asp.net web api 2.2 基础框架(带例子)

简介

这个是我自己编写的asp.net web api 2.2的基础框架,使用了Entity Framework 6.2(beta)作为ORM。

该模板主要采用了 Unit of Work 和 Repository 模式,使用autofac进行控制反转(ioc)。

记录Log采用的是NLog。

结构

项目列表如下图:

该启动模板为多层结构,其结构如下图:

开发流程

1. 创建model

在LegacyApplication.Models项目里建立相应的文件夹作为子模块,然后创建model,例如Nationality.cs:

using System.ComponentModel.DataAnnotations.Schema;
using System.Data.Entity.Infrastructure.Annotations;
using LegacyApplication.Shared.Features.Base;

namespace LegacyApplication.Models.HumanResources
{
    public class Nationality : EntityBase
    {
        public string Name { get; set; }
    }

    public class NationalityConfiguration : EntityBaseConfiguration<Nationality>
    {
        public NationalityConfiguration()
        {
            ToTable("hr.Nationality");
            Property(x => x.Name).IsRequired().HasMaxLength(50);
            Property(x => x.Name).HasMaxLength(50).HasColumnAnnotation(
                IndexAnnotation.AnnotationName,
                new IndexAnnotation(new IndexAttribute { IsUnique = true }));
        }
    }
}

所建立的model需要使用EntityBase作为基类,EntityBase有几个业务字段,包括CreateUser,CreateTime,UpdateUser,UpdateTime,LastAction。EntityBase代码如下:

using System;

namespace LegacyApplication.Shared.Features.Base
{
    public class EntityBase : IEntityBase
    {
        public EntityBase(string userName = "匿名")
        {
            CreateTime = UpdateTime = DateTime.Now;
            LastAction = "创建";
            CreateUser = UpdateUser = userName;
        }

        public int Id { get; set; }
        public DateTime CreateTime { get; set; }
        public DateTime UpdateTime { get; set; }
        public string CreateUser { get; set; }
        public string UpdateUser { get; set; }
        public string LastAction { get; set; }

        public int Order { get; set; }
    }
}

model需要使用Fluent Api来配置数据库的映射属性等,按约定使用Model名+Configuration作为fluent api的类的名字,并需要继承EntityBaseConfiguration<T>这个类,这个类对EntityBase的几个属性进行了映射配置,其代码如下:

using System.Data.Entity.ModelConfiguration;

namespace LegacyApplication.Shared.Features.Base
{
    public class EntityBaseConfiguration<T> : EntityTypeConfiguration<T> where T : EntityBase
    {
        public EntityBaseConfiguration()
        {
            HasKey(e => e.Id);
            Property(x => x.CreateTime).IsRequired();
            Property(x => x.UpdateTime).IsRequired();
            Property(x => x.CreateUser).IsRequired().HasMaxLength(50);
            Property(x => x.UpdateUser).IsRequired().HasMaxLength(50);
            Property(x => x.LastAction).IsRequired().HasMaxLength(50);
        }
    }
}

1.1 自成树形的Model

自成树形的model是指自己和自己成主外键关系的Model(表),例如菜单表或者部门表的设计有时候是这样的,下面以部门为例:

using System.Collections.Generic;
using LegacyApplication.Shared.Features.Tree;

namespace LegacyApplication.Models.HumanResources
{
    public class Department : TreeEntityBase<Department>
    {
        public string Name { get; set; }

        public ICollection<Employee> Employees { get; set; }
    }

    public class DepartmentConfiguration : TreeEntityBaseConfiguration<Department>
    {
        public DepartmentConfiguration()
        {
            ToTable("hr.Department");

            Property(x => x.Name).IsRequired().HasMaxLength(100);
        }
    }
}

与普通的Model不同的是,它需要继承的是TreeEntityBase<T>这个基类,TreeEntityBase<T>的代码如下:

using System.Collections.Generic;
using LegacyApplication.Shared.Features.Base;

namespace LegacyApplication.Shared.Features.Tree
{
    public class TreeEntityBase<T>: EntityBase, ITreeEntity<T> where T: TreeEntityBase<T>
    {
        public int? ParentId { get; set; }
        public string AncestorIds { get; set; }
        public bool IsAbstract { get; set; }
        public int Level => AncestorIds?.Split('-').Length ?? 0;
        public T Parent { get; set; }
        public ICollection<T> Children { get; set; }
    }
}

其中ParentId,Parent,Children这几个属性是树形关系相关的属性,AncestorIds定义为所有祖先Id层级别连接到一起的一个字符串,需要自己实现。然后Level属性是通过AncestorIds这个属性自动获取该Model在树形结构里面的层级。

该Model的fluent api配置类需要继承的是TreeEntityBaseConfiguration<T>这个类,代码如下:

using System.Collections.Generic;
using LegacyApplication.Shared.Features.Base;

namespace LegacyApplication.Shared.Features.Tree
{
    public class TreeEntityBaseConfiguration<T> : EntityBaseConfiguration<T> where T : TreeEntityBase<T>
    {
        public TreeEntityBaseConfiguration()
        {
            Property(x => x.AncestorIds).HasMaxLength(200);
            Ignore(x => x.Level);

            HasOptional(x => x.Parent).WithMany(x => x.Children).HasForeignKey(x => x.ParentId).WillCascadeOnDelete(false);
        }
    }
}

针对树形结构的model,我还做了几个简单的Extension Methods,代码如下:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;

namespace LegacyApplication.Shared.Features.Tree
{
    public static class TreeExtensions
    {
        /// <summary>
        /// 把树形结构数据的集合转化成单一根结点的树形结构数据
        /// </summary>
        /// <typeparam name="T">树形结构实体</typeparam>
        /// <param name="items">树形结构实体的集合</param>
        /// <returns>树形结构实体的根结点</returns>
        public static TreeEntityBase<T> ToSingleRoot<T>(this IEnumerable<TreeEntityBase<T>> items) where T : TreeEntityBase<T>
        {
            var all = items.ToList();
            if (!all.Any())
            {
                return null;
            }
            var top = all.Where(x => x.ParentId == null).ToList();
            if (top.Count > 1)
            {
                throw new Exception("树的根节点数大于1个");
            }
            if (top.Count == 0)
            {
                throw new Exception("未能找到树的根节点");
            }
            TreeEntityBase<T> root = top.Single();

            Action<TreeEntityBase<T>> findChildren = null;
            findChildren = current =>
            {
                var children = all.Where(x => x.ParentId == current.Id).ToList();
                foreach (var child in children)
                {
                    findChildren(child);
                }
                current.Children = children as ICollection<T>;
            };

            findChildren(root);

            return root;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 把树形结构数据的集合转化成多个根结点的树形结构数据
        /// </summary>
        /// <typeparam name="T">树形结构实体</typeparam>
        /// <param name="items">树形结构实体的集合</param>
        /// <returns>多个树形结构实体根结点的集合</returns>
        public static List<TreeEntityBase<T>> ToMultipleRoots<T>(this IEnumerable<TreeEntityBase<T>> items) where T : TreeEntityBase<T>
        {
            List<TreeEntityBase<T>> roots;
            var all = items.ToList();
            if (!all.Any())
            {
                return null;
            }
            var top = all.Where(x => x.ParentId == null).ToList();
            if (top.Any())
            {
                roots = top;
            }
            else
            {
                throw new Exception("未能找到树的根节点");
            }

            Action<TreeEntityBase<T>> findChildren = null;
            findChildren = current =>
            {
                var children = all.Where(x => x.ParentId == current.Id).ToList();
                foreach (var child in children)
                {
                    findChildren(child);
                }
                current.Children = children as ICollection<T>;
            };

            roots.ForEach(findChildren);

            return roots;
        }

        /// <summary>
        /// 作为父节点, 取得树形结构实体的祖先ID串
        /// </summary>
        /// <typeparam name="T">树形结构实体</typeparam>
        /// <param name="parent">父节点实体</param>
        /// <returns></returns>
        public static string GetAncestorIdsAsParent<T>(this T parent) where T : TreeEntityBase<T>
        {
            return string.IsNullOrEmpty(parent.AncestorIds) ? parent.Id.ToString() : (parent.AncestorIds + "-" + parent.Id);
        }
    }
}

2. 把Model加入到DbContext里面

建立完Model后,需要把Model加入到Context里面,下面是CoreContext的代码:

using System;
using System.Data.Entity;
using System.Data.Entity.ModelConfiguration.Conventions;
using System.Diagnostics;
using System.Reflection;
using LegacyApplication.Database.Infrastructure;
using LegacyApplication.Models.Core;
using LegacyApplication.Models.HumanResources;
using LegacyApplication.Models.Work;
using LegacyApplication.Shared.Configurations;

namespace LegacyApplication.Database.Context
{
    public class CoreContext : DbContext, IUnitOfWork
    {
        public CoreContext() : base(AppSettings.DefaultConnection)
        {
            //System.Data.Entity.Database.SetInitializer<CoreContext>(null);
#if DEBUG
            Database.Log = Console.Write;
            Database.Log = message => Trace.WriteLine(message);
#endif
        }

        protected override void OnModelCreating(DbModelBuilder modelBuilder)
        {
            modelBuilder.Conventions.Remove<PluralizingTableNameConvention>();
            modelBuilder.Conventions.Remove<OneToManyCascadeDeleteConvention>(); //去掉默认开启的级联删除

            modelBuilder.Configurations.AddFromAssembly(Assembly.GetAssembly(typeof(UploadedFile)));
        }

        //Core
        public DbSet<UploadedFile> UploadedFiles { get; set; }

        //Work
        public DbSet<InternalMail> InternalMails { get; set; }
        public DbSet<InternalMailTo> InternalMailTos { get; set; }
        public DbSet<InternalMailAttachment> InternalMailAttachments { get; set; }
        public DbSet<Todo> Todos { get; set; }
        public DbSet<Schedule> Schedules { get; set; }

        //HR
        public DbSet<Department> Departments { get; set; }
        public DbSet<Employee> Employees { get; set; }
        public DbSet<JobPostLevel> JobPostLevels { get; set; }
        public DbSet<JobPost> JobPosts { get; set; }
        public DbSet<AdministrativeLevel> AdministrativeLevels { get; set; }
        public DbSet<TitleLevel> TitleLevels { get; set; }
        public DbSet<Nationality> Nationalitys { get; set; }
        
        
    }
}

其中“modelBuilder.Configurations.AddFromAssembly(Assembly.GetAssembly(typeof(UploadedFile)));” 会把UploadFile所在的Assembly(也就是LegacyApplication.Models这个项目)里面所有的fluent api配置类(EntityTypeConfiguration的派生类)全部加载进来。

这里说一下CoreContext,由于它派生与DbContext,而DbContext本身就实现了Unit of Work 模式,所以我做Unit of work模式的时候,就不考虑重新建立一个新类作为Unit of work了,我从DbContext抽取了几个方法,提炼出了IUnitofWork接口,代码如下:

using System;
using System.Threading;
using System.Threading.Tasks;

namespace LegacyApplication.Database.Infrastructure
{
    public interface IUnitOfWork: IDisposable
    {
        int SaveChanges();
        Task<int> SaveChangesAsync(CancellationToken cancellationToken);
        Task<int> SaveChangesAsync();
    }
}

用的时候IUnitOfWork就是CoreContext的化身。

3.建立Repository

我理解的Repository(百货)里面应该具有各种小粒度的逻辑方法,以便复用,通常Repository里面要包含各种单笔和多笔的CRUD方法。

此外,我在我的模板里做了约定,不在Repository里面进行任何的提交保存等动作。

下面我们来建立一个Repository,就用Nationality为例,在LegacyApplication.Repositories里面相应的文件夹建立NationalityRepository类:

using LegacyApplication.Database.Infrastructure;
using LegacyApplication.Models.HumanResources;
namespace LegacyApplication.Repositories.HumanResources
{
    public interface INationalityRepository : IEntityBaseRepository<Nationality>
    {
    }

    public class NationalityRepository : EntityBaseRepository<Nationality>, INationalityRepository
    {
        public NationalityRepository(IUnitOfWork unitOfWork) : base(unitOfWork)
        {
        }
    }
}

代码很简单,但是它已经包含了常见的10多种CRUD方法,因为它继承于EntityBaseRepository这个泛型类,这个类的代码如下:

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Data.Entity;
using System.Data.Entity.Infrastructure;
using System.Linq;
using System.Linq.Expressions;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using LegacyApplication.Database.Context;
using LegacyApplication.Shared.Features.Base;

namespace LegacyApplication.Database.Infrastructure
{
    public class EntityBaseRepository<T> : IEntityBaseRepository<T>
        where T : class, IEntityBase, new()
    {
        #region Properties
        protected CoreContext Context { get; }

        public EntityBaseRepository(IUnitOfWork unitOfWork)
        {
            Context = unitOfWork as CoreContext;
        }
        #endregion

        public virtual IQueryable<T> All => Context.Set<T>();

        public virtual IQueryable<T> AllIncluding(params Expression<Func<T, object>>[] includeProperties)
        {
            IQueryable<T> query = Context.Set<T>();
            foreach (var includeProperty in includeProperties)
            {
                query = query.Include(includeProperty);
            }
            return query;
        }

        public virtual int Count()
        {
            return Context.Set<T>().Count();
        }

        public async Task<int> CountAsync()
        {
            return await Context.Set<T>().CountAsync();
        }

        public T GetSingle(int id)
        {
            return Context.Set<T>().FirstOrDefault(x => x.Id == id);
        }

        public async Task<T> GetSingleAsync(int id)
        {
            return await Context.Set<T>().FirstOrDefaultAsync(x => x.Id == id);
        }

        public T GetSingle(Expression<Func<T, bool>> predicate)
        {
            return Context.Set<T>().FirstOrDefault(predicate);
        }

        public async Task<T> GetSingleAsync(Expression<Func<T, bool>> predicate)
        {
            return await Context.Set<T>().FirstOrDefaultAsync(predicate);
        }

        public T GetSingle(Expression<Func<T, bool>> predicate, params Expression<Func<T, object>>[] includeProperties)
        {
            IQueryable<T> query = Context.Set<T>();
            foreach (var includeProperty in includeProperties)
            {
                query = query.Include(includeProperty);
            }
            return query.Where(predicate).FirstOrDefault();
        }

        public async Task<T> GetSingleAsync(Expression<Func<T, bool>> predicate, params Expression<Func<T, object>>[] includeProperties)
        {
            IQueryable<T> query = Context.Set<T>();
            foreach (var includeProperty in includeProperties)
            {
                query = query.Include(includeProperty);
            }

            return await query.Where(predicate).FirstOrDefaultAsync();
        }

        public virtual IQueryable<T> FindBy(Expression<Func<T, bool>> predicate)
        {
            return Context.Set<T>().Where(predicate);
        }

        public virtual void Add(T entity)
        {
            DbEntityEntry dbEntityEntry = Context.Entry<T>(entity);
            Context.Set<T>().Add(entity);
        }

        public virtual void Update(T entity)
        {
            DbEntityEntry<T> dbEntityEntry = Context.Entry<T>(entity);

            dbEntityEntry.Property(x => x.Id).IsModified = false;

            dbEntityEntry.State = EntityState.Modified;

            dbEntityEntry.Property(x => x.CreateUser).IsModified = false;
            dbEntityEntry.Property(x => x.CreateTime).IsModified = false;
        }

        public virtual void Delete(T entity)
        {
            DbEntityEntry dbEntityEntry = Context.Entry<T>(entity);
            dbEntityEntry.State = EntityState.Deleted;
        }

        public virtual void AddRange(IEnumerable<T> entities)
        {
            Context.Set<T>().AddRange(entities);
        }

        public virtual void DeleteRange(IEnumerable<T> entities)
        {
            foreach (var entity in entities)
            {
                DbEntityEntry dbEntityEntry = Context.Entry<T>(entity);
                dbEntityEntry.State = EntityState.Deleted;
            }
        }

        public virtual void DeleteWhere(Expression<Func<T, bool>> predicate)
        {
            IEnumerable<T> entities = Context.Set<T>().Where(predicate);

            foreach (var entity in entities)
            {
                Context.Entry<T>(entity).State = EntityState.Deleted;
            }
        }
        public void Attach(T entity)
        {
            Context.Set<T>().Attach(entity);
        }

        public void AttachRange(IEnumerable<T> entities)
        {
            foreach (var entity in entities)
            {
                Attach(entity);
            }
        }

        public void Detach(T entity)
        {
            Context.Entry<T>(entity).State = EntityState.Detached;
        }

        public void DetachRange(IEnumerable<T> entities)
        {
            foreach (var entity in entities)
            {
                Detach(entity);
            }
        }

        public void AttachAsModified(T entity)
        {
            Attach(entity);
            Update(entity);
        }
        
    }
}

我相信这个泛型类你们都应该能看明白,如果不明白可以@我。通过继承这个类,所有的Repository都具有了常见的方法,并且写的代码很少。

但是为什么自己建立的Repository不直接继承与EntityBaseRepository,而是中间非得插一层接口呢?因为我的Repository可能还需要其他的自定义方法,这些自定义方法需要提取到这个接口里面以便使用。

3.1 对Repository进行注册

在LegacyApplication.Web项目里App_Start/MyConfigurations/AutofacWebapiConfig.cs里面对Repository进行ioc注册,我使用的是AutoFac

using System.Reflection;
using System.Web.Http;
using Autofac;
using Autofac.Integration.WebApi;
using LegacyApplication.Database.Context;
using LegacyApplication.Database.Infrastructure;
using LegacyApplication.Repositories.Core;
using LegacyApplication.Repositories.HumanResources;
using LegacyApplication.Repositories.Work;
using LegacyApplication.Services.Core;
using LegacyApplication.Services.Work;

namespace LegacyStandalone.Web.MyConfigurations
{
    public class AutofacWebapiConfig
    {
        public static IContainer Container;
        public static void Initialize(HttpConfiguration config)
        {
            Initialize(config, RegisterServices(new ContainerBuilder()));
        }

        public static void Initialize(HttpConfiguration config, IContainer container)
        {
            config.DependencyResolver = new AutofacWebApiDependencyResolver(container);
        }

        private static IContainer RegisterServices(ContainerBuilder builder)
        {
            builder.RegisterApiControllers(Assembly.GetExecutingAssembly());
            
            //builder.RegisterType<CoreContext>()
            //       .As<DbContext>()
            //       .InstancePerRequest();

            builder.RegisterType<CoreContext>().As<IUnitOfWork>().InstancePerRequest();

            //Services
            builder.RegisterType<CommonService>().As<ICommonService>().InstancePerRequest();
            builder.RegisterType<InternalMailService>().As<IInternalMailService>().InstancePerRequest();

            //Core
            builder.RegisterType<UploadedFileRepository>().As<IUploadedFileRepository>().InstancePerRequest();

            //Work
            builder.RegisterType<InternalMailRepository>().As<IInternalMailRepository>().InstancePerRequest();
            builder.RegisterType<InternalMailToRepository>().As<IInternalMailToRepository>().InstancePerRequest();
            builder.RegisterType<InternalMailAttachmentRepository>().As<IInternalMailAttachmentRepository>().InstancePerRequest();
            builder.RegisterType<TodoRepository>().As<ITodoRepository>().InstancePerRequest();
            builder.RegisterType<ScheduleRepository>().As<IScheduleRepository>().InstancePerRequest();

            //HR
            builder.RegisterType<DepartmentRepository>().As<IDepartmentRepository>().InstancePerRequest();
            builder.RegisterType<EmployeeRepository>().As<IEmployeeRepository>().InstancePerRequest();
            builder.RegisterType<JobPostLevelRepository>().As<IJobPostLevelRepository>().InstancePerRequest();
            builder.RegisterType<JobPostRepository>().As<IJobPostRepository>().InstancePerRequest();
            builder.RegisterType<AdministrativeLevelRepository>().As<IAdministrativeLevelRepository>().InstancePerRequest();
            builder.RegisterType<TitleLevelRepository>().As<ITitleLevelRepository>().InstancePerRequest();
            builder.RegisterType<NationalityRepository>().As<INationalityRepository>().InstancePerRequest();
            
            Container = builder.Build();

            return Container;
        }
    }
}

在里面我们也可以看见我把CoreContext注册为IUnitOfWork。

4.建立ViewModel

ViewModel是最终和前台打交道的一层。所有的Model都是转化成ViewModel之后再传送到前台,所有前台提交过来的对象数据,大多是作为ViewModel传进来的。

下面举一个例子:

using System.ComponentModel.DataAnnotations;
using LegacyApplication.Shared.Features.Base;

namespace LegacyApplication.ViewModels.HumanResources
{
    public class NationalityViewModel : EntityBase
    {
        [Display(Name = "名称")]
        [Required(ErrorMessage = "{0}是必填项")]
        [StringLength(50, ErrorMessage = "{0}的长度不可超过{1}")]
        public string Name { get; set; }
    }
}

同样,它要继承EntityBase类。

同时,ViewModel里面应该加上属性验证的注解,例如DisplayName,StringLength,Range等等等等,加上注解的属性在ViewModel从前台传进来的时候会进行验证(详见Controller部分)。

4.1注册ViewModel和Model之间的映射

由于ViewModel和Model之间经常需要转化,如果手写代码的话,那就太多了。所以我这里采用了一个主流的.net库叫AutoMapper

因为映射有两个方法,所以每对需要注册两次,分别在DomainToViewModelMappingProfile.cs和ViewModelToDomainMappingProfile.cs里面:

using System.Linq;
using AutoMapper;
using LegacyApplication.Models.Core;
using LegacyApplication.Models.HumanResources;
using LegacyApplication.Models.Work;
using LegacyApplication.ViewModels.Core;
using LegacyApplication.ViewModels.HumanResources;
using LegacyStandalone.Web.Models;
using Microsoft.AspNet.Identity.EntityFramework;
using LegacyApplication.ViewModels.Work;

namespace LegacyStandalone.Web.MyConfigurations.Mapping
{
    public class DomainToViewModelMappingProfile : Profile
    {
        public override string ProfileName => "DomainToViewModelMappings";

        public DomainToViewModelMappingProfile()
        {
            CreateMap<ApplicationUser, UserViewModel>();
            CreateMap<IdentityRole, RoleViewModel>();
            CreateMap<IdentityUserRole, RoleViewModel>();

            CreateMap<UploadedFile, UploadedFileViewModel>();

            CreateMap<InternalMail, InternalMailViewModel>();
            CreateMap<InternalMailTo, InternalMailToViewModel>();
            CreateMap<InternalMailAttachment, InternalMailAttachmentViewModel>();
            CreateMap<InternalMail, SentMailViewModel>()
                .ForMember(dest => dest.AttachmentCount, opt => opt.MapFrom(ori => ori.Attachments.Count))
                .ForMember(dest => dest.HasAttachments, opt => opt.MapFrom(ori => ori.Attachments.Any()))
                .ForMember(dest => dest.ToCount, opt => opt.MapFrom(ori => ori.Tos.Count))
                .ForMember(dest => dest.AnyoneRead, opt => opt.MapFrom(ori => ori.Tos.Any(y => y.HasRead)))
                .ForMember(dest => dest.AllRead, opt => opt.MapFrom(ori => ori.Tos.All(y => y.HasRead)));
            CreateMap<Todo, TodoViewModel>();
            CreateMap<Schedule, ScheduleViewModel>();

            CreateMap<Department, DepartmentViewModel>()
                .ForMember(dest => dest.Parent, opt => opt.Ignore())
                .ForMember(dest => dest.Children, opt => opt.Ignore());

            CreateMap<Employee, EmployeeViewModel>();
            CreateMap<JobPostLevel, JobPostLevelViewModel>();
            CreateMap<JobPost, JobPostViewModel>();
            CreateMap<AdministrativeLevel, AdministrativeLevelViewModel>();
            CreateMap<TitleLevel, TitleLevelViewModel>();
            CreateMap<Nationality, NationalityViewModel>();
            
        }
    }
}
using AutoMapper;
using LegacyApplication.Models.Core;
using LegacyApplication.Models.HumanResources;
using LegacyApplication.Models.Work;
using LegacyApplication.ViewModels.Core;
using LegacyApplication.ViewModels.HumanResources;
using LegacyStandalone.Web.Models;
using Microsoft.AspNet.Identity.EntityFramework;
using LegacyApplication.ViewModels.Work;

namespace LegacyStandalone.Web.MyConfigurations.Mapping
{
    public class ViewModelToDomainMappingProfile : Profile
    {
        public override string ProfileName => "ViewModelToDomainMappings";

        public ViewModelToDomainMappingProfile()
        {
            CreateMap<UserViewModel, ApplicationUser>();
            CreateMap<RoleViewModel, IdentityRole>();
            CreateMap<RoleViewModel, IdentityUserRole>();

            CreateMap<UploadedFileViewModel, UploadedFile>();

            CreateMap<InternalMailViewModel, InternalMail>();
            CreateMap<InternalMailToViewModel, InternalMailTo>();
            CreateMap<InternalMailAttachmentViewModel, InternalMailAttachment>();
            CreateMap<TodoViewModel, Todo>();
            CreateMap<ScheduleViewModel, Schedule>();

            CreateMap<DepartmentViewModel, Department>()
                .ForMember(dest => dest.Parent, opt => opt.Ignore())
                .ForMember(dest => dest.Children, opt => opt.Ignore());
            CreateMap<EmployeeViewModel, Employee>();
            CreateMap<JobPostLevelViewModel, JobPostLevel>();
            CreateMap<JobPostViewModel, JobPost>();
            CreateMap<AdministrativeLevelViewModel, AdministrativeLevel>();
            CreateMap<TitleLevelViewModel, TitleLevel>();
            CreateMap<NationalityViewModel, Nationality>();
            
        }
    }
}

高级功能还是要参考AutoMapper的文档。

5.建立Controller

先上个例子:

using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Data.Entity;
using System.Threading.Tasks;
using System.Web.Http;
using AutoMapper;
using LegacyApplication.Database.Infrastructure;
using LegacyApplication.Models.HumanResources;
using LegacyApplication.Repositories.HumanResources;
using LegacyApplication.ViewModels.HumanResources;
using LegacyStandalone.Web.Controllers.Bases;
using LegacyApplication.Services.Core;

namespace LegacyStandalone.Web.Controllers.HumanResources
{
    [RoutePrefix("api/Nationality")]
    public class NationalityController : ApiControllerBase
    {
        private readonly INationalityRepository _nationalityRepository;
        public NationalityController(
            INationalityRepository nationalityRepository,
            ICommonService commonService,
            IUnitOfWork unitOfWork) : base(commonService, unitOfWork)
        {
            _nationalityRepository = nationalityRepository;
        }

        public async Task<IEnumerable<NationalityViewModel>> Get()
        {
            var models = await _nationalityRepository.All.ToListAsync();
            var viewModels = Mapper.Map<IEnumerable<Nationality>, IEnumerable<NationalityViewModel>>(models);
            return viewModels;
        }

        public async Task<IHttpActionResult> GetOne(int id)
        {
            var model = await _nationalityRepository.GetSingleAsync(id);
            if (model != null)
            {
                var viewModel = Mapper.Map<Nationality, NationalityViewModel>(model);
                return Ok(viewModel);
            }
            return NotFound();
        }

        public async Task<IHttpActionResult> Post([FromBody]NationalityViewModel viewModel)
        {
            if (!ModelState.IsValid)
            {
                return BadRequest(ModelState);
            }
            var newModel = Mapper.Map<NationalityViewModel, Nationality>(viewModel);
            newModel.CreateUser = newModel.UpdateUser = User.Identity.Name;
            _nationalityRepository.Add(newModel);
            await UnitOfWork.SaveChangesAsync();

            return RedirectToRoute("", new { controller = "Nationality", id = newModel.Id });
        }

        public async Task<IHttpActionResult> Put(int id, [FromBody]NationalityViewModel viewModel)
        {
            if (!ModelState.IsValid)
            {
                return BadRequest(ModelState);
            }

            viewModel.UpdateUser = User.Identity.Name;
            viewModel.UpdateTime = Now;
            viewModel.LastAction = "更新";
            var model = Mapper.Map<NationalityViewModel, Nationality>(viewModel);

            _nationalityRepository.AttachAsModified(model);

            await UnitOfWork.SaveChangesAsync();

            return Ok(viewModel);
        }

        public async Task<IHttpActionResult> Delete(int id)
        {
            var model = await _nationalityRepository.GetSingleAsync(id);
            if (model == null)
            {
                return NotFound();
            }
            _nationalityRepository.Delete(model);
            await UnitOfWork.SaveChangesAsync();
            return Ok();
        }
    }
}

这是比较标准的Controller,里面包含一个多笔查询,一个单笔查询和CUD方法。

所有的Repository,Service等都是通过依赖注入弄进来的。

所有的Controller需要继承ApiControllerBase,所有Controller公用的方法、属性(property)等都应该放在ApiControllerBase里面,其代码如下:

namespace LegacyStandalone.Web.Controllers.Bases
{
    public abstract class ApiControllerBase : ApiController
    {
        protected readonly ICommonService CommonService;
        protected readonly IUnitOfWork UnitOfWork;
        protected readonly IDepartmentRepository DepartmentRepository;
        protected readonly IUploadedFileRepository UploadedFileRepository;

        protected ApiControllerBase(
            ICommonService commonService,
            IUnitOfWork untOfWork)
        {
            CommonService = commonService;
            UnitOfWork = untOfWork;
            DepartmentRepository = commonService.DepartmentRepository;
            UploadedFileRepository = commonService.UploadedFileRepository;
        }

        #region Current Information

        protected DateTime Now => DateTime.Now;
        protected string UserName => User.Identity.Name;

        protected ApplicationUserManager UserManager => Request.GetOwinContext().GetUserManager<ApplicationUserManager>();

        [NonAction]
        protected async Task<ApplicationUser> GetMeAsync()
        {
            var me = await UserManager.FindByNameAsync(UserName);
            return me;
        }

        [NonAction]
        protected async Task<Department> GetMyDepartmentEvenNull()
        {
            var department = await DepartmentRepository.GetSingleAsync(x => x.Employees.Any(y => y.No == UserName));
            return department;
        }

        [NonAction]
        protected async Task<Department> GetMyDepartmentNotNull()
        {
            var department = await GetMyDepartmentEvenNull();
            if (department == null)
            {
                throw new Exception("您不属于任何单位/部门");
            }
            return department;
        }

        #endregion

        #region Upload

        [NonAction]
        public virtual async Task<IHttpActionResult> Upload()
        {
            var root = GetUploadDirectory(DateTime.Now.ToString("yyyyMM"));
            var result = await UploadFiles(root);
            return Ok(result);
        }

        [NonAction]
        public virtual async Task<IHttpActionResult> GetFileAsync(int fileId)
        {
            var model = await UploadedFileRepository.GetSingleAsync(x => x.Id == fileId);
            if (model != null)
            {
                return new FileActionResult(model);
            }
            return null;
        }

        [NonAction]
        public virtual IHttpActionResult GetFileByPath(string path)
        {
            return new FileActionResult(path);
        }

        [NonAction]
        protected string GetUploadDirectory(params string[] subDirectories)
        {
#if DEBUG
            var root = HttpContext.Current.Server.MapPath("~/App_Data/Upload");
#else
            var root = AppSettings.UploadDirectory;
#endif
            if (subDirectories != null && subDirectories.Length > 0)
            {
                foreach (var t in subDirectories)
                {
                    root = Path.Combine(root, t);
                }
            }
            if (!Directory.Exists(root))
            {
                Directory.CreateDirectory(root);
            }
            return root;
        }

        [NonAction]
        protected async Task<List<UploadedFile>> UploadFiles(string root)
        {
            var list = await UploadFilesAsync(root);
            var models = Mapper.Map<List<UploadedFileViewModel>, List<UploadedFile>>(list).ToList();
            foreach (var model in models)
            {
                UploadedFileRepository.Add(model);
            }
            await UnitOfWork.SaveChangesAsync();
            return models;
        }

        [NonAction]
        private async Task<List<UploadedFileViewModel>> UploadFilesAsync(string root)
        {
            if (!Request.Content.IsMimeMultipartContent())
            {
                throw new HttpResponseException(HttpStatusCode.UnsupportedMediaType);
            }
            var provider = new MultipartFormDataStreamProvider(root);
            var count = HttpContext.Current.Request.Files.Count;
            var files = new List<HttpPostedFile>(count);
            for (var i = 0; i < count; i++)
            {
                files.Add(HttpContext.Current.Request.Files[i]);
            }
            await Request.Content.ReadAsMultipartAsync(provider);
            var list = new List<UploadedFileViewModel>();
            var now = DateTime.Now;
            foreach (var file in provider.FileData)
            {
                var temp = file.Headers.ContentDisposition.FileName;
                var length = temp.Length;
                var lastSlashIndex = temp.LastIndexOf(@"\", StringComparison.Ordinal);
                var fileName = temp.Substring(lastSlashIndex + 2, length - lastSlashIndex - 3);
                var fileInfo = files.SingleOrDefault(x => x.FileName == fileName);
                long size = 0;
                if (fileInfo != null)
                {
                    size = fileInfo.ContentLength;
                }
                var newFile = new UploadedFileViewModel
                {
                    FileName = fileName,
                    Path = file.LocalFileName,
                    Size = size,
                    Deleted = false
                };
                var userName = string.IsNullOrEmpty(User.Identity?.Name)
                    ? "anonymous"
                    : User.Identity.Name;
                newFile.CreateUser = newFile.UpdateUser = userName;
                newFile.CreateTime = newFile.UpdateTime = now;
                newFile.LastAction = "上传";
                list.Add(newFile);
            }
            return list;
        }

        #endregion

        protected override void Dispose(bool disposing)
        {
            base.Dispose(disposing);
            UserManager?.Dispose();
            UnitOfWork?.Dispose();
        }
    }

    #region Upload Model

    internal class FileActionResult : IHttpActionResult
    {
        private readonly bool _isInline = false;
        private readonly string _contentType;
        public FileActionResult(UploadedFile fileModel, string contentType, bool isInline = false)
        {
            UploadedFile = fileModel;
            _contentType = contentType;
            _isInline = isInline;
        }

        public FileActionResult(UploadedFile fileModel)
        {
            UploadedFile = fileModel;
        }

        public FileActionResult(string path)
        {
            UploadedFile = new UploadedFile
            {
                Path = path
            };
        }

        private UploadedFile UploadedFile { get; set; }

        public Task<HttpResponseMessage> ExecuteAsync(CancellationToken cancellationToken)
        {
            FileStream file;
            try
            {
                file = File.OpenRead(UploadedFile.Path);
            }
            catch (DirectoryNotFoundException)
            {
                return Task.FromResult(new HttpResponseMessage(HttpStatusCode.NotFound));
            }
            catch (FileNotFoundException)
            {
                return Task.FromResult(new HttpResponseMessage(HttpStatusCode.NotFound));
            }

            var response = new HttpResponseMessage
            {
                Content = new StreamContent(file)
            };
            var name = UploadedFile.FileName ?? file.Name;
            var last = name.LastIndexOf("\\", StringComparison.Ordinal);
            if (last > -1)
            {
                var length = name.Length - last - 1;
                name = name.Substring(last + 1, length);
            }
            if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(_contentType))
            {
                response.Content.Headers.ContentType = MediaTypeHeaderValue.Parse(_contentType);
            }
            response.Content.Headers.ContentDisposition =
                new ContentDispositionHeaderValue(_isInline ? DispositionTypeNames.Inline : DispositionTypeNames.Attachment)
                {
                    FileName = HttpUtility.UrlEncode(name, Encoding.UTF8)
                };

            return Task.FromResult(response);
        }
    }
    #endregion
}

这个基类里面可以有很多东西,目前,它可以获取当前用户名,当前时间,当前用户(ApplicationUser),当前登陆人的部门,文件上传下载等。

这个基类保证的通用方法的可扩展性和复用性,其他例如EntityBase,EntityBaseRepository等等也都是这个道理。

注意,前面在Repository里面讲过,我们不在Repository里面做提交动作。

所以所有的提交动作都在Controller里面进行,通常所有挂起的更改只需要一次提交即可,毕竟Unit of Work模式。

5.1获取枚举的Controller

所有的枚举都应该放在LegacyApplication.Shared/ByModule/xxx模块/Enums下。

然后前台通过访问"api/Shared"(SharedController.cs)获取该模块下(或者整个项目)所有的枚举。

using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Linq;
using System.Web.Http;

namespace LegacyStandalone.Web.Controllers.Bases
{
    [RoutePrefix("api/Shared")]
    public class SharedController : ApiController
    {
        [HttpGet]
        [Route("Enums/{moduleName?}")]
        public IHttpActionResult GetEnums(string moduleName = null)
        {
            var exp = AppDomain.CurrentDomain.GetAssemblies()
                .SelectMany(t => t.GetTypes())
                .Where(t => t.IsEnum);
            if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(moduleName))
            {
                exp = exp.Where(x => x.Namespace == $"LegacyApplication.Shared.ByModule.{moduleName}.Enums");
            }
            var enumTypes = exp;
            var result = new Dictionary<string, Dictionary<string, int>>();
            foreach (var enumType in enumTypes)
            {
                result[enumType.Name] = Enum.GetValues(enumType).Cast<int>().ToDictionary(e => Enum.GetName(enumType, e), e => e);
            }
            return Ok(result);
        }

        [HttpGet]
        [Route("EnumsList/{moduleName?}")]
        public IHttpActionResult GetEnumsList(string moduleName = null)
        {
            var exp = AppDomain.CurrentDomain.GetAssemblies()
                .SelectMany(t => t.GetTypes())
                .Where(t => t.IsEnum);
            if (!string.IsNullOrEmpty(moduleName))
            {
                exp = exp.Where(x => x.Namespace == $"LegacyApplication.Shared.ByModule.{moduleName}.Enums");
            }
            var enumTypes = exp;
            var result = new Dictionary<string, List<KeyValuePair<string, int>>>();
            foreach (var e in enumTypes)
            {
                var names = Enum.GetNames(e);
                var values = Enum.GetValues(e).Cast<int>().ToArray();
                var count = names.Count();
                var list = new List<KeyValuePair<string, int>>(count);
                for (var i = 0; i < count; i++)
                {
                    list.Add(new KeyValuePair<string, int> (names[i], values[i]));
                }
                result.Add(e.Name, list);
            }
            return Ok(result);
        }
    }
}

6.建立Services

注意Controller里面的CommonService就处在Service层。并不是所有的Model/Repository都有相应的Service层。

通常我在如下情况会建立Service:

a.需要写与数据库操作无关的可复用逻辑方法。

b.需要写多个Repository参与的可复用的逻辑方法或引用。

我的CommonService就是b这个类型,其代码如下:

using LegacyApplication.Repositories.Core;
using LegacyApplication.Repositories.HumanResources;
using System;
using System.Collections.Generic;
using System.Text;

namespace LegacyApplication.Services.Core
{
    public interface ICommonService
    {
        IUploadedFileRepository UploadedFileRepository { get; }
        IDepartmentRepository DepartmentRepository { get; }
    }

    public class CommonService : ICommonService
    {
        public IUploadedFileRepository UploadedFileRepository { get; }
        public IDepartmentRepository DepartmentRepository { get; }

        public CommonService(
            IUploadedFileRepository uploadedFileRepository,
            IDepartmentRepository departmentRepository)
        {
            UploadedFileRepository = uploadedFileRepository;
        }
    }
}

因为我每个Controller都需要注入这几个Repository,所以如果不写service的话,每个Controller的Constructor都需要多几行代码,所以我把他们封装进了一个Service,然后注入这个Service就行。

Service也需要进行IOC注册。

7.其他

a.使用自行实现的异常处理和异常记录类:

 GlobalConfiguration.Configuration.Services.Add(typeof(IExceptionLogger), new MyExceptionLogger());
            GlobalConfiguration.Configuration.Services.Replace(typeof(IExceptionHandler), new MyExceptionHandler());

b.启用了Cors

c.所有的Controller默认是需要验证的

d.采用Token Bearer验证方式

e.默认建立一个用户,在DatabaseInitializer.cs里面可以看见用户名密码。

f.EF采用Code First,需要手动进行迁移。(我认为这样最好)

g.内置把汉字转为拼音首字母的工具,PinyinTools

h.所有上传文件的Model需要实现IFileEntity接口,参考代码中的例子。

i.所有后台翻页返回的结果应该是使用PaginatedItemsViewModel。

里面有很多例子,请参考。

注意:项目启动后显示错误页,因为我把Home页去掉了。请访问/Help页查看API列表。

过些日子可以考虑加入Swagger。

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