MASTER_LOG_POS=398062,
  MASTER_CONNECT_RETRY=10;
RESET SLAVE;
start slave;
SHOW SLAVE STATUS\G

Refer:

[1] mysql 权限与安全

https://yq.aliyun.com/articles/2719

[2] mysql-5.7主从同步安装配置

http://www.apelearn.com/bbs/thread-13435-1-1.html

[3] CentOS 7 下MySQL 5.7.12主从复制架构配置记录(亲自验证可行)

http://www.voidcn.com/blog/juan0728juan/article/p-6050119.html

[4] MySQL 5.7的多源复制

http://www.cnblogs.com/xuanzhi201111/p/5151666.html

[5] Slave_SQL_Running: No mysql同步故障解决方法

http://kerry.blog.51cto.com/172631/277414

[6] Slave_SQL_Running: No mysql同步故障解决方法

http://blog.csdn.net/xiaoxinla/article/details/7679578

[7] 有没有办法让从msyql主动从零开始在主mysql那里同步数据

https://www.v2ex.com/t/78848

[8] How to re-sync the Mysql DB if Master and slave have different database incase of Mysql replication?

http://stackoverflow.com/questions/2366018/how-to-re-sync-the-mysql-db-if-master-and-slave-have-different-database-incase-o

[9] Any option for mysqldump to ignore databases for backup?

http://dba.stackexchange.com/questions/35081/any-option-for-mysqldump-to-ignore-databases-for-backup

[10] mysql的binlog详解

http://blog.csdn.net/wyzxg/article/details/7412777

[11] 在什么时候可以调用reset master?

http://bbs.chinaunix.net/thread-1199047-1-1.html

[12] mysql只读模式的设置方法与实验

http://blog.csdn.net/yumushui/article/details/41645469

[13] MySql 创建只读账号

http://blog.csdn.net/norsd/article/details/9081833

本文参与腾讯云自媒体分享计划,欢迎正在阅读的你也加入,一起分享。

发表于

我来说两句

0 条评论
登录 后参与评论

相关文章

来自专栏乐沙弥的世界

InnoDB: Error: io_setup() failed with EAGAIN

    最近安装好了MySQL之后,在启动MySQL服务时无法正常启动MySQL。提示没有更新/var/lib/mfailedZDB.pid并退出。该MySQL...

1131
来自专栏祝威廉

使用StreamingPro 快速构建Spark SQL on CarbonData

CarbonData已经发布了1.0版本,变更还是很快的,这个版本已经移除了kettle了,使得部署和使用 变得很简单,而且支持1.6+ ,2.0+等多个Spa...

981
来自专栏杨建荣的学习笔记

awr中DB CPU过低的原因分析(r4笔记第20天)

前几天在做巡检的时候发现有个库的负载在某一个时间段内极高,高达100倍。一个10分钟的awr报告,得到的db time 却有1000分钟。 Snap Id ...

3399
来自专栏杨建荣的学习笔记

由drop datafile导致的oracle bug(r6笔记第56天)

今天碰到了一个dataguard在10gR2的bug,不管怎么样确实是在特定的时间做了特定的操作结果碰到了特定的问题。 这个问题是在10gR2的版本10.2.0...

2913
来自专栏SpringBoot 核心技术

第四章:使用QueryDSL与SpringDataJPA实现多表关联查询

4543
来自专栏乐沙弥的世界

SQL*PLus 帮助手册(SP2-0171)

    对于经常在SQL*Plus 下工作的大师们而言,总是时不时查询SQL*Plus的帮助命令。着实太多了,记不住。SQL*Plus下直接提供了help命令来...

2943
来自专栏互联网开发者交流社区

整合SpringDataJPA

1094
来自专栏乐沙弥的世界

PL/SQL 下SQL结果集以html形式发送邮件

      在运维的过程中,有时候需要定时将SQL查询的数据结果集以html表格形式发送邮件,因此需要将SQL查询得到的结果集拼接成html代码。对于这种情形通...

951
来自专栏清晨我上码

平台用户操作日志模块设计

9502
来自专栏Spark学习技巧

干货:Sqoop导入导出数据练习

sqoop简介 1,sqoop:sql-to-hadoop, sqoop是连接关系型数据库和hadoop的桥梁: (1),把关系型数据库的数据导入到hadoo...

1.2K11

扫码关注云+社区

领取腾讯云代金券