linux 命令中英文对照,收集

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Is Linux CLI case-sensitive?

The answer is, yes. If you try to run LS instead of ls, it would display an error. There are some advantages of using a case-sensitive command line. The computers that existed in earlier decades weren’t fast enough, it was favorable to compare identical strings instead of normalizing the upper and lower cases. This continued and became a habit, even though today’s machines are way faster and efficient. It also gives people the flexibility over the choice of the command name.

A-Z List of Linux Commands

So, In this post, I have tried to compile a list of commands used in various Linux distributions. This has been possible with inputs from Ubuntu manual, SS64, and Linux Dev Center. As you might be knowing, some or many of these commands may not work on your distribution. Running those commands may require you to install additional packages or it’s just that the commands aren’t meant to work on your system.

The descriptions of these Linux commands are based on their manual pages. To access the man page:

man command_name

For eg: man cat

If you find any discrepancy, please feel free to contact for any correction.

Linux Commands – A

Command

Description

accept

Accept or Reject jobs to a destination, such as a printer.

access

Check a user’s RWX permission for a file.

aclocal

GNU autoconf too

aconnect

ALSA sequencer connection manager.

acpi

Show information about the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.

acpi_available

Check if ACPI functionality exists on the system.

acpid

Informs user-space programs about ACPI events.

addr2line

Used to convert addresses into file names and line numbers.

addresses

Formats for internet mail addresses.

agetty

An alternative Linux Getty

alias

Create an alias for Linux commands

alsactl

Access advanced controls for ALSA soundcard driver.

amidi

Perform read/write operation for ALSA RawMIDI ports.

amixer

Access CLI-based mixer for ALSA soundcard driver.

anacron

Used to run commands periodically.

aplay

Sound recorder and player for CLI.

aplaymidi

CLI utility used to play MIDI files.

apm

Show Advanced Power Management (APM) hardware info on older systems.

apmd

Used to handle events reported by APM BIOS drivers.

apropos

Shows the list of all man pages containing a specific keyword

apt

Advanced Package Tool, a package management system for Debian and derivatives.

apt-get

Command-line utility to install/remove/update packages based on APT system.

aptitude

Another utility to add/remove/upgrade packages based on the APT system.

ar

A utility to create/modify/extract from archives.

arch

Display print machine hardware name.

arecord

Just like aplay, it’s a sound recorder and player for ALSA soundcard driver.

arecordmidi

Record standard MIDI files.

arp

Used to make changes to the system’s ARP cache

as

A portable GNU assembler.

aspell

An interactive spell checker utility.

at

Used to schedule command execution at specified date & time, reading commands from an input file.

atd

Used to execute jobs queued by the at command.

atq

List a user’s pending jobs for the at command.

atrm

Delete jobs queued by the at command.

audiosend

Used to send an audio recording as an email.

aumix

An audio mixer utility.

autoconf

Generate configuration scripts from a TEMPLATE-FILE and send the output to standard output.

autoheader

Create a template header for configure.

automake

Creates GNU standards-compliant Makefiles from template files

autoreconf

Update generated configuration files.

autoscan

Generate a preliminary configure.in

autoupdate

Update a configure.in file to newer autoconf.

awk

Used to find and replace text in a file(s).

Linux Commands – B

Command

Description

badblocks

Search a disk partition for bad sectors.

banner

Used to print characters as a poster.

basename

Used to display filenames with directoy or suffix.

bash

GNU Bourne-Again Shell.

batch

Used to run commands entered on a standard input.

bc

Access the GNU bc calculator utility.

bg

Send processes to the background.

biff

Notify about incoming mail and sender’s name on a system running comsat server.

bind

Used to attach a name to a socket.

bison

A GNU parser generator, compatible with yacc.

break

Used to exit from a loop (eg: for, while, select).

builtin

Used to run shell builtin commands, make custom functions for commands extending their functionality.

bzcmp

Used to call the cmp program for bzip2 compressed files.

bzdiff

Used to call the diff program for bzip2 compressed files.

bzgrep

Used to call grep for bzip2 compressed files.

bzip2

A block-sorting file compressor used to shrink given files.

bzless

Used to apply ‘less’ (show info one page at a time) to bzip2 compressed files.

bzmore

Used to apply ‘more’ (an inferior version of less) to bzip2 compressed files.

Linux Commands – C

Command

Description

cal

Show calendar.

cardctl

Used to control PCMCIA sockets and select configuration schemes.

cardmgr

Keeps an eye on the added/removes sockets for PCMCIA devices.

case

Execute a command conditionally by matching a pattern.

cat

Used to concatenate files and print them on the screen.

cc

GNU C and C++ compiler.

cd

Used to change directory.

cdda2wav

Used to rip a CD-ROM and make WAV file.

cdparanoia

Record audio from CD more reliably using data-verification algorithms.

cdrdao

Used to write all the content specified to a file to a CD all at once.

cdrecord

Used to record data or audio compact discs.

cfdisk

Show or change the disk partition table.

chage

Used to change user password information.

chattr

Used to change file attributes.

chdir

Used to change active working directory.

chfn

Used to change real user name and information.

chgrp

Used to change group ownership for file.

chkconfig

Manage execution of runlevel services.

chmod

Change access permission for a file(s).

chown

Change the owner or group for a file.

chpasswd

Update password in a batch.

chroot

Run a command with root privileges.

chrt

Alter process attributed in real-time.

chsh

Switch login shell.

chvt

Change foreground virtual terminal.

cksum

Perform a CRC checksum for files.

clear

Used to clear the terminal window.

cmp

Compare two files (byte by byte).

col

Filter reverse (and half-reverse) line feeds from the input.

colcrt

Filter nroff output for CRT previewing.

colrm

Remove columns from the lines of a file.

column

A utility that formats its input into columns.

comm

Used to compare two sorted files line by line.

command

Used to execute a command with arguments ignoring shell function named command.

compress

Used to compress one or more file(s) and replacing the originals ones.

continue

Resume the next iteration of a loop.

cp

Copy contents of one file to another.

cpio

Copy files from and to archives.

cpp

GNU C language processor.

cron

A daemon to execute scheduled commands.

crond

Same work as cron.

crontab

Manage crontab files (containing schedules commands) for users.

csplit

Split a file into sections on the basis of context lines.

ctags

Make a list of functions and macro names defined in a programming source file.

cupsd

A scheduler for CUPS.

curl

Used to transfer data from or to a server using supported protocols.

cut

Used to remove sections from each line of a file(s).

cvs

Concurrent Versions System. Used to track file versions, allow storage/retrieval of previous versions, and enables multiple users to work on the same file.

Linux Commands – D

Command

Description

date

Show system date and time.

dc

Desk calculator utility.

dd

Used to convert and copy a file, create disk clone, write disk headers, etc.

ddrescue

Used to recover data from a crashed partition.

deallocvt

Deallocates kernel memory for unused virtual consoles.

debugfs

File system debugger for ext2/ext3/ext4

declare

Used to declare variables and assign attributes.

depmod

Generate modules.dep and map files.

devdump

Interactively displays the contents of device or file system ISO.

df

Show disk usage.

diff

Used to compare files line by line.

diff3

Compare three files line by line.

dig

Domain Information Groper, a DNS lookup utility.

dir

List the contents of a directory.

dircolors

Set colors for ‘ls’ by altering the LS_COLORS environment variable.

dirname

Display pathname after removing the last slash and characters thereafter.

dirs

Show the list of remembered directories.

disable

Restrict access to a printer.

dlpsh

Interactive Desktop Link Protocol (DLP) shell for PalmOS.

dmesg

Examine and control the kernel ring buffer.

dnsdomainname

Show the DNS domain name of the system.

dnssec-keygen

Generate encrypted Secure DNS keys for a given domain name.

dnssec-makekeyset

Produce domain key set from one or more DNS security keys generated by dnssec-keygen.

dnssec-signkey

Sign a secure DNS keyset with key signatures specified in the list of key-identifiers.

dnssec-signzone

Sign a secure DNS zonefile with the signatures in the specified list of key-identifiers.

doexec

Used to run an executable with an arbitrary argv list provided.

domainname

Show or set the name of current NIS (Network Information Services) domain.

dosfsck

Check and repair MS-DOS file systems.

du

Show disk usage summary for a file(s).

dump

Backup utility for ext2/ext3 file systems.

dumpe2fs

Dump ext2/ext3/ext4 file systems.

dumpkeys

Show information about the keyboard driver’s current translation tables.

Linux Commands – E

Command

Desription

e2fsck

Used to check ext2/ext3/ext4 file systems.

e2image

Store important ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem metadata to a file.

e2label

Show or change the label on an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem.

echo

Send input string(s) to standard output i.e. display text on the screen.

ed

GNU Ed – a line-oriented text editor.

edquota

Used to edit filesystem quotas using a text editor, such as vi.

egrep

Search and display text matching a pattern.

eject

Eject removable media.

elvtune

Used to set latency in the elevator algorithm used to schedule I/O activities for specified block devices.

emacs

Emacs text editor command line utility.

enable

Used to enable/disable shell builtin commands.

env

Run a command in a modified environment. Show/set/delete environment variables.

envsubst

Substitute environment variable values in shell format strings.

esd

Start the Enlightenment Sound Daemon (EsounD or esd). Enables multiple applications to access the same audio device simultaneously.

esd-config

Manage EsounD configuration.

esdcat

Use EsounD to send audio data from a specified file.

esdctl

EsounD control program.

esddsp

Used to reroute non-esd audio data to esd and control all the audio using esd.

esdmon

Used to copy the sound being sent to a device. Also, send it to a secondary device.

esdplay

Use EsounD system to play a file.

esdrec

Use EsounD to record audio to a specified file.

esdsample

Sample audio using esd.

etags

Used to create a list of functions and macros from a programming source file. These etags are used by emacs. For vi, use ctags.

ethtool

Used to query and control network driver and hardware settings.

eval

Used to evaluate multiple commands or arguments are once.

ex

Interactive command

exec

An interactive line-based text editor.

exit

Exit from the terminal.

expand

Convert tabs into spaces in a given file and show the output.

expect

An extension to the Tcl script, it’s used to automate interaction with other applications based on their expected output.

export

Used to set an environment variable.

expr

Evaluate expressions and display them on standard output.

Linux Commands – F

Command

Description

factor

Display prime factors of specified integer numbers.

false

Do nothing, unsuccessfully. Exit with a status code indicating failure.

fc-cache

Make font information cache after scanning the directories.

fc-list

Show the list of available fonts.

fdformat

Do a low-level format on a floppy disk.

fdisk

Make changes to the disk partition table.

fetchmail

Fetch mail from mail servers and forward it to the local mail delivery system.

fg

Used to send a job to the foreground.

fgconsole

Display the number of the current virtual console.

fgrep

Display lines from a file(s) that match a specified string. A variant of grep.

file

Determine file type for a file.

find

Do a file search in a directory hierarchy.

finger

Display user data including the information listed in .plan and *.project *in each user’s home directory.

fingerd

Provides a network interface for the finger program.

flex

Generate programs that perform pattern-matching on text.

fmt

Used to convert text to a specified width by filling lines and removing new lines, displaying the output.

fold

Wrap input line to fit in a specified width.

for

Expand words and run commands for each one in the resultant list.

formail

Used to filter standard input into mailbox format.

format

Used to format disks.

free

Show free and used system memory.

fsck

Check and repair a Linux file system

ftp

File transfer protocol user interface.

ftpd

FTP server process.

function

Used to define function macros.

fuser

Find and kill a process accessing a file.

Linux Commands – G

Command

Description

g++

Run the g++ compiler.

gawk

Used for pattern scanning and language processing. A GNU implementation of AWK language.

gcc

A C and C++ compiler by GNU.

gdb

A utility to debug programs and know about where it crashes.

getent

Shows entries from Name Service Switch Libraries for specified keys.

getkeycodes

Displays the kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table.

getopts

A utility to parse positional parameters.

gpasswd

Allows an administrator to change group passwords.

gpg

Enables encryption and signing services as per the OpenPGP standard.

gpgsplit

Used to split an OpenPGP message into packets.

gpgv

Used to verify OpenPGP signatures.

gpm

It enables cut and paste functionality and a mouse server for the Linux console.

gprof

Shows call graph profile data.

grep

Searches input files for a given pattern and displays the relevant lines.

groff

Serves as the front-end of the groff document formatting system.

groffer

Displays groff files and man pages.

groupadd

Used to add a new user group.

groupdel

Used to remove a user group.

groupmod

Used to modify a group definition.

groups

Show the group(s) to which a user belongs.

grpck

Verifies the integrity of group files.

grpconv

Creates a gshadow file from a group or an already existing gshadow.

gs

Invokes Ghostscript, and interpreter and previewer for Adobe’s PostScript and PDF languages.

gunzip

A utility to compress/expand files.

gzexe

Used compress executable files in place and have them automatically uncompress and run at a later stage.

gzip

Same as gzip.

Linux Commands – H

Command

Description

halt

Command used to half the machine.

hash

Shows the path for the commands executed in the shell.

hdparm

Show/configure parameters for SATA/IDE devices.

head

Shows first 10 lines from each specified file.

help

Display’s help for a built-in command.

hexdump

Shows specified file output in hexadecimal, octal, decimal, or ASCII format.

history

Shows the command history.

host

A utility to perform DNS lookups.

hostid

Shows host’s numeric ID in hexadecimal format.

hostname

Display/set the hostname of the system.

htdigest

Manage the user authentication file used by the Apache web server.

htop

An interactive process viewer for the command line.

hwclock

Show or configure the system’s hardware clock.

Linux Commands – I

Command

Description

iconv

Convert text file from one encoding to another.

id

Show user and group information for a specified user.

if

Execute a command conditionally.

ifconfig

Used to configure network interfaces.

ifdown

Stops a network interface.

ifup

Starts a network interface.

imapd

An IMAP (Interactive Mail Access Protocol) server daemon.

import

Capture an X server screen and saves it as an image.

inetd

Extended internet services daemon, it starts the programs that provide internet services.

info

Used to read the documentation in Info format.

init

Systemd system and service manager.

insmod

A program that inserts a module into the Linux kernel.

install

Used to copy files to specified locations and set attributions during the install process.

iostat

Shows statistics for CPU, I/O devices, partitions, network filesystems.

ip

Display/manipulate routing, devices, policy, routing and tunnels.

ipcrm

Used to remove System V interprocess communication (IPC) objects and associated data structures.

ipcs

Show information on IPC facilities for which calling process has read access.

iptables

Administration tool for IPv4 packet filtering and NAT.

iptables-restore

Used to restore IP tables from data specified in the input or a file.

iptables-save

Used to dump IP table contents to standard output.

isodump

A utility that shows the content iso9660 images to verify the integrity of directory contents.

isoinfo

A utility to perform directory like listings of iso9660 images.

isosize

Show the length of an iso9660 filesystem contained in a specified file.

isovfy

Verifies the integrity of an iso9660 image.

ispell

A CLI-based spell-check utility.

Linux Commands – J

Command

Description

jobs

Show the list of active jobs and their status.

join

For each pair of input lines, join them using a command field and display on standard output.

Linux Commands – K

Command

Description

kbd_mode

Set a keyboard mode. Without arguments, shows the current keyboard mode.

kbdrate

Reset keyboard repeat rate and delay time.

kill

Send a kill (termination) signal to one more processes.

killall

Kills a process(es) running a specified command.

killall5

A SystemV killall command. Kills all the processes excluding the ones which it depends on.

klogd

Control and prioritize the kernel messages to be displayed on the console, and log them through syslogd.

kudzu

Used to detect new and enhanced hardware by comparing it with existing database. Only for RHEL and derivates.

Linux Commands – L

Command

Description

last

Shows a list of recent logins on the system by fetching data from /var/log/wtmp file.

lastb

Shows the list of bad login attempts by fetching data from */var/log/btmp *file.

lastlog

Displays information about the most recent login of all users or a specified user.

ld

The Unix linker, it combines archives and object files. It then puts them into one output file, resolving external references.

ldconfig

Configure dynamic linker run-time bindings.

ldd

Shows shared object dependencies.

less

Displays contents of a file one page at a time. It’s advanced than morecommand.

lesskey

Used to specify key bindings for less command.

let

Used to perform integer artithmetic on shell variables.

lftp

An FTP utility with extra features.

lftpget

Uses lftop to retrieve HTTP, FTP, and other protocol URLs supported by lftp.

link

Create links between two files. Similar to ln command.

ln

Create links between files. Links can be hard (two names for the same file) or soft (a shortcut of the first file).

loadkeys

Load keyboard translation tables.

local

Used to create function variables.

locale

Shows information about current or all locales.

locate

Used to find files by their name.

lockfile

Create semaphore file(s) which can be used to limit access to a file.

logger

Make entries in the system log.

login

Create a new session on the system.

logname

Shows the login name of the current user.

logout

Performs the logout operation by making changes to the utmp and wtmp files.

logrotate

Used for automatic rotation, compression, removal, and mailing of system log files.

look

Shows any lines in a file containing a given string in the beginning.

losetup

Set up and control loop devices.

lpadmin

Used to configure printer and class queues provided by CUPS (Common UNIX Printing System).

lpc

Line printer control program, it provides limited control over CUPS printer and class queues.

lpinfo

Shows the list of avaiable devices and drivers known to the CUPS server.

lpmove

Move on or more printing jobs to a new destination.

lpq

Shows current print queue status for a specified printer.

lpr

Used to submit files for printing.

lprint

Used to print a file.

lprintd

Used to abort a print job.

lprintq

List the print queue.

lprm

Cancel print jobs.

lpstat

Displays status information about current classes, jobs, and printers.

ls

Shows the list of files in the current directory.

lsattr

Shows file attributes on a Linux ext2 file system.

lsblk

Lists information about all available or the specified block devices.

lsmod

Show the status of modules in the Linux kernel.

lsof

List open files.

lspci

List all PCI devices.

lsusb

List USB devices.

Linux Commands – M

Command

Description

m4

Macro processor.

mail

Utility to compose, receive, send, forward, and reply to emails.

mailq

Shows to list all emails queued for delivery (sendmail queue).

mailstats

Shows current mail statistics.

mailto

Used to send mail with multimedia content in MIME format.

make

Utility to maintain groups of programs, recompile them if needed.

makedbm

Creates an NIS (Network Information Services) database map.

makemap

Creates database maps used by the keyed map lookups in sendmail.

man

Shows manual pages for Linux commands.

manpath

Determine search path for manual pages.

mattrib

Used to change MS-DOS file attribute flags.

mbadblocks

Checks MD-DOS filesystems for bad blocks.

mcat

Dump raw disk image.

mcd

Used to change MS-DOS directory.

mcopy

Used to copy MS-DOS files from or to Unix.

md5sum

Used to check MD5 checksum for a file.

mdel, mdeltree

Used to delete MS-DOS file. mdeltree recursively deletes MS-DOS directory and its contents.

mdir

Used to display an MS-DOS directory.

mdu

Used to display the amount of space occupied by an MS-DOS directory.

merge

Three-way file merge. Includes all changes from file2 and file3 to file1.

mesg

Allow/disallow osends to sedn write messages to your terminal.

metamail

For sending and showing rich text or multimedia email using MIME typing metadata.

metasend

An interface for sending non-text mail.

mformat

Used to add an MS-DOS filesystem to a low-level formatted floppy disk.

mimencode

Translate to/from MIME multimedia mail encoding formats.

minfo

Display parameters of an MS-DOS filesystem.

mkdir

Used to create directories.

mkdosfs

Used to create an MS-DOS filesystem under Linux.

mke2fs

Used create an ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystem.

mkfifo

Used to create named pipes (FIFOs) with the given names.

mkfs

Used to build a Linux filesystem on a hard disk partition.

mkfs.ext3

Same as mke2fs, create an ext3 Linux filesystem.

mkisofs

Used to create an ISO9660/JOLIET/HFS hybrid filesystem.

mklost+found

Create a lost+found directory on a mounted ext2 filesystem.

mkmanifest

Makes a list of file names and their DOS 8.3 equivalent.

mknod

Create a FIFO, block (buffered) special file, character (unbuffered) special file with the specified name.

mkraid

Used to setup RAID device arrays.

mkswap

Set up a Linux swap area.

mktemp

Create a temporary file or directory.

mlabel

Make an MD-DOS volume label.

mmd

Make an MS-DOS subdirectory.

mmount

Mount an MS-DOS disk.

mmove

Move or rename an MS-DOS file or subdirectory.

mmv

Mass move and rename files.

modinfo

Show information about a Linux kernel module.

modprobe

Add or remove modules from the Linux kernel.

more

Display content of a file page-by-page.

most

Browse or page through a text file.

mount

Mount a filesystem.

mountd

NFS mount daemon.

mpartition

Partition an MS-DOS disk.

mpg123

Command-line mp3 player.

mpg321

Similar to mpg123.

mrd

Remove an MS-DOS subdirectory.

mren

Rename an existing MS-DOS file.

mshowfat

Show FTA clusters allocated to a file.

mt

Control magnetic tape drive operation.

mtools

Utilities to access MS-DOS disks.

mtoolstest

Tests and displays the mtools configuration files.

mtr

A network diagnostic tool.

mtype

Display contents of an MS-DOS file.

mv

Move/rename files or directories.

mzip

Change protection mode and eject disk on Zip/Jaz drive.

Linux Commands – N

Command

Description

named

Internet domain name server.

namei

Follow a pathname until a terminal point is found.

nameif

Name network interfaces based on MAC addresses.

nc

Netcat utility. Arbitrary TCP and UDP connections and listens.

netstat

Show network information.

newaliases

Rebuilds mail alias database.

newgrp

Log-in to a new group.

newusers

Update/create new users in batch.

nfsd

Special filesystem for controlling Linux NFS server.

nfsstat

List NFS statistics.

nice

Run a program with modified scheduling priority.

nl

Show numbered line while displaying the contents of a file.

nm

List symbols from object files.

nohup

Run a command immune to hangups.

notify-send

A program to send desktop notifications.

nslookup

Used performs DNS queries. Read this article for more info.

nsupdate

Dynamic DNS update utility.

Linux Commands – O

Command

Description

objcopy

Copy and translate object files.

objdump

Display information from object files.

od

Dump files in octal and other formats.

op

Operator access, allows system administrators to grant users access to certain root operations that require superuser privileges.

open

Open a file using its default application.

openvt

Start a program on a new virtual terminal (VT).

Linux Commands – P

Command

Description

passwd

Change user password.

paste

Merge lines of files. Write to standard output, TAB-separated lines consisting of sqentially correspnding lines from each file.

patch

Apply a patchfile (containing differences listing by diff program) to an original file.

pathchk

Check if file names are valid or portable.

perl

Perl 5 language interpreter.

pgrep

List process IDs matching the specified criteria among all the running processes.

pidof

Find process ID of a running program.

ping

Send ICMP ECHO_REQUEST to network hosts.

pinky

Lightweight finger.

pkill

Send kill signal to processes based on name and other attributes.

pmap

Report memory map of a process.

popd

Removes directory on the head of the directory stack and takes you to the new directory on the head.

portmap

Converts RPC program numbers to IP port numbers.

poweroff

Shuts down the machine.

pppd

Point-to-point protocol daemon.

pr

Convert (column or paginate) text files for printing.

praliases

Prints the current system mail aliases.

printcap

Printer capability database.

printenv

Show values of all or specified environment variables.

printf

Show arguments formatted according to a specified format.

ps

Report a snapshot of the current processes.

ptx

Produce a permuted index of file contents.

pushd

Appends a given directory name to the head of the stack and then cd to the given directory.

pv

Monitor progress of data through a pipe.

pwck

Verify integrity of password files.

pwconv

Creates shadow from passwd and an optionally existing shadow.

pwd

Show current directory.

python

Linux Commands – Q

Command

Description

quota

Shows disk usage, and space limits for a user or group. Without arguments, only shows user quotas.

quotacheck

Used to scan a file system for disk usage.

quotactl

Make changes to disk quotas.

quotaoff

Enable enforcement of filesystem quotas.

quotaon

Disable enforcement of filesystem quotas.

quotastats

Shows the report of quota system statistics gathered from the kernel.

Linux Commands – R

Command

Description

raidstart

Start/stop RAID devices.

ram

RAM disk device used to access the RAM disk in raw mode.

ramsize

Show usage information for the RAM disk.

ranlib

Generate index to the contents of an archive and store it in the archive.

rar

Create and manage RAR file in Linux.

rarpd

Respond to Reverse Address Resoultion Protocol (RARP) requests.

rcp

Remote copy command to copy files between remote computers.

rdate

Set system date and time by fetching information from a remote machine.

rdev

Set or query RAM disk size, image root device, or video mode.

rdist

Remote file distribution client, maintains identical file copies over multiple hosts.

rdistd

Start the rdist server.

read

Read from a file descriptor.

readarray

Read lines from a file into an array variable.

readcd

Read/write compact disks.

readelf

Shows information about ELF (Executable and Linkable fomrat) files.

readlink

Display value of a symbolic link or canonical file name.

readonly

Mark functions and variables as read-only.

reboot

Restart the machine.

reject

Accept/reject print jobs sent to a specified destination.

remsync

Synchronize remote files over email.

rename

Rename one or more files.

renice

Change priority of active processes.

repquota

Report disk usage and quotas for a specified filesystem.

reset

Reinitialize the terminal.

resize2fs

Used to resize ext2/ext3/ext4 file systems.

restore

Restore files from a backup created using dump.

return

Exit a shell function.

rev

Show contents of a file, reversing the order of characters in every line.

rexec

Remote execution client for exec server.

rexecd

Remote execution server.

richtext

View “richtext” on an ACSII terminal.

rlogin

Used to connect a local host system with a remote host.

rlogind

Acts as the server for rlogin. It facilitates remote login, and authentication based on privileged port numbers from trusted hosts.

rm

Removes specified files and directories (not by default).

rmail

Handle remote mail received via uucp.

rmdir

Used to remove empty directories.

rmmod

A program to remove modules from Linux kernel.

rndc

Name server control utility. Send command to a BIND DNS server over a TCP connection.

rootflags

Show/set flags for the kernel image.

route

Show/change IP routing table.

routed

A daemon, invoked at boot time, to manage internet routing tables.

rpcgen

An RPC protocol compiler. Parse a file written in the RPC language.

rpcinfo

Shows RPC information. Makes an RPC call to an RPC server and reports the findings.

rpm

A package manager for linux distributions. Originally developed for RedHat Linux.

rsh

Remote shell. Connects to a specified host and executes commands.

rshd

A daemon that acts as a server for rsh and rcp commands.

rsync

A versitile to for copying files remotely and locally.

runlevel

Shows previous and current SysV runlevel.

rup

Remote status display. Shows current system status for all or specified hosts on the local network.

ruptime

Shows uptime and login details of the machines on the local network.

rusers

Shows the list of the users logged-in to the host or on all machines on the local network.

rusersd

The rsuerd daemon acts as a server that responds to the queries from rsuers command.

rwall

Sends messages to all users on the local network.

rwho

Reports who is logged-in to the hosts on the local network.

rwhod

Acts as a server for rwho and ruptime commands.

Linux Commands – S

Command

Description

sane-find-scanner

Find SCSI and USB scanner and determine their device files.

scanadf

Retrieve multiple images from a scanner equipped with an automatic document feeder (ADF).

scanimage

Read images from image aquistion devices (scanner or camera) and display on standard output in PNM (Portable aNyMap) format.

scp

Copy files between hosts on a network securely using SSH.

screen

A window manager that enables multiple pseudo-terminals with the help of ANSI/VT100 terminal emulation.

script

Used to make a typescript of everything displayed on the screen during a terminal session.

sdiff

Shows two files side-by-side and highlights the differences.

sed

Stream editor for filtering and transforming text (from a file or a pipe input).

select

Synchronous I/O multiplexing.

sendmail

It’s a mail router or an MTA (Mail Transfer Agent). sendmail support can send a mail to one or more recepients using necessary protocols.

sensors

Shows the current readings of all sensor chips.

seq

Displays an incremental sequence of numbers from first to last.

set

Used to manipulate shell variables and functions.

setfdprm

Sets floppy disk parameters as provided by the user.

setkeycodes

Load kernel scancode-to-keycode mapping table entries.

setleds

Show/change LED light settings of the keyboard.

setmetamode

Define keyboard meta key handling. Without arguments, shows current meta key mode.

setquota

Set disk quotas for users and groups.

setsid

Run a program in a new session.

setterm

Set terminal attributes.

sftp

Secure File Transfer program.

sh

Command interpreter (shell) utility.

sha1sum

Compute and check 160-bit SHA1 checksum to verify file integrity.

shift

Shift positional parameters.

shopt

Shell options.

showkey

Examines codes sent by the keyboard displays them in printable form.

showmount

Shows information about NFS server mount on the host.

shred

Overwrite a file to hide its content (optionally delete it), making it harder to recover it.

shutdown

Power-off the machine.

size

Lists section size and the total size of a specified file.

skill

Send a signal to processes.

slabtop

Show kernel slab cache information in real-time.

slattach

Attack a network interface to a serial line.

sleep

Suspend execution for a specified amount of time (in seconds).

slocate

Display matches by searching filename databases. Takes ownership and file permission into consideration.

snice

Reset priority for processes.

sort

Sort lines of text files.

source

Run commands from a specified file.

split

Split a file into pieces of fixed size.

ss

Display socket statistics, similar to netstat.

ssh

An SSH client for logging in to a remote machine. It provides encrypted communication between the hosts.

ssh-add

Adds private key identities to the authentication agent.

ssh-agent

It holds private keys used for public key authentication.

ssh-keygen

It generates, manages, converts authentication keys for ssh.

ssh-keyscan

Gather ssh public keys.

sshd

Server for the ssh program.

stat

Display file or filesystem status.

statd

A daemon that listens for reboot notifications from other hosts, and manages the list of hosts to be notified when the local system reboots.

strace

Trace system calls and signals.

strfile

Create a random access file for storing strings.

strings

Search a specified file and prints any printable strings with at least four characters and followed by an unprintable character.

strip

Discard symbols from object files.

stty

Change and print terminal line settings.

su

Change user ID or become superuser.

sudo

Execute a command as superuser.

sum

Checksum and count the block in a file.

suspend

Suspend the execution of the current shell.

swapoff

Disable devices for paging and swapping.

swapon

Enable devices for paging and swapping.

symlink

Create a symbolic link to a file.

sync

Synchronize cached writes to persistent storage.

sysctl

Configure kernel parameters at runtime.

sysklogd

Linux system logging utilities. Provides syslogd and klogd functionalities.

syslogd

Read and log system messages to the system console and log files.

Linux Commands – T

Command

Description

tac

Concatenate and print files in reverse order. Opposite of cat command.

tail

Show the last 10 lines of each specified file(s).

tailf

Follow the growth of a log file. (Deprecated command)

talk

A two-way screen-oriented communication utility that allows two user to exchange messages simulateneously.

talkd

A remote user communication server for talk.

tar

GNU version of the tar archiving utility. Used to store and extract multiple files from a single archive.

taskset

Set/retrieve a process’s CPU affinity.

tcpd

Access control utility for internet services.

tcpdump

Dump traffic on network. Displays a description of the contents of packets on a network interface that match the boolean expression.

tcpslice

Extract pieces of tcpdump files or merge them.

tee

Read from standard input and write to standard output and files.

telinit

Change SysV runlevel.

telnet

Telnet protocol user interface. Used to interact with another host using telnet.

telnetd

A server for the telnet protocol.

test

Check file type and compare values.

tftp

User interface to the internet TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol).

tftpd

TFTP server.

time

Run programs and summarize system resource usage.

timeout

Execute a command with a time limit.

times

Shows accumulated user and system times for the shell and it’s child processes.

tload

Shows a graph of the current system load average to the specified tty.

tmpwatch

Recursively remove files and directories which haven’t been accessed for the specified period of time.

top

Displays real-time view of processes running on the system.

touch

Change file access and modification times.

tput

Modify terminal-dependent capabilities, color, etc.

tr

Translate, squeeze, or delete characters from standard input and display on standard output.

tracepath

Traces path to a network host discovering MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit) along this path.

traceroute

Traces the route taken by the packets to reach the network host.

trap

Trap function responds to hardware signals. It defines and creates handlers to run when the shell receives signals.

troff

The troff processor of the groff text formatting system.

TRUE

Exit with a status code indicating success.

tset

Initialize terminal.

tsort

Perform topological sort.

tty

Display the filename of the terminal connected to standard input.

tune2fs

Adjust tunable filesystem parameters on ext2/ext3/ext4 filesystems.

tunelp

Set various parameters for the line printer devices.

type

Write a description for a command type.

Linux Commands – U

Command

Description

ul

Underline text.

ulimit

Get and set user limits for the calling process.

umask

Set file mode creation mask.

umount

Unmount specified file systems.

unalias

Remove alias definitions for specified alias names.

uname

Show system information.

uncompress

Uncompress the files compressed with the compress command.

unexpand

Convert spaces to tabs for a specified file.

unicode_start

Put keyboard and console in Unicode mode.

unicode_stop

Revert keyboard and console from Unicode mode.

uniq

Report or omit repeating lines.

units

Convert units from one scalar to another.

unrar

Extract files from a RAR archive.

unset

Remove variable or function names.

unshar

Unpack shell archive scripts.

until

Execute command until a given condition is true.

uptime

Tell how long the system has been running.

useradd

Create a new user or update default user information.

userdel

Delete a user account and related files.

usermod

Modify a user account.

users

Show the list of active users on the machine.

usleep

Suspend execution for microsecond intervals.

uudecode

Decode a binary file.

uuencode

Encode a binary file.

uuidgen

Created a new UUID (Universally Unique Identifier) table.

Linux Commands – V

Command

Description

vdir

Same as ls -l -b. Verbosely list directory contents.

vi

A text editor utility.

vidmode

Set the video mode for a kernel image. Displays current mode value without arguments. Alternative: rdev -v

vim

Vi Improved, a text-based editor which is a successor to vi.

vmstat

Shows information about processes, memory, paging, block IO, traps, disks, and CPU activity.

volname

Returns volume name for a device formatted with an ISO-9660 filesystem. For example, CD-ROM.

Linux Commands – W

Command

Description

w

Show who is logged-on and what they’re doing.

wait

Waits for a specified process ID(s) to terminate and returns the termination status.

wall

Display a message on the terminals all the users who are currently logged-in.

warnquota

Send mail to the users who’ve exceeded their disk quota soft limit.

watch

Runs commands repeatedly until interrupted and shows their output and errors.

wc

Print newline, word, and byte count for each of the specified files.

wget

A non-interactive file download utility.

whatis

Display one line manual page descriptions.

whereis

Locate the binary, source, and man page files for a command.

which

For a given command, lists the pathnames for the files which would be executed when the command runs.

while

Conditionally execute commands (while loop).

who

Shows who is logged on.

whoami

Displays the username tied to the current effective user ID.

whois

Looks for an object in a WHOIS database

write

Display a message on other user’s terminal.

Linux Commands – X

Command

Description

xargs

Runs a command using initial arguments and then reads remaining arguments from standard input.

xdg-open

Used to open a file or URL in an application preferred by the user.

xinetd

Extended internet services daemon. Works similar to inetd.

xz

Compress/ Decompress .xz and .lzma files.

Linux Commands – Y

Command

Description

yacc

Yet Another Compiler Compiler, a GNU Project parser generator.

yes

Repeatedly output a line with a specified string(s) until killed.

ypbind

A daemon that helps client processes to connect to an NIS server.

ypcat

Shows the NIS map (or database) for the specified MapName parameter.

ypinit

Sets up NIS maps on an NIS server.

ypmatch

Shows values for specified keys from an NIS map.

yppasswd

Change NIS login password.

yppasswdd

Acts as a server for the yppasswd command. Receives and executes requests.

yppoll

Shows the ID number or version of NIS map currently used on the NIS server.

yppush

Forces slave NIS servers to copy updated NIS maps.

ypserv

A daemon activated at system startup. It looks for information in local NIS maps.

ypset

Point a client (running ypbind) to a specifc server (running ypserv).

yptest

Calls various functions to check the configuration of NIS services.

ypwhich

Shows the hostname for NIS server or master server for a given map.

ypxfr

Transfers NIS server map from server to a local host.

Linux Commands – Z

Command

Description

zcat

Used to compress/uncompress files. Similar to gzip

zcmp

Compare compressed files.

zdiff

Compare compressed files line by line.

zdump

Displays time for the timezone mentioned.

zforce

Adds .gz extension to all gzipped files.

zgrep

Performs grep on compressed files.

zic

Creates time conversion information files using the specified input files.

zip

A file compression and packaging utility.

zless

Displays information of a compressed file (using less command) on the terminal one screen at a time.

zmore

Displays output of a compressed file (using more command) on the terminal one page at a time.

znew

Recompress .z files to .gz. files.

So, this was the compilation of different Linux commands. I hope this A-Z Linux commands might help you in some way. I’ve spent weeks curating these Linux commands from various sources and testing them. If you find some command missing or some discrepency, please give your valuable feedback and help me make the overall list better. I’ll be looking forward to it.

原文发布于微信公众号 - 生信技能树(biotrainee)

原文发表时间:2017-11-06

本文参与腾讯云自媒体分享计划,欢迎正在阅读的你也加入,一起分享。

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