Tomcat创建HTTPS访问,java访问https

一 https和ssL

HTTPS(全称:Hyper Text Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer),是以安全为目标的HTTP通道,简单讲是HTTP的安全版。即HTTP下加入SSL层,HTTPS的安全基础是SSL,因此加密的详细内容就需要SSL。 它是一个URI scheme(抽象标识符体系),句法类同http:体系。用于安全的HTTP数据传输。https:URL表明它使用了HTTP,但HTTPS存在不同于HTTP的默认端口及一个加密/身份验证层(在HTTP与TCP之间)。这个系统的最初研发由网景公司(Netscape)进行,并内置于其浏览器Netscape Navigator中,提供了身份验证与加密通讯方法。

Transport Layer Security (TLS) and its predecessor, Secure Sockets Layer (SSL), are technologies which allow web browsers and web servers to communicate over a secured connection. This means that the data being sent is encrypted by one side, transmitted, then decrypted by the other side before processing. This is a two-way process, meaning that both the server AND the browser encrypt all traffic before sending out data.

TLS(全称:Transport Layer Security), 它的前身是SSL(全称:Secure Sockets Layer)。是为网络通信提供安全及数据完整性的一种安全协议。TLS与SSL在传输层对网络连接进行加密。

Another important aspect of the SSL/TLS protocol is Authentication. This means that during your initial attempt to communicate with a web server over a secure connection, that server will present your web browser with a set of credentials, in the form of a "Certificate", as proof the site is who and what it claims to be. In certain cases, the server may also request a Certificate from your web browser, asking for proof that you are who you claim to be. This is known as "Client Authentication," although in practice this is used more for business-to-business (B2B) transactions than with individual users. Most SSL-enabled web servers do not request Client Authentication.

二 Tomcat创建https访问

详细官方文档:http://tomcat.apache.org/tomcat-8.0-doc/ssl-howto.html

1. 生成keystore文件

注意生成的过程,后面会发现其实name是为了限定域名。

Windows:

"%JAVA_HOME%\bin\keytool" -genkey -alias tomcat -keyalg RSA
  -keystore \path\to\my\keystore

Unix:

$JAVA_HOME/bin/keytool -genkey -alias tomcat -keyalg RSA   -keystore /path/to/my/keystore

2. 修改tomcat/conf/server.xml

<!-- Define a SSL Coyote HTTP/1.1 Connector on port 8443 -->
<Connector
           protocol="org.apache.coyote.http11.Http11NioProtocol"
           port="8443" maxThreads="200"
           scheme="https" secure="true" SSLEnabled="true"
           keystoreFile="${user.home}/.keystore" keystorePass="changeit"
           clientAuth="false" sslProtocol="TLS"/>                              

注意keystore文件位置以及密码。

3.启动一个web项目

 1 Using CATALINA_BASE:   "C:\Users\miaorf\.IntelliJIdea2016.1\system\tomcat\Unnamed_spmvtest"
 2 Using CATALINA_HOME:   "D:\Java\apache-tomcat-8.0.33"
 3 Using CATALINA_TMPDIR: "D:\Java\apache-tomcat-8.0.33\temp"
 4 Using JRE_HOME:        "D:\Java\jdk1.8.0_73"
 5 Using CLASSPATH:       "D:\Java\apache-tomcat-8.0.33\bin\bootstrap.jar;D:\Java\apache-tomcat-8.0.33\bin\tomcat-juli.jar"
 6 Connected to the target VM, address: '127.0.0.1:6611', transport: 'socket'
 7 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.412 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Server version:        Apache Tomcat/8.0.33
 8 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.416 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Server built:          Mar 18 2016 20:31:49 UTC
 9 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.417 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Server number:         8.0.33.0
10 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.417 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log OS Name:               Windows 10
11 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.417 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log OS Version:            10.0
12 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.417 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Architecture:          amd64
13 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.417 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Java Home:             D:\Java\jdk1.8.0_73\jre
14 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.417 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log JVM Version:           1.8.0_73-b02
15 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.417 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log JVM Vendor:            Oracle Corporation
16 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.418 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log CATALINA_BASE:         C:\Users\miaorf\.IntelliJIdea2016.1\system\tomcat\Unnamed_spmvtest
17 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.419 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log CATALINA_HOME:         D:\Java\apache-tomcat-8.0.33
18 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.420 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Command line argument: -agentlib:jdwp=transport=dt_socket,address=127.0.0.1:6611,suspend=y,server=n
19 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.420 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Command line argument: -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote=
20 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.420 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Command line argument: -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=1099
21 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.420 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Command line argument: -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false
22 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.421 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Command line argument: -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=false
23 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.421 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Command line argument: -Djava.rmi.server.hostname=127.0.0.1
24 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.421 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Command line argument: -Djava.util.logging.config.file=C:\Users\miaorf\.IntelliJIdea2016.1\system\tomcat\Unnamed_spmvtest\conf\logging.properties
25 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.422 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Command line argument: -Djava.util.logging.manager=org.apache.juli.ClassLoaderLogManager
26 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.422 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Command line argument: -Djava.endorsed.dirs=D:\Java\apache-tomcat-8.0.33\endorsed
27 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.422 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Command line argument: -Dcatalina.base=C:\Users\miaorf\.IntelliJIdea2016.1\system\tomcat\Unnamed_spmvtest
28 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.422 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Command line argument: -Dcatalina.home=D:\Java\apache-tomcat-8.0.33
29 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.423 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.VersionLoggerListener.log Command line argument: -Djava.io.tmpdir=D:\Java\apache-tomcat-8.0.33\temp
30 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.423 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.core.AprLifecycleListener.lifecycleEvent The APR based Apache Tomcat Native library which allows optimal performance in production environments was not found on the java.library.path: D:\Java\jdk1.8.0_73\bin;C:\windows\Sun\Java\bin;C:\windows\system32;C:\windows;C:\ProgramData\Oracle\Java\javapath;C:\Program Files (x86)\Intel\iCLS Client\;C:\Program Files\Intel\iCLS Client\;C:\windows\system32;C:\windows;C:\windows\System32\Wbem;C:\windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\;;D:\Java\jdk1.8.0_73\bin;C:\Program Files (x86)\Skype\Phone\;C:\Program Files (x86)\Intel\Intel(R) Management Engine Components\DAL;C:\Program Files\Intel\Intel(R) Management Engine Components\DAL;C:\Program Files (x86)\Intel\Intel(R) Management Engine Components\IPT;C:\Program Files\Intel\Intel(R) Management Engine Components\IPT;C:\Program Files (x86)\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin;C:\Program Files\Redis\;D:\Java\gradle-2.12\bin;C:\Program Files (x86)\Calibre2\;C:\Program Files\Intel\WiFi\bin\;C:\Program Files\Common Files\Intel\WirelessCommon\;C:\Program Files\Samsung\SamsungLink\AllShare Framework DMS\bin\;C:\Program Files (x86)\Intel\iCLS Client\;C:\Program Files\Intel\iCLS Client\;C:\windows\system32;C:\windows;C:\windows\System32\Wbem;C:\windows\System32\WindowsPowerShell\v1.0\;C:\Program Files (x86)\Intel\Intel(R) Management Engine Components\DAL;C:\Program Files\Intel\Intel(R) Management Engine Components\DAL;C:\Program Files (x86)\Intel\Intel(R) Management Engine Components\IPT;C:\Program Files\Intel\Intel(R) Management Engine Components\IPT;C:\Program Files\Samsung\SamsungLink\AllShare Framework DMS\bin\;D:\workspace\springboot\spring-1.4.0.BUILD-SNAPSHOT\bin;D:\Java\apache-maven-3.3.9\bin;C:\Program Files\Intel\WiFi\bin\;C:\Program Files\Common Files\Intel\WirelessCommon\;D:\data\sqlite;.
31 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.691 INFO [main] org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol.init Initializing ProtocolHandler ["http-nio-8080"]
32 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.771 INFO [main] org.apache.tomcat.util.net.NioSelectorPool.getSharedSelector Using a shared selector for servlet write/read
33 09-Jun-2016 17:58:58.777 INFO [main] org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol.init Initializing ProtocolHandler ["http-nio-8443"]
34 09-Jun-2016 17:58:59.120 INFO [main] org.apache.tomcat.util.net.NioSelectorPool.getSharedSelector Using a shared selector for servlet write/read
35 09-Jun-2016 17:58:59.121 INFO [main] org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol.init Initializing ProtocolHandler ["ajp-nio-8009"]
36 09-Jun-2016 17:58:59.124 INFO [main] org.apache.tomcat.util.net.NioSelectorPool.getSharedSelector Using a shared selector for servlet write/read
37 09-Jun-2016 17:58:59.125 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina.load Initialization processed in 1454 ms
38 09-Jun-2016 17:58:59.186 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService.startInternal Starting service Catalina
39 09-Jun-2016 17:58:59.187 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.core.StandardEngine.startInternal Starting Servlet Engine: Apache Tomcat/8.0.33
40 09-Jun-2016 17:58:59.202 INFO [main] org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol.start Starting ProtocolHandler ["http-nio-8080"]
41 09-Jun-2016 17:58:59.218 INFO [main] org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol.start Starting ProtocolHandler ["http-nio-8443"]
42 09-Jun-2016 17:58:59.222 INFO [main] org.apache.coyote.AbstractProtocol.start Starting ProtocolHandler ["ajp-nio-8009"]
43 09-Jun-2016 17:58:59.226 INFO [main] org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina.start Server startup in 99 ms

4.测试访问

三 java请求https

采用httpclient4.3+

ssl需要制定证书,这里首先忽略证书访问:

public static HttpClient getClient(boolean isSSL) {
    if (isSSL) {
        try {
            SSLContext sslContext = new SSLContextBuilder()
                    .loadTrustMaterial(new TrustSelfSignedStrategy()).build();
            SSLConnectionSocketFactory sslsf = new SSLConnectionSocketFactory(
                    sslContext);
            return HttpClients.custom().setSSLSocketFactory(sslsf).build();
        } catch (KeyManagementException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (NoSuchAlgorithmException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        } catch (KeyStoreException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    return httpclient;
}

Test:

显然,最初设置证书的时候的名字就是域名,于是需要重置证书后重启项目:

结果正常:

 提供keystore:

@Test
    public void testHttpsWithCertification() throws Exception{
        // Trust own CA and all self-signed certs
        SSLContext sslcontext = SSLContexts.custom()
                .loadTrustMaterial(new File("my.keystore"), "123456".toCharArray(),
                        new TrustSelfSignedStrategy())
                .build();

        // Allow TLSv1 protocol only
        SSLConnectionSocketFactory sslsf = new SSLConnectionSocketFactory(
                sslcontext,
                new String[] { "TLSv1" },
                null,
                SSLConnectionSocketFactory.getDefaultHostnameVerifier());
        CloseableHttpClient httpclient = HttpClients.custom()
                .setSSLSocketFactory(sslsf)
                .build();
        try {

            HttpGet httpget = new HttpGet("https://localhost:8443/hello/list");

            System.out.println("Executing request " + httpget.getRequestLine());

            CloseableHttpResponse response = httpclient.execute(httpget);
            try {
                HttpEntity entity = response.getEntity();

                System.out.println("----------------------------------------");
                System.out.println(response.getStatusLine());
                System.out.println(EntityUtils.toString(entity));
            } finally {
                response.close();
            }
        } finally {
            httpclient.close();
        }
    }

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