WINDOWS下使用虚拟机安装ubuntu及其上网设置的安装说明

LINUX是个好东西,可是如果是新手.而且是想多系统共存的话,安装就会有点难。建议初装LINUX的朋友试试用虚拟机VMware workstation安装。推荐使用ubuntu10.04.1-desktop-i386。此版本安装方便,运行速度快,占用空间少,整个装完大概有4G。

简单的说,vmware就是一个虚拟机软件,它可以在你现有的操作系统上虚拟出一个新的子机,这个子机一方面是建立在你正在运行的操作系统之上的,同时,它又拥有自己独立的CPU,硬盘,内存及各个硬件,当然,这些都是虚拟出来的,虚拟子机的CPU是通过i386的保护模式实现的,虚拟的硬盘其实就是母机上的一个文件,内存当然是从物理中划出一块,别的如网络设备也都是通过某种途径实现的.

归根结底,vmware给你提供了这么一个机会:可以在一台机器上真正同时运行两个独立的操作系统,一个是原始的操作系统,一个运行于虚拟机上,前者称之为母机,后者为子机.基于上述原因,你现在可以在运行win32平台的机器上通过vmware安装并运行linux,反之亦然.事实上,两个操作系统之间并没有太多的依赖关系,你也可以在linux上再装一个linux,或者在win98下装一个winXP,随你自己喜欢.关键的好处在于,你安装这个新的操作系统并不需要重新划分硬盘空间,而且,可以同时运行而不需要reboot来reboot去.

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

vmware的常见的应用有:

在win32下安装linux/Unix(适合想体会一下linux又害怕破坏现有系统的linux新手)

在linux下安装win32(可解燃眉之急)

从一个系统中引导出另一个系统(二者并存)

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

VMWare安装前的准备工作

1. 硬件最低:主要是内存,最低要求为96M,如果小于96M,可以安装但无法正常使用,不过你要让VMWare运行得较好的话,128M是少不了的.

2. 如果你的英文有限,还是先下载汉化补丁,这个在网上很容易搜到。

3. 用注册机或者搜索序列号都可以成功安装。网上这类资源很多。

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

以在windows下安装ubuntu为例进行说明:

安装过程:

1. 请先安装VMware workstation.

2. 建立linux虚拟机.

******************************************************************

A.用鼠标左建双击桌面中的\"VMware workstation\"图标,运行虚拟机

B.建立一台虚拟机。点击“FILE(文件)”-“NEW(新建)”--“NewVirtual Machine(

新建虚拟机)”,弹出虚拟机创建菜单。

C.根据向导一步一步地创建虚拟机,首先选择安装方式是“TYPICAL(典型)”还是

“CUSTOM(自定义)”安装。 我这里选择典型。

D.如果你的Ubuntu是iso镜像,直接在"Installer dis image file(iso)"中加载。

E.在Guest operating system(客户操作系统)“中选择”LINUX“,点击下一步。

F.在Virtual machine name(虚拟机名字)中输入你想建立的虚拟机的名字

G.在Location(位置)中选择虚拟机的安装位置。因为会在虚拟机中安装操作系统

和应用软件,所以建议将虚拟机安装在一个有较大空间的磁盘分区中。

H.如果你的电脑连接在网络中,一般会自动的选择一个合适的网络环境。

I.点击finish,返回VMWARE主界面,LINUX虚拟机就建好了。

*******************************************************************

3. Powered on 你刚建好的虚拟机,则开始自动安装。注意安装此版本ubuntu时请选择英文版,否则系统会出现半英文半中文,而且在安装VMware Tools时会因为在终端中不易输入中文而很难安装。

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

附:Ubuntu安装虚拟机工具(VMware Tool)详解

在VMware下安装Ubuntu,那么必须安装VMware-tools,才能获得更好的体验,包括屏幕分辨率、声音、和windows共享剪贴板等等。 

1、点击VMware菜单的-VM-Install VMware Tools 

这时,在Ubuntu下会自动加载Linux版的VMware Tools的安装光盘镜像。你会看到虚拟机的桌面上出现了一个名为VMware Tools的光盘图标,并且被自动打开。 

其中包括VMwareTools-xxx-i386.rpm和VMwareTools- xxx.tar.gz两个文件。 

如果你双击那个 rpm 文件,会提示说不支持的软件包,因为 rpm 是为 RedHat 准备的安装包,我们需要的是 .tar.gz 那个。 

2、把 .tar.gz 文件拷贝而到桌面,右键菜单-解压缩到此处。会自动解压为一个 vmware-tools-distrib 目录(使用ctrl+L快捷键可以查看此目录的真实路径,注意Desktop有两个,一个是所有用户公用的,一个是home/administrator/Desktop,请把文件解压在第一个/Desktop下)。 

打开终端(系统的应用程序菜单-附件-终端) 

3、然后在终端里面执行以下命令行: 

$ cd Desktop(要是中文的就是 $ cd 桌面) 注意:没有“/”

$ cd vmware-tools-distrib 

$ sudo ./vmware-install.pl 

4、回车之后提示输入管理员密码,然后一路确认回车后(不用输“y”,直接回车,相当于在Windows里安装软件时所填答的诸多对话框,我们这里均采用缺省设置),直到最后出现“Enjoy——the VMware team”的字样后,VMwareTools终于安装完成了。 

过程如下: 

Creating a new VMware Tools installer database using the tar4 format. 

Installing VMware Tools. 

In which directory do you want to install the binary files? 

[/usr/bin] y 

The path "y" is a relative path. Please enter an absolute path. 

In which directory do you want to install the binary files? 

[/usr/bin] y 

The path "y" is a relative path. Please enter an absolute path. 

In which directory do you want to install the binary files? 

[/usr/bin] y 

The path "y" is a relative path. Please enter an absolute path. 

In which directory do you want to install the binary files? 

[/usr/bin] y 

The path "y" is a relative path. Please enter an absolute path. 

In which directory do you want to install the binary files? 

[/usr/bin] y 

The path "y" is a relative path. Please enter an absolute path. 

In which directory do you want to install the binary files? 

[/usr/bin] y 

The path "y" is a relative path. Please enter an absolute path. 

In which directory do you want to install the binary files? 

[/usr/bin] y 

The path "y" is a relative path. Please enter an absolute path. 

In which directory do you want to install the binary files? 

[/usr/bin] 

What is the directory that contains the init directories (rc0.d/ to rc6.d/)? 

[/etc] 

What is the directory that contains the init scripts? 

[/etc/init.d] 

In which directory do you want to install the daemon files? 

[/usr/sbin] 

In which directory do you want to install the library files? 

[/usr/lib/vmware-tools] 

The path "/usr/lib/vmware-tools" does not exist currently. This program is 

going to create it, including needed parent directories. Is this what you want? 

[yes] 

In which directory do you want to install the documentation files? 

[/usr/share/doc/vmware-tools] 

The path "/usr/share/doc/vmware-tools" does not exist currently. This program 

is going to create it, including needed parent directories. Is this what you 

want? [yes] 

The installation of VMware Tools 6.5.0 build-118166 for Linux completed 

successfully. You can decide to remove this software from your system at any 

time by invoking the following command: "/usr/bin/vmware-uninstall-tools.pl". 

Before running VMware Tools for the first time, you need to configure it by 

invoking the following command: "/usr/bin/vmware-config-tools.pl". Do you want 

this program to invoke the command for you now? [yes] 

Stopping VMware Tools services in the virtual machine: 

Guest operating system daemon: done 

Virtual Printing daemon: done 

The bld-2.6.24-16-i386generic-Ubuntu8.04 - vmmemctl module loads perfectly into 

the running kernel. 

The bld-2.6.24-16-i386generic-Ubuntu8.04 - vmhgfs module loads perfectly into 

the running kernel. 

The bld-2.6.24-16-i386generic-Ubuntu8.04 - vmxnet module loads perfectly into 

the running kernel. 

update-initramfs: Generating /boot/initrd.img-2.6.24-16-generic 

The bld-2.6.24-16-i386generic-Ubuntu8.04 - vmblock module loads perfectly into 

the running kernel. 

[EXPERIMENTAL] The VMware FileSystem Sync Driver (vmsync) is a new feature that 

creates backups of virtual machines. Please refer to the VMware Knowledge Base 

for more details on this capability. Do you wish to enable this feature? 

[no] yes 

The bld-2.6.24-16-i386generic-Ubuntu8.04 - vmsync module loads perfectly into 

the running kernel. 

The bld-2.6.24-16-i386generic-Ubuntu8.04 - vmci module loads perfectly into the 

running kernel. 

The bld-2.6.24-16-i386generic-Ubuntu8.04 - vsock module loads perfectly into 

the running kernel. 

Detected X.org version 7.3.0. 

Please choose one of the following display sizes that X will start with (1 - 

29): 

[1] "320x200" 

[2] "320x240" 

[3] "400x300" 

[4] "512x384" 

[5] "640x400" 

[6] "640x480" 

[7] "720x480" 

[8] "800x480" 

[9] "854x480" 

[10]< "720x576" 

[11] "800x600" 

[12] "1024x768" 

[13] "1280x720" 

[14] "1280x768" 

[15] "1152x864" 

[16] "1280x800" 

[17] "1366x768" 

[18] "1280x960" 

[19] "1440x900" 

[20] "1280x1024" 

[21] "1400x1050" 

[22] "1680x1050" 

[23] "1600x1200" 

[24] "1920x1080" 

[25] "1920x1200" 

[26] "1920x1440" 

[27] "2048x1536" 

[28] "2560x1600" 

[29] "2560x1920" 

Please enter a number between 1 and 29: 

[10] 11 //或其他尺寸,一般不要超过宿主机的屏幕分辨率,要不看起来还得拖动滚动条。全屏显示虚拟机的快捷键是CTRL+ALT+ENTER.

This is a pre-release version of the X server from The X.Org Foundation. 

It is not supported in any way. 

Bugs may be filed in the bugzilla at http://bugs.freedesktop.org/. 

Select the "xorg" product for bugs you find in this release. 

Before reporting bugs in pre-release versions please check the 

latest version in the X.Org Foundation git repository. 

See http://wiki.x.org/wiki/GitPage for git access instructions. 

X.Org X Server 1.4.0.90 

Release Date: 5 September 2007 

X Protocol Version 11, Revision 0 

Build Operating System: Linux Ubuntu (xorg-server 2:1.4.1~git20080131-1ubuntu9) 

Current Operating System: Linux jim-desktop 2.6.24-16-generic #1 SMP Thu Apr 10 13:23:42 UTC 2008 i686 

Build Date: 15 April 2008 05:26:17PM 

Before reporting problems, check http://wiki.x.org to make sure that you have the latest version. 

Module Loader present 

Markers: (--) probed, (**) from config file, (==) default setting, 

(++) from command line, (!!) notice, (II) informational, 

(WW) warning, (EE) error, (NI) not implemented, (??) unknown. 

(++) Log file: "/tmp/vmware-config0/XF86ConfigLog.6478", Time: Fri Sep 26 18:16:38 2008 

(++) Using config file: "/tmp/vmware-config0/XF86Config.6478" 

(II) Module "ramdac" already built-in 

X is running fine with the new config file. 

expected keysym, got XF86KbdLightOnOff: line 70 of pc 

expected keysym, got XF86KbdBrightnessDown: line 71 of pc 

expected keysym, got XF86KbdBrightnessUp: line 72 of pc 

expected keysym, got XF86KbdLightOnOff: line 70 of pc 

expected keysym, got XF86KbdBrightnessDown: line 71 of pc 

expected keysym, got XF86KbdBrightnessUp: line 72 of pc 

FreeFontPath: FPE "/usr/share/fonts/X11/misc" refcount is 2, should be 1; fixing. 

Checking acpi hot plug done 

Starting VMware Tools services in the virtual machine: 

Switching to guest configuration: done 

Guest filesystem driver: done 

Mounting HGFS shares: failed 

Guest memory manager: done 

Guest vmxnet fast network device: done 

VM communication interface: done 

VM communication interface socket family: done 

Blocking file system: done 

File system sync driver: done 

Guest operating system daemon: done 

Virtual Printing daemon: done 

The configuration of VMware Tools 6.5.0 build-118166 for Linux for this running 

kernel completed successfully. 

You must restart your X session before any mouse or graphics changes take 

effect. 

You can now run VMware Tools by invoking the following command: 

"/usr/bin/vmware-toolbox" during an X server session. 

To enable advanced X features (e.g., guest resolution fit, drag and drop, and 

file and text copy/paste), you will need to do one (or more) of the following: 

1. Manually start /usr/bin/vmware-user 

2. Log out and log back into your desktop session; and, 

3. Restart your X session. 

To use the vmxnet driver, restart networking using the following commands: 

/etc/init.d/networking stop 

rmmod pcnet32 

rmmod vmxnet 

modprobe vmxnet 

/etc/init.d/networking start 

If the virtual printer feature is enabled, you will need to restart the CUPS 

service to make use of this feature. 

Enjoy, 

--the VMware team

//至此VMware Tools安装结束。

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

虚拟机下ubuntu共享方式上网:

1. 有线网络

   在有线网络的条件下,vmware的安装非常简单,上网方式几乎不用怎么设置(默认NAT模式)

   如果默认情况下不能上网,则按以下步骤尝试:

**************************************************************

NAT的DHCP配置:

1 将虚拟机的上网方式选为NAT。

2 把你的虚拟网卡VMnet8设置为自动获得IP、自动获得DNS服务器,启用。具体方法:网络连接-本地连接(VMnet8)-属性-ipv4协议-属性-选择“自动获得IP、自动获得DNS服务器”。

3 把你虚拟机中操作系统(REDHAT9.0)的“本地连接”也设置为自动获得IP、自动获得DNS服务器;若虚拟机中操作系统是ubuntu,则可查看虚拟网络设置中“DHCP”,“NAT”选项卡中所示的IP,网关地址,子关掩码等,若均存在则无需改动。

4 最重要的是你的两个服务必须开启:VMware DHCP Service 和VMware NAT Service。点菜单栏里的“编辑”-选“虚拟网络设置”,先将“自动桥接”给去掉(去掉钩钩),再选“DHCP”开启DHCP服务,点“开始”-应用,再按同样的方法开启“NAT”的功能。

核查方法具体操作如下: 开始---设置--控制面板---管理工具---服务(在运行里输入services.msc回车即可),确保 VMware DHCP Service 和VMware NAT Service 服务已经启动.

NAT的固定IP配置:(考虑到没有固定IP,主机和虚拟机间的通信叫麻烦,有时DHCP很耗时间)

1 开启两个服务:VMware NAT Service,VMware DHCP Service(后者可不开)

2 将虚拟机的上网方式选为NAT。

3 点菜单栏里的“编辑”-选“虚拟网络设置”,先将“自动桥接”给去掉(去掉钩钩),在“DHCP”关闭DHCP服务,在“Host virtual network mapping”下的VMnet8的右边选择subnet修改子网。

手动设置方法:

1.windows中CTRL+R,输入cmd,然后在dos下输入ipconfig,得到VMnet8网卡的IP为192.168.93.1(不同机器不一样)

2.Ubuntu中设置网络IP为192.168.93.X(128-254),自动分配时一般也是128,DNS设置为192.168.93.2。

**************************************************************************

2. 无线网络

   不同于有线网络,用笔记本无线上网,问题出来了,主机为无线上网,虚拟机该怎么设定呢?

    在主机为无线上网,虚拟机设定的时候最好用“桥接模式”(有些资料说用NAT模式,我试了很久,都没有成功),方法如下:

      1.  关闭正在运行的虚拟机ubuntu,将其联网方式设定为“桥接模式”。

      2. 在vmare菜单edit中找到VMware的虚拟网络编辑器,如果是绿色版,直接找到vmnetcfg.exe,双击就可以了。

     3. 找到“主机虚拟网络映射”选项(host virtual network mapping),在vmnet0 上的下拉列表中,找到自己本本的无线网卡。

     4. 启动ubuntu虚拟机即可。

    注:此情况下DHCP和NAT服务状态无论是开启还是关闭都没有影响。

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

如果宿主机是linux,用vmware下的ubuntu桥接无线网卡方法见:

http://forum.ubuntu.org.cn/viewtopic.php?p=776672

%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%%

非虚拟机下ubuntu9.10 10.04上网IP设置

1。设定IP

sudo gedit /etc/network/interfaces

auto lo

iface lo inet loopback            #lo 是本地回环地址:127.1

auto eth0 

iface eth0 inet static 

address 192.168.1.152 

gateway 192.168.1.1 

netmask 255.255.255.0 

network 192.168.1.0 

broadcast 192.168.1.255      #设定eth0的IP

这样,IP并没有立即生效。

sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart

2。这时候就能ping到局域网中的电脑了。但是上不了Internet,是因为没有设置DNS的原因。DNS信息保存在/etc/resolv.conf中,一旦更改,立即生效。

sudo gedit /etc/resolv.conf

nameserver 208.67.222.222 

nameserver 208.67.220.220

现在可以上网了。

附网卡设置相关命令:

查看网卡信息: ifconfig

设定一个网卡IP:ifconfig eth1 192.168.1.10 netmask 255.255.255.0 

重启网卡使设定生效:sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart

更改MAC地址:ifconfig eth0 hw ether xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx

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