SpringBoot 笔记 ( 四 ):web 开发

SpringBoot 笔记 (四): web 开发

1、SpringBoot对静态资源的映射规则

@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "spring.resources", ignoreUnknownFields = false)
public class ResourceProperties implements ResourceLoaderAware {
//静态资源的路径
	private static final String[] CLASSPATH_RESOURCE_LOCATIONS = {
			"classpath:/META-INF/resources/", "classpath:/resources/",
			"classpath:/static/", "classpath:/public/" };
	WebMvcAuotConfiguration:
		@Override
		public void addResourceHandlers(ResourceHandlerRegistry registry) {
// 对 webjars 的请求,也就是我们把类似于 jquery 之类的东西放到 maven 中就叫做 webjars
			if (!this.resourceProperties.isAddMappings()) {
				logger.debug("Default resource handling disabled");
				return;
			}
			Integer cachePeriod = this.resourceProperties.getCachePeriod();
			if (!registry.hasMappingForPattern("/webjars/**")) {
				customizeResourceHandlerRegistration(
						registry.addResourceHandler("/webjars/**")
								.addResourceLocations(
										"classpath:/META-INF/resources/webjars/")
						.setCachePeriod(cachePeriod));
			}
			String staticPathPattern = this.mvcProperties.getStaticPathPattern();
//静态资源文件夹映射
			if (!registry.hasMappingForPattern(staticPathPattern)) {
				customizeResourceHandlerRegistration(
						registry.addResourceHandler(staticPathPattern)
								.addResourceLocations(
										this.resourceProperties.getStaticLocations())
						.setCachePeriod(cachePeriod));
			}
		}

//配置欢迎页映射
		@Bean
		public WelcomePageHandlerMapping welcomePageHandlerMapping(
				ResourceProperties resourceProperties) {
			return new WelcomePageHandlerMapping(resourceProperties.getWelcomePage(),
					this.mvcProperties.getStaticPathPattern());
		}

//配置喜欢的图标
		@Configuration
		@ConditionalOnProperty(value = "spring.mvc.favicon.enabled", matchIfMissing = true)
		public static class FaviconConfiguration {

			private final ResourceProperties resourceProperties;

			public FaviconConfiguration(ResourceProperties resourceProperties) {
				this.resourceProperties = resourceProperties;
			}

			@Bean
			public SimpleUrlHandlerMapping faviconHandlerMapping() {
				SimpleUrlHandlerMapping mapping = new SimpleUrlHandlerMapping();
				mapping.setOrder(Ordered.HIGHEST_PRECEDENCE + 1);
              	//所有  **/favicon.ico 
				mapping.setUrlMap(Collections.singletonMap("**/favicon.ico",
						faviconRequestHandler()));
				return mapping;
			}

			@Bean
			public ResourceHttpRequestHandler faviconRequestHandler() {
				ResourceHttpRequestHandler requestHandler = new ResourceHttpRequestHandler();
				requestHandler
						.setLocations(this.resourceProperties.getFaviconLocations());
				return requestHandler;
			}

		}

1)、所有 /webjars/** ,都去 classpath:/META-INF/resources/webjars/ 找资源 例如: localhost:8080/webjars/jquery/3.3.1/jquery.js

<!--引入jquery-webjar-->在访问的时候只需要写webjars下面资源的名称即可
		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.webjars</groupId>
			<artifactId>jquery</artifactId>
			<version>3.3.1</version>
		</dependency>

2)、”/**” 访问当前项目的任何资源,都去(静态资源的文件夹)找映射

"classpath:/META-INF/resources/", 
"classpath:/resources/",
"classpath:/static/", 
"classpath:/public/" 
"/":当前项目的根路径

localhost:8080/abc === 去静态资源文件夹里面找abc

3)、欢迎页; 静态资源文件夹下的所有index.html页面;被”/**”映射

​ localhost:8080/ 找index页面

4)、所有的 **/favicon.ico 都是在静态资源文件下找

2、模板引擎

JSP、Velocity、Freemarker、Thymeleaf 但是SpringBoot推荐的Thymeleaf:语法更简单,功能更强大。

1、引入thymeleaf;

		<dependency>
			<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
			<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-thymeleaf</artifactId>
          	2.1.6
		</dependency>
切换thymeleaf版本
<properties>
		<thymeleaf.version>3.0.9.RELEASE</thymeleaf.version>
		<!-- 布局功能的支持程序  thymeleaf3主程序  layout2以上版本 -->
		<!-- thymeleaf2   layout1-->
		<thymeleaf-layout-dialect.version>2.2.2</thymeleaf-layout-dialect.version>
  </properties>

2、Thymeleaf使用

@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "spring.thymeleaf")
public class ThymeleafProperties {

	private static final Charset DEFAULT_ENCODING = Charset.forName("UTF-8");

	private static final MimeType DEFAULT_CONTENT_TYPE = MimeType.valueOf("text/html");

	public static final String DEFAULT_PREFIX = "classpath:/templates/";

	public static final String DEFAULT_SUFFIX = ".html";
  	//

只要我们把HTML页面放在classpath:/templates/,thymeleaf就能自动渲染;

步骤:

1、导入thymeleaf的名称空间

<html lang="en" xmlns:th="http://www.thymeleaf.org">

2、使用thymeleaf语法;

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en" xmlns:th="http://www.thymeleaf.org">
<head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Title</title>
</head>
<body>
    <h1>成功!</h1>
    <!--th:text 将div里面的文本内容设置为 -->
    <div th:text="${hello}">这是显示欢迎信息</div>
</body>
</html>

3、语法规则

1)、th:text:改变当前元素里面的文本内容 ​ th:任意html属性:来替换原生属性的值

2)、表达式

Simple expressions:(表达式语法)
    Variable Expressions: ${...}:获取变量值;OGNL;
    		1)、获取对象的属性、调用方法
    		2)、使用内置的基本对象:
    			#ctx : the context object.
    			#vars: the context variables.
                #locale : the context locale.
                #request : (only in Web Contexts) the HttpServletRequest object.
                #response : (only in Web Contexts) the HttpServletResponse object.
                #session : (only in Web Contexts) the HttpSession object.
                #servletContext : (only in Web Contexts) the ServletContext object.
                
                ${session.foo}
            3)、内置的一些工具对象:
#execInfo : information about the template being processed.
#messages : methods for obtaining externalized messages inside variables expressions, in the same way as they would be obtained using #{…} syntax.
#uris : methods for escaping parts of URLs/URIs
#conversions : methods for executing the configured conversion service (if any).
#dates : methods for java.util.Date objects: formatting, component extraction, etc.
#calendars : analogous to #dates , but for java.util.Calendar objects.
#numbers : methods for formatting numeric objects.
#strings : methods for String objects: contains, startsWith, prepending/appending, etc.
#objects : methods for objects in general.
#bools : methods for boolean evaluation.
#arrays : methods for arrays.
#lists : methods for lists.
#sets : methods for sets.
#maps : methods for maps.
#aggregates : methods for creating aggregates on arrays or collections.
#ids : methods for dealing with id attributes that might be repeated (for example, as a result of an iteration).

    Selection Variable Expressions: *{...}:选择表达式:和${}在功能上是一样;
    	补充:配合 th:object="${session.user}:
   <div th:object="${session.user}">
    <p>Name: <span th:text="*{firstName}">Sebastian</span>.</p>
    <p>Surname: <span th:text="*{lastName}">Pepper</span>.</p>
    <p>Nationality: <span th:text="*{nationality}">Saturn</span>.</p>
    </div>
    
    Message Expressions: #{...}:获取国际化内容
    Link URL Expressions: @{...}:定义URL;
    		@{/order/process(execId=${execId},execType='FAST')}
    Fragment Expressions: ~{...}:片段引用表达式
    		<div th:insert="~{commons :: main}">...</div>
    		
Literals(字面量)
      Text literals: 'one text' , 'Another one!' ,…
      Number literals: 0 , 34 , 3.0 , 12.3 ,…
      Boolean literals: true , false
      Null literal: null
      Literal tokens: one , sometext , main ,…
Text operations:(文本操作)
    String concatenation: +
    Literal substitutions: |The name is ${name}|
Arithmetic operations:(数学运算)
    Binary operators: + , - , * , / , %
    Minus sign (unary operator): -
Boolean operations:(布尔运算)
    Binary operators: and , or
    Boolean negation (unary operator): ! , not
Comparisons and equality:(比较运算)
    Comparators: > , < , >= , <= ( gt , lt , ge , le )
    Equality operators: == , != ( eq , ne )
Conditional operators:条件运算(三元运算符)
    If-then: (if) ? (then)
    If-then-else: (if) ? (then) : (else)
    Default: (value) ?: (defaultvalue)
Special tokens:
    No-Operation: _

4、SpringMVC自动配置

1. Spring MVC auto-configuration

Spring Boot 自动配置好了SpringMVC

以下是SpringBoot对SpringMVC的默认配置:WebMvcAutoConfiguration

  1. Inclusion of ContentNegotiatingViewResolver and BeanNameViewResolver beans.
    • 自动配置了ViewResolver(视图解析器:根据方法的返回值得到视图对象(View),视图对象决定如何渲染(转发/重定向))
    • ContentNegotiatingViewResolver:组合所有的视图解析器的;
    • 如何定制:我们可以自己给容器中添加一个视图解析器,自动的将其组合进来
  2. 静态资源文件夹路径,webjars
  3. 静态首页访问,index 页面
  4. 自定义 favicon.ico 图标 ​
  5. 自动注册了 Converter, GenericConverter, Formatter 组件
    • Converter:转换器; public String hello(User user):类型转换使用Converter
    • Formatter 格式化器,2017.12.17===Date。自己添加的格式化器转换器,我们只需要放在容器中即可
@Bean
@ConditionalOnProperty(prefix = "spring.mvc", name = "date-format")//在文件中配置日期格式化的规则
public Formatter<Date> dateFormatter() {
	return new DateFormatter(this.mvcProperties.getDateFormat());//日期格式化组件
}
  1. HttpMessageConverters Http 请求响应转换。
    • HttpMessageConverter:SpringMVC用来转换Http请求和响应的,User—Json
    • HttpMessageConverters 是从容器中确定;获取所有的HttpMessageConverter,自己给容器中添加HttpMessageConverter,只需要将自己的组件注册容器中(@Bean,@Component) ​
  2. MessageCodesResolver .定义错误代码生成规则
  • 使用了 ConfigurableWebBindingInitializer 组件到容器里面。我们可以配置一个ConfigurableWebBindingInitializer来替换默认的,添加到容器

org.springframework.boot.autoconfigure.web:web的所有自动场景;

  如果说我们想要保留 springboot 的对 mvc 的自动配置,并且希望添加一些新的功能(interceptors, formatters, view controllers etc.)我们可能就要添加自己的配置类,也就是有 @ConfigurationWebMvcConfigurerAdapter 子类。但是不要有 @EnableWebMvc 因为这个注解是完全的接管 mvc 的配置。 MVC configuration

2、扩展SpringMVC

编写一个配置类(@Configuration),是WebMvcConfigurerAdapter类型;不能标注@EnableWebMvc 既保留了所有的自动配置,也能用我们扩展的配置

//使用WebMvcConfigurerAdapter可以来扩展SpringMVC的功能
@Configuration
public class MyMvcConfig extends WebMvcConfigurerAdapter {

    @Override
    public void addViewControllers(ViewControllerRegistry registry) {
       // super.addViewControllers(registry);
        //浏览器发送 /atguigu 请求来到 success
        registry.addViewController("/atguigu").setViewName("success");
    }
}

原理:

​ 1)、WebMvcAutoConfiguration是SpringMVC的自动配置类

​ 2)、在做其他自动配置时会导入;@Import(EnableWebMvcConfiguration.class)

   @Configuration
public static class EnableWebMvcConfiguration extends DelegatingWebMvcConfiguration {
     private final WebMvcConfigurerComposite configurers = new WebMvcConfigurerComposite();

 //从容器中获取所有的WebMvcConfigurer
     @Autowired(required = false)
     public void setConfigurers(List<WebMvcConfigurer> configurers) {
         if (!CollectionUtils.isEmpty(configurers)) {
             this.configurers.addWebMvcConfigurers(configurers);
           	//一个参考实现;将所有的WebMvcConfigurer相关配置都来一起调用;  
           	@Override
            // public void addViewControllers(ViewControllerRegistry registry) {
             //    for (WebMvcConfigurer delegate : this.delegates) {
              //       delegate.addViewControllers(registry);
              //   }
             }
         }
}

​ 3)、容器中所有的WebMvcConfigurer都会一起起作用

​ 4)、我们的配置类也会被调用;

​ 效果:SpringMVC的自动配置和我们的扩展配置都会起作用;

3、全面接管SpringMVC;

SpringBoot对SpringMVC的自动配置不需要了,所有都是我们自己配置;所有的SpringMVC的自动配置都失效了

我们需要在配置类中添加@EnableWebMvc即可;

//使用WebMvcConfigurerAdapter可以来扩展SpringMVC的功能
@EnableWebMvc
@Configuration
public class MyMvcConfig extends WebMvcConfigurerAdapter {

    @Override
    public void addViewControllers(ViewControllerRegistry registry) {
       // super.addViewControllers(registry);
        //浏览器发送 /atguigu 请求来到 success
        registry.addViewController("/atguigu").setViewName("success");
    }
}

原理:

为什么@EnableWebMvc自动配置就失效了;

1)@EnableWebMvc的核心

@Import(DelegatingWebMvcConfiguration.class)
public @interface EnableWebMvc {

2)、

@Configuration
public class DelegatingWebMvcConfiguration extends WebMvcConfigurationSupport {

3)、

@Configuration
@ConditionalOnWebApplication
@ConditionalOnClass({ Servlet.class, DispatcherServlet.class,
		WebMvcConfigurerAdapter.class })
//容器中没有这个组件的时候,这个自动配置类才生效
@ConditionalOnMissingBean(WebMvcConfigurationSupport.class)
@AutoConfigureOrder(Ordered.HIGHEST_PRECEDENCE + 10)
@AutoConfigureAfter({ DispatcherServletAutoConfiguration.class,
		ValidationAutoConfiguration.class })
public class WebMvcAutoConfiguration {

4)、@EnableWebMvc将WebMvcConfigurationSupport组件导入进来;

5)、导入的WebMvcConfigurationSupport只是SpringMVC最基本的功能;

5、如何修改SpringBoot的默认配置

模式:

​ 1)、SpringBoot在自动配置很多组件的时候,先看容器中有没有用户自己配置的(@Bean、@Component)如果有就用用户配置的,如果没有,才自动配置;如果有些组件可以有多个(ViewResolver)将用户配置的和自己默认的组合起来;

​ 2)、在SpringBoot中会有非常多的xxxConfigurer帮助我们进行扩展配置

​ 3)、在SpringBoot中会有很多的xxxCustomizer帮助我们进行定制配置

6、RestfulCRUD

1)、默认访问首页

//使用WebMvcConfigurerAdapter可以来扩展SpringMVC的功能
//@EnableWebMvc   不要接管SpringMVC
@Configuration
public class MyMvcConfig extends WebMvcConfigurerAdapter {

    @Override
    public void addViewControllers(ViewControllerRegistry registry) {
       // super.addViewControllers(registry);
        //浏览器发送 /hello 请求来到 success
        registry.addViewController("/hello").setViewName("success");
    }

    //所有的WebMvcConfigurerAdapter组件都会一起起作用
    @Bean //将组件注册在容器
    public WebMvcConfigurerAdapter webMvcConfigurerAdapter(){
        WebMvcConfigurerAdapter adapter = new WebMvcConfigurerAdapter() {
            @Override
            public void addViewControllers(ViewControllerRegistry registry) {
                registry.addViewController("/").setViewName("login");
                registry.addViewController("/index.html").setViewName("login");
            }
        };
        return adapter;
    }
}

2)、国际化

1)、编写国际化配置文件

2)、使用ResourceBundleMessageSource管理国际化资源文件

3)、在页面使用fmt:message取出国际化内容

步骤:

1)、编写国际化配置文件,抽取页面需要显示的国际化消息 2)、SpringBoot自动配置好了管理国际化资源文件的组件;

@ConfigurationProperties(prefix = "spring.messages")
public class MessageSourceAutoConfiguration {
    
    /**
	 * Comma-separated list of basenames (essentially a fully-qualified classpath
	 * location), each following the ResourceBundle convention with relaxed support for
	 * slash based locations. If it doesn't contain a package qualifier (such as
	 * "org.mypackage"), it will be resolved from the classpath root.
	 */
	private String basename = "messages";  
    //我们的配置文件可以直接放在类路径下叫messages.properties;
    
    @Bean
	public MessageSource messageSource() {
		ResourceBundleMessageSource messageSource = new ResourceBundleMessageSource();
		if (StringUtils.hasText(this.basename)) {
            //设置国际化资源文件的基础名(去掉语言国家代码的)
			messageSource.setBasenames(StringUtils.commaDelimitedListToStringArray(
					StringUtils.trimAllWhitespace(this.basename)));
		}
		if (this.encoding != null) {
			messageSource.setDefaultEncoding(this.encoding.name());
		}
		messageSource.setFallbackToSystemLocale(this.fallbackToSystemLocale);
		messageSource.setCacheSeconds(this.cacheSeconds);
		messageSource.setAlwaysUseMessageFormat(this.alwaysUseMessageFormat);
		return messageSource;
	}

3)、去页面获取国际化的值;

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en"  xmlns:th="http://www.thymeleaf.org">
	<head>
<link href="asserts/css/bootstrap.min.css" th:href="@{/webjars/bootstrap/4.0.0/css/bootstrap.css}" rel="stylesheet">
		<!-- Custom styles for this template -->
		<link href="asserts/css/signin.css" th:href="@{/asserts/css/signin.css}" rel="stylesheet">
	</head>

<h1 class="h3 mb-3 font-weight-normal" th:text="#{login.tip}">Please sign in</h1>

效果:根据浏览器语言设置的信息切换了国际化;

原理:

​ 国际化Locale(区域信息对象);LocaleResolver(获取区域信息对象);

		@Bean
		@ConditionalOnMissingBean
		@ConditionalOnProperty(prefix = "spring.mvc", name = "locale")
		public LocaleResolver localeResolver() {
			if (this.mvcProperties
					.getLocaleResolver() == WebMvcProperties.LocaleResolver.FIXED) {
				return new FixedLocaleResolver(this.mvcProperties.getLocale());
			}
			AcceptHeaderLocaleResolver localeResolver = new AcceptHeaderLocaleResolver();
			localeResolver.setDefaultLocale(this.mvcProperties.getLocale());
			return localeResolver;
		}
默认的就是根据请求头带来的区域信息获取Locale进行国际化

4)、点击链接切换国际化

/**
 * 可以在连接上携带区域信息
 */
public class MyLocaleResolver implements LocaleResolver {
    
    @Override
    public Locale resolveLocale(HttpServletRequest request) {
        String l = request.getParameter("l");
        Locale locale = Locale.getDefault();
        if(!StringUtils.isEmpty(l)){
            String[] split = l.split("_");
            locale = new Locale(split[0],split[1]);
        }
        return locale;
    }

    @Override
    public void setLocale(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Locale locale) {

    }
}


 @Bean
    public LocaleResolver localeResolver(){
        return new MyLocaleResolver();
    }
}

3)、登陆

开发期间模板引擎页面修改以后,要实时生效

1)、禁用模板引擎的缓存

# 禁用缓存
spring.thymeleaf.cache=false

2)、页面修改完成以后ctrl+f9:重新编译;

登陆错误消息的显示

<p style="color: red" th:text="${msg}" th:if="${not #strings.isEmpty(msg)}"></p>

4)、拦截器进行登陆检查

拦截器

/**
 * 登陆检查,
 */
public class LoginHandlerInterceptor implements HandlerInterceptor {
    //目标方法执行之前
    @Override
    public boolean preHandle(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Object handler) throws Exception {
        Object user = request.getSession().getAttribute("loginUser");
        if(user == null){
            //未登陆,返回登陆页面
            request.setAttribute("msg","没有权限请先登陆");
            request.getRequestDispatcher("/index.html").forward(request,response);
            return false;
        }else{
            //已登陆,放行请求
            return true;
        }

    }

    @Override
    public void postHandle(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Object handler, ModelAndView modelAndView) throws Exception {

    }

    @Override
    public void afterCompletion(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Object handler, Exception ex) throws Exception {

    }
}

注册拦截器

//所有的WebMvcConfigurerAdapter组件都会一起起作用
  @Bean //将组件注册在容器
  public WebMvcConfigurerAdapter webMvcConfigurerAdapter(){
      WebMvcConfigurerAdapter adapter = new WebMvcConfigurerAdapter() {
          @Override
          public void addViewControllers(ViewControllerRegistry registry) {
              registry.addViewController("/").setViewName("login");
              registry.addViewController("/index.html").setViewName("login");
              registry.addViewController("/main.html").setViewName("dashboard");
          }

          //注册拦截器
          @Override
          public void addInterceptors(InterceptorRegistry registry) {
              //super.addInterceptors(registry);
              //静态资源;  *.css , *.js
              //SpringBoot已经做好了静态资源映射
              registry.addInterceptor(new LoginHandlerInterceptor()).addPathPatterns("/**")
                      .excludePathPatterns("/index.html","/","/user/login");
          }
      };
      return adapter;
  }

5)、CRUD-员工列表

实验要求:

1)、RestfulCRUD:CRUD满足Rest风格;

URI: /资源名称/资源标识 HTTP请求方式区分对资源CRUD操作

普通CRUD(uri来区分操作)

RestfulCRUD

查询

getEmp

emp—GET

添加

addEmp?xxx

emp—POST

修改

updateEmp?id=xxx&xxx=xx

emp/{id}—PUT

删除

deleteEmp?id=1

emp/{id}—DELETE

2)、实验的请求架构;

实验功能

请求URI

请求方式

查询所有员工

emps

GET

查询某个员工(来到修改页面)

emp/1

GET

来到添加页面

emp

GET

添加员工

emp

POST

来到修改页面(查出员工进行信息回显)

emp/1

GET

修改员工

emp

PUT

删除员工

emp/1

DELETE

3)、员工列表:

thymeleaf公共页面元素抽取

1、抽取公共片段
<div th:fragment="copy">
&copy; 2011 The Good Thymes Virtual Grocery
</div>

2、引入公共片段
<div th:insert="~{footer :: copy}"></div>
~{templatename::selector}:模板名::选择器
~{templatename::fragmentname}:模板名::片段名

3、默认效果:
insert的公共片段在div标签中
如果使用th:insert等属性进行引入,可以不用写~{}:
行内写法可以加上:[[~{}]];[(~{})];

三种引入公共片段的th属性:

th:insert:将公共片段整个插入到声明引入的元素中

th:replace:将声明引入的元素替换为公共片段

th:include:将被引入的片段的内容包含进这个标签中

<footer th:fragment="copy">
&copy; 2011 The Good Thymes Virtual Grocery
</footer>

引入方式
<div th:insert="footer :: copy"></div>
<div th:replace="footer :: copy"></div>
<div th:include="footer :: copy"></div>

效果
<div>
    <footer>
    &copy; 2011 The Good Thymes Virtual Grocery
    </footer>
</div>

<footer>
&copy; 2011 The Good Thymes Virtual Grocery
</footer>

<div>
&copy; 2011 The Good Thymes Virtual Grocery
</div>

引入片段的时候传入参数:

<nav class="col-md-2 d-none d-md-block bg-light sidebar" id="sidebar">
    <div class="sidebar-sticky">
        <ul class="nav flex-column">
            <li class="nav-item">
                <a class="nav-link active"
                   th:class="${activeUri=='main.html'?'nav-link active':'nav-link'}"
                   href="#" th:href="@{/main.html}">
                    <svg xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" width="24" height="24" viewBox="0 0 24 24" fill="none" stroke="currentColor" stroke-width="2" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" class="feather feather-home">
                        <path d="M3 9l9-7 9 7v11a2 2 0 0 1-2 2H5a2 2 0 0 1-2-2z"></path>
                        <polyline points="9 22 9 12 15 12 15 22"></polyline>
                    </svg>
                    Dashboard <span class="sr-only">(current)</span>
                </a>
            </li>

<!--引入侧边栏;传入参数-->
<div th:replace="commons/bar::#sidebar(activeUri='emps')"></div>

6)、CRUD-员工添加

添加页面

<form>
    <div class="form-group">
        <label>LastName</label>
        <input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder="zhangsan">
    </div>
    <div class="form-group">
        <label>Email</label>
        <input type="email" class="form-control" placeholder="zhangsan@atguigu.com">
    </div>
    <div class="form-group">
        <label>Gender</label><br/>
        <div class="form-check form-check-inline">
            <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="gender"  value="1">
            <label class="form-check-label">男</label>
        </div>
        <div class="form-check form-check-inline">
            <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="gender"  value="0">
            <label class="form-check-label">女</label>
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="form-group">
        <label>department</label>
        <select class="form-control">
            <option>1</option>
            <option>2</option>
            <option>3</option>
            <option>4</option>
            <option>5</option>
        </select>
    </div>
    <div class="form-group">
        <label>Birth</label>
        <input type="text" class="form-control" placeholder="zhangsan">
    </div>
    <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary">添加</button>
</form>

提交的数据格式不对:生日:日期;

2017-12-12;2017/12/12;2017.12.12;

日期的格式化;SpringMVC将页面提交的值需要转换为指定的类型;

2017-12-12—Date; 类型转换,格式化;

默认日期是按照/的方式;

7)、CRUD-员工修改

修改添加二合一表单

<!--需要区分是员工修改还是添加;-->
<form th:action="@{/emp}" method="post">
    <!--发送put请求修改员工数据-->
    <!--
1、SpringMVC中配置HiddenHttpMethodFilter;(SpringBoot自动配置好的)
2、页面创建一个post表单
3、创建一个input项,name="_method";值就是我们指定的请求方式
-->
    <input type="hidden" name="_method" value="put" th:if="${emp!=null}"/>
    <input type="hidden" name="id" th:if="${emp!=null}" th:value="${emp.id}">
    <div class="form-group">
        <label>LastName</label>
        <input name="lastName" type="text" class="form-control" placeholder="zhangsan" th:value="${emp!=null}?${emp.lastName}">
    </div>
    <div class="form-group">
        <label>Email</label>
        <input name="email" type="email" class="form-control" placeholder="zhangsan@atguigu.com" th:value="${emp!=null}?${emp.email}">
    </div>
    <div class="form-group">
        <label>Gender</label><br/>
        <div class="form-check form-check-inline">
            <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="gender" value="1" th:checked="${emp!=null}?${emp.gender==1}">
            <label class="form-check-label">男</label>
        </div>
        <div class="form-check form-check-inline">
            <input class="form-check-input" type="radio" name="gender" value="0" th:checked="${emp!=null}?${emp.gender==0}">
            <label class="form-check-label">女</label>
        </div>
    </div>
    <div class="form-group">
        <label>department</label>
        <!--提交的是部门的id-->
        <select class="form-control" name="department.id">
            <option th:selected="${emp!=null}?${dept.id == emp.department.id}" th:value="${dept.id}" th:each="dept:${depts}" th:text="${dept.departmentName}">1</option>
        </select>
    </div>
    <div class="form-group">
        <label>Birth</label>
        <input name="birth" type="text" class="form-control" placeholder="zhangsan" th:value="${emp!=null}?${#dates.format(emp.birth, 'yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm')}">
    </div>
    <button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary" th:text="${emp!=null}?'修改':'添加'">添加</button>
</form>

8)、CRUD-员工删除

<tr th:each="emp:${emps}">
    <td th:text="${emp.id}"></td>
    <td>[[${emp.lastName}]]</td>
    <td th:text="${emp.email}"></td>
    <td th:text="${emp.gender}==0?'女':'男'"></td>
    <td th:text="${emp.department.departmentName}"></td>
    <td th:text="${#dates.format(emp.birth, 'yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm')}"></td>
    <td>
        <a class="btn btn-sm btn-primary" th:href="@{/emp/}+${emp.id}">编辑</a>
        <button th:attr="del_uri=@{/emp/}+${emp.id}" class="btn btn-sm btn-danger deleteBtn">删除</button>
    </td>
</tr>


<script>
    $(".deleteBtn").click(function(){
        //删除当前员工的
        $("#deleteEmpForm").attr("action",$(this).attr("del_uri")).submit();
        return false;
    });
</script>

7、错误处理机制

1)、SpringBoot默认的错误处理机制

默认效果:

​ 1)、浏览器,返回一个默认的错误页面 ​ 2)、如果是其他客户端,默认响应一个json数据

原理:

​ 可以参照ErrorMvcAutoConfiguration;错误处理的自动配置;

给容器中添加了以下组件

​ 1、DefaultErrorAttributes:

帮我们在页面共享信息;
@Override
	public Map<String, Object> getErrorAttributes(RequestAttributes requestAttributes,
			boolean includeStackTrace) {
		Map<String, Object> errorAttributes = new LinkedHashMap<String, Object>();
		errorAttributes.put("timestamp", new Date());
		addStatus(errorAttributes, requestAttributes);
		addErrorDetails(errorAttributes, requestAttributes, includeStackTrace);
		addPath(errorAttributes, requestAttributes);
		return errorAttributes;
	}

​ 2、BasicErrorController:处理默认/error请求

@Controller
@RequestMapping("${server.error.path:${error.path:/error}}")
public class BasicErrorController extends AbstractErrorController {
    
    @RequestMapping(produces = "text/html")//产生html类型的数据;浏览器发送的请求来到这个方法处理
	public ModelAndView errorHtml(HttpServletRequest request,
			HttpServletResponse response) {
		HttpStatus status = getStatus(request);
		Map<String, Object> model = Collections.unmodifiableMap(getErrorAttributes(
				request, isIncludeStackTrace(request, MediaType.TEXT_HTML)));
		response.setStatus(status.value());
        
        //去哪个页面作为错误页面;包含页面地址和页面内容
		ModelAndView modelAndView = resolveErrorView(request, response, status, model);
		return (modelAndView == null ? new ModelAndView("error", model) : modelAndView);
	}

	@RequestMapping
	@ResponseBody    //产生json数据,其他客户端来到这个方法处理;
	public ResponseEntity<Map<String, Object>> error(HttpServletRequest request) {
		Map<String, Object> body = getErrorAttributes(request,
				isIncludeStackTrace(request, MediaType.ALL));
		HttpStatus status = getStatus(request);
		return new ResponseEntity<Map<String, Object>>(body, status);
	}

​ 3、ErrorPageCustomizer:

@Value("${error.path:/error}")
private String path = "/error";  系统出现错误以后来到error请求进行处理;(web.xml注册的错误页面规则)

​ 4、DefaultErrorViewResolver:

@Override
	public ModelAndView resolveErrorView(HttpServletRequest request, HttpStatus status,
			Map<String, Object> model) {
		ModelAndView modelAndView = resolve(String.valueOf(status), model);
		if (modelAndView == null && SERIES_VIEWS.containsKey(status.series())) {
			modelAndView = resolve(SERIES_VIEWS.get(status.series()), model);
		}
		return modelAndView;
	}

	private ModelAndView resolve(String viewName, Map<String, Object> model) {
        //默认SpringBoot可以去找到一个页面?  error/404
		String errorViewName = "error/" + viewName;
        
        //模板引擎可以解析这个页面地址就用模板引擎解析
		TemplateAvailabilityProvider provider = this.templateAvailabilityProviders
				.getProvider(errorViewName, this.applicationContext);
		if (provider != null) {
            //模板引擎可用的情况下返回到errorViewName指定的视图地址
			return new ModelAndView(errorViewName, model);
		}
        //模板引擎不可用,就在静态资源文件夹下找errorViewName对应的页面   error/404.html
		return resolveResource(errorViewName, model);
	}

​ 步骤:

​ 一但系统出现4xx或者5xx之类的错误;ErrorPageCustomizer就会生效(定制错误的响应规则);就会来到/error请求;就会被BasicErrorController处理;

​ 1)响应页面;去哪个页面是由DefaultErrorViewResolver解析得到的;

protected ModelAndView resolveErrorView(HttpServletRequest request,
      HttpServletResponse response, HttpStatus status, Map<String, Object> model) {
    //所有的ErrorViewResolver得到ModelAndView
   for (ErrorViewResolver resolver : this.errorViewResolvers) {
      ModelAndView modelAndView = resolver.resolveErrorView(request, status, model);
      if (modelAndView != null) {
         return modelAndView;
      }
   }
   return null;
}

2)、如果定制错误响应:

1)、如何定制错误的页面;

1)、有模板引擎的情况下;error/状态码; 【将错误页面命名为 错误状态码.html 放在模板引擎文件夹里面的 error文件夹下】,发生此状态码的错误就会来到 对应的页面;

​ 我们可以使用4xx和5xx作为错误页面的文件名来匹配这种类型的所有错误,精确优先(优先寻找精确的状态码.html);

​ 页面能获取的信息;

​ timestamp:时间戳

​ status:状态码

​ error:错误提示

​ exception:异常对象

​ message:异常消息

​ errors:JSR303数据校验的错误都在这里

​ 2)、没有模板引擎(模板引擎找不到这个错误页面),静态资源文件夹下找;

​ 3)、以上都没有错误页面,就是默认来到SpringBoot默认的错误提示页面;

2)、如何定制错误的json数据;

​ 1)、自定义异常处理&返回定制json数据;

@ControllerAdvice
public class MyExceptionHandler {

    @ResponseBody
    @ExceptionHandler(UserNotExistException.class)
    public Map<String,Object> handleException(Exception e){
        Map<String,Object> map = new HashMap<>();
        map.put("code","user.notexist");
        map.put("message",e.getMessage());
        return map;
    }
}
//没有自适应效果...

​ 2)、转发到/error进行自适应响应效果处理

@ExceptionHandler(UserNotExistException.class)
   public String handleException(Exception e, HttpServletRequest request){
       Map<String,Object> map = new HashMap<>();
       //传入我们自己的错误状态码  4xx 5xx,否则就不会进入定制错误页面的解析流程
       /**
        * Integer statusCode = (Integer) request
        .getAttribute("javax.servlet.error.status_code");
        */
       request.setAttribute("javax.servlet.error.status_code",500);
       map.put("code","user.notexist");
       map.put("message",e.getMessage());
       //转发到/error
       return "forward:/error";
   }

3)、将我们的定制数据携带出去;

出现错误以后,会来到/error请求,会被BasicErrorController处理,响应出去可以获取的数据是由getErrorAttributes得到的(是AbstractErrorController(ErrorController)规定的方法);

​ 1、完全来编写一个ErrorController的实现类【或者是编写AbstractErrorController的子类】,放在容器中;

​ 2、页面上能用的数据,或者是json返回能用的数据都是通过errorAttributes.getErrorAttributes得到;

​ 容器中DefaultErrorAttributes.getErrorAttributes();默认进行数据处理的;

自定义ErrorAttributes

//给容器中加入我们自己定义的ErrorAttributes
@Component
public class MyErrorAttributes extends DefaultErrorAttributes {

    @Override
    public Map<String, Object> getErrorAttributes(RequestAttributes requestAttributes, boolean includeStackTrace) {
        Map<String, Object> map = super.getErrorAttributes(requestAttributes, includeStackTrace);
        map.put("company","atguigu");
        return map;
    }
}

最终的效果:响应是自适应的,可以通过定制ErrorAttributes改变需要返回的内容,

8、配置嵌入式Servlet容器

SpringBoot默认使用Tomcat作为嵌入式的Servlet容器;

问题?

1)、如何定制和修改Servlet容器的相关配置;

1、修改和server有关的配置(ServerProperties【也是EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer】);

server.port=8081
server.context-path=/crud

server.tomcat.uri-encoding=UTF-8

//通用的Servlet容器设置
server.xxx
//Tomcat的设置
server.tomcat.xxx

2、编写一个EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer:嵌入式的Servlet容器的定制器;来修改Servlet容器的配置

@Bean  //一定要将这个定制器加入到容器中
public EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer embeddedServletContainerCustomizer(){
    return new EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer() {

        //定制嵌入式的Servlet容器相关的规则
        @Override
        public void customize(ConfigurableEmbeddedServletContainer container) {
            container.setPort(8083);
        }
    };
}

2)、注册Servlet三大组件【Servlet、Filter、Listener】

由于SpringBoot默认是以jar包的方式启动嵌入式的Servlet容器来启动SpringBoot的web应用,没有web.xml文件。

注册三大组件用以下方式

ServletRegistrationBean

//注册三大组件
@Bean
public ServletRegistrationBean myServlet(){
    ServletRegistrationBean registrationBean = new ServletRegistrationBean(new MyServlet(),"/myServlet");
    return registrationBean;
}

FilterRegistrationBean

@Bean
public FilterRegistrationBean myFilter(){
    FilterRegistrationBean registrationBean = new FilterRegistrationBean();
    registrationBean.setFilter(new MyFilter());
    registrationBean.setUrlPatterns(Arrays.asList("/hello","/myServlet"));
    return registrationBean;
}

ServletListenerRegistrationBean

@Bean
public ServletListenerRegistrationBean myListener(){
    ServletListenerRegistrationBean<MyListener> registrationBean = new ServletListenerRegistrationBean<>(new MyListener());
    return registrationBean;
}

SpringBoot帮我们自动SpringMVC的时候,自动的注册SpringMVC的前端控制器;DIspatcherServlet;

DispatcherServletAutoConfiguration中:

@Bean(name = DEFAULT_DISPATCHER_SERVLET_REGISTRATION_BEAN_NAME)
@ConditionalOnBean(value = DispatcherServlet.class, name = DEFAULT_DISPATCHER_SERVLET_BEAN_NAME)
public ServletRegistrationBean dispatcherServletRegistration(
      DispatcherServlet dispatcherServlet) {
   ServletRegistrationBean registration = new ServletRegistrationBean(
         dispatcherServlet, this.serverProperties.getServletMapping());
    //默认拦截: /  所有请求;包静态资源,但是不拦截jsp请求;   /*会拦截jsp
    //可以通过server.servletPath来修改SpringMVC前端控制器默认拦截的请求路径
    
   registration.setName(DEFAULT_DISPATCHER_SERVLET_BEAN_NAME);
   registration.setLoadOnStartup(
         this.webMvcProperties.getServlet().getLoadOnStartup());
   if (this.multipartConfig != null) {
      registration.setMultipartConfig(this.multipartConfig);
   }
   return registration;
}

2)、SpringBoot能不能支持其他的Servlet容器;

3)、替换为其他嵌入式Servlet容器

默认支持:

Tomcat(默认使用)

<dependency>
   <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
   <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
   引入web模块默认就是使用嵌入式的Tomcat作为Servlet容器;
</dependency>

Jetty

<!-- 引入web模块 -->
<dependency>
   <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
   <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
   <exclusions>
      <exclusion>
         <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-tomcat</artifactId>
         <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
      </exclusion>
   </exclusions>
</dependency>

<!--引入其他的Servlet容器-->
<dependency>
   <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-jetty</artifactId>
   <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
</dependency>

Undertow

<!-- 引入web模块 -->
<dependency>
   <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
   <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-web</artifactId>
   <exclusions>
      <exclusion>
         <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-tomcat</artifactId>
         <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
      </exclusion>
   </exclusions>
</dependency>

<!--引入其他的Servlet容器-->
<dependency>
   <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-undertow</artifactId>
   <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
</dependency>

4)、嵌入式Servlet容器自动配置原理;

EmbeddedServletContainerAutoConfiguration:嵌入式的Servlet容器自动配置?

@AutoConfigureOrder(Ordered.HIGHEST_PRECEDENCE)
@Configuration
@ConditionalOnWebApplication
@Import(BeanPostProcessorsRegistrar.class)
//导入BeanPostProcessorsRegistrar:Spring注解版;给容器中导入一些组件
//导入了EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizerBeanPostProcessor:
//后置处理器:bean初始化前后(创建完对象,还没赋值赋值)执行初始化工作
public class EmbeddedServletContainerAutoConfiguration {
    
    @Configuration
	@ConditionalOnClass({ Servlet.class, Tomcat.class })//判断当前是否引入了Tomcat依赖;
	@ConditionalOnMissingBean(value = EmbeddedServletContainerFactory.class, search = SearchStrategy.CURRENT)//判断当前容器没有用户自己定义EmbeddedServletContainerFactory:嵌入式的Servlet容器工厂;作用:创建嵌入式的Servlet容器
	public static class EmbeddedTomcat {

		@Bean
		public TomcatEmbeddedServletContainerFactory tomcatEmbeddedServletContainerFactory() {
			return new TomcatEmbeddedServletContainerFactory();
		}

	}
    
    /**
	 * Nested configuration if Jetty is being used.
	 */
	@Configuration
	@ConditionalOnClass({ Servlet.class, Server.class, Loader.class,
			WebAppContext.class })
	@ConditionalOnMissingBean(value = EmbeddedServletContainerFactory.class, search = SearchStrategy.CURRENT)
	public static class EmbeddedJetty {

		@Bean
		public JettyEmbeddedServletContainerFactory jettyEmbeddedServletContainerFactory() {
			return new JettyEmbeddedServletContainerFactory();
		}

	}

	/**
	 * Nested configuration if Undertow is being used.
	 */
	@Configuration
	@ConditionalOnClass({ Servlet.class, Undertow.class, SslClientAuthMode.class })
	@ConditionalOnMissingBean(value = EmbeddedServletContainerFactory.class, search = SearchStrategy.CURRENT)
	public static class EmbeddedUndertow {

		@Bean
		public UndertowEmbeddedServletContainerFactory undertowEmbeddedServletContainerFactory() {
			return new UndertowEmbeddedServletContainerFactory();
		}

	}

1)、EmbeddedServletContainerFactory(嵌入式Servlet容器工厂)

public interface EmbeddedServletContainerFactory {

   //获取嵌入式的Servlet容器
   EmbeddedServletContainer getEmbeddedServletContainer(
         ServletContextInitializer... initializers);

}

2)、EmbeddedServletContainer:(嵌入式的Servlet容器)

3)、以TomcatEmbeddedServletContainerFactory为例

@Override
public EmbeddedServletContainer getEmbeddedServletContainer(
      ServletContextInitializer... initializers) {
    //创建一个Tomcat
   Tomcat tomcat = new Tomcat();
    
    //配置Tomcat的基本环节
   File baseDir = (this.baseDirectory != null ? this.baseDirectory
         : createTempDir("tomcat"));
   tomcat.setBaseDir(baseDir.getAbsolutePath());
   Connector connector = new Connector(this.protocol);
   tomcat.getService().addConnector(connector);
   customizeConnector(connector);
   tomcat.setConnector(connector);
   tomcat.getHost().setAutoDeploy(false);
   configureEngine(tomcat.getEngine());
   for (Connector additionalConnector : this.additionalTomcatConnectors) {
      tomcat.getService().addConnector(additionalConnector);
   }
   prepareContext(tomcat.getHost(), initializers);
    
    //将配置好的Tomcat传入进去,返回一个EmbeddedServletContainer;并且启动Tomcat服务器
   return getTomcatEmbeddedServletContainer(tomcat);
}

4)、我们对嵌入式容器的配置修改是怎么生效?

ServerProperties、EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer

EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer:定制器帮我们修改了Servlet容器的配置?

怎么修改的原理?

5)、容器中导入了EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizerBeanPostProcessor

//初始化之前
@Override
public Object postProcessBeforeInitialization(Object bean, String beanName)
      throws BeansException {
    //如果当前初始化的是一个ConfigurableEmbeddedServletContainer类型的组件
   if (bean instanceof ConfigurableEmbeddedServletContainer) {
       //
      postProcessBeforeInitialization((ConfigurableEmbeddedServletContainer) bean);
   }
   return bean;
}

private void postProcessBeforeInitialization(
			ConfigurableEmbeddedServletContainer bean) {
    //获取所有的定制器,调用每一个定制器的customize方法来给Servlet容器进行属性赋值;
    for (EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer customizer : getCustomizers()) {
        customizer.customize(bean);
    }
}

private Collection<EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer> getCustomizers() {
    if (this.customizers == null) {
        // Look up does not include the parent context
        this.customizers = new ArrayList<EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer>(
            this.beanFactory
            //从容器中获取所有这葛类型的组件:EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer
            //定制Servlet容器,给容器中可以添加一个EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer类型的组件
            .getBeansOfType(EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer.class,
                            false, false)
            .values());
        Collections.sort(this.customizers, AnnotationAwareOrderComparator.INSTANCE);
        this.customizers = Collections.unmodifiableList(this.customizers);
    }
    return this.customizers;
}

ServerProperties也是定制器

步骤:

1)、SpringBoot根据导入的依赖情况,给容器中添加相应的EmbeddedServletContainerFactory【TomcatEmbeddedServletContainerFactory】

2)、容器中某个组件要创建对象就会惊动后置处理器;EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizerBeanPostProcessor;

只要是嵌入式的Servlet容器工厂,后置处理器就工作;

3)、后置处理器,从容器中获取所有的EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer,调用定制器的定制方法

###5)、嵌入式Servlet容器启动原理;

什么时候创建嵌入式的Servlet容器工厂?什么时候获取嵌入式的Servlet容器并启动Tomcat;

获取嵌入式的Servlet容器工厂:

1)、SpringBoot应用启动运行run方法

2)、refreshContext(context);SpringBoot刷新IOC容器【创建IOC容器对象,并初始化容器,创建容器中的每一个组件】;如果是web应用创建AnnotationConfigEmbeddedWebApplicationContext,否则:AnnotationConfigApplicationContext

3)、refresh(context);刷新刚才创建好的ioc容器;

public void refresh() throws BeansException, IllegalStateException {
   synchronized (this.startupShutdownMonitor) {
      // Prepare this context for refreshing.
      prepareRefresh();

      // Tell the subclass to refresh the internal bean factory.
      ConfigurableListableBeanFactory beanFactory = obtainFreshBeanFactory();

      // Prepare the bean factory for use in this context.
      prepareBeanFactory(beanFactory);

      try {
         // Allows post-processing of the bean factory in context subclasses.
         postProcessBeanFactory(beanFactory);

         // Invoke factory processors registered as beans in the context.
         invokeBeanFactoryPostProcessors(beanFactory);

         // Register bean processors that intercept bean creation.
         registerBeanPostProcessors(beanFactory);

         // Initialize message source for this context.
         initMessageSource();

         // Initialize event multicaster for this context.
         initApplicationEventMulticaster();

         // Initialize other special beans in specific context subclasses.
         onRefresh();

         // Check for listener beans and register them.
         registerListeners();

         // Instantiate all remaining (non-lazy-init) singletons.
         finishBeanFactoryInitialization(beanFactory);

         // Last step: publish corresponding event.
         finishRefresh();
      }

      catch (BeansException ex) {
         if (logger.isWarnEnabled()) {
            logger.warn("Exception encountered during context initialization - " +
                  "cancelling refresh attempt: " + ex);
         }

         // Destroy already created singletons to avoid dangling resources.
         destroyBeans();

         // Reset 'active' flag.
         cancelRefresh(ex);

         // Propagate exception to caller.
         throw ex;
      }

      finally {
         // Reset common introspection caches in Spring's core, since we
         // might not ever need metadata for singleton beans anymore...
         resetCommonCaches();
      }
   }
}

4)、 onRefresh(); web的ioc容器重写了onRefresh方法

5)、webioc容器会创建嵌入式的Servlet容器;createEmbeddedServletContainer();

6)、获取嵌入式的Servlet容器工厂:

EmbeddedServletContainerFactory containerFactory = getEmbeddedServletContainerFactory();

​ 从ioc容器中获取EmbeddedServletContainerFactory 组件;TomcatEmbeddedServletContainerFactory创建对象,后置处理器一看是这个对象,就获取所有的定制器来先定制Servlet容器的相关配置;

7)、使用容器工厂获取嵌入式的Servlet容器:this.embeddedServletContainer = containerFactory .getEmbeddedServletContainer(getSelfInitializer());

8)、嵌入式的Servlet容器创建对象并启动Servlet容器;

先启动嵌入式的Servlet容器,再将ioc容器中剩下没有创建出的对象获取出来;

==IOC容器启动创建嵌入式的Servlet容器==

9、使用外置的Servlet容器

嵌入式Servlet容器:应用打成可执行的jar

​ 优点:简单、便携;

​ 缺点:默认不支持JSP、优化定制比较复杂(使用定制器【ServerProperties、自定义EmbeddedServletContainerCustomizer】,自己编写嵌入式Servlet容器的创建工厂【EmbeddedServletContainerFactory】);

外置的Servlet容器:外面安装Tomcat—应用war包的方式打包;

步骤

1)、必须创建一个war项目;(利用idea创建好目录结构)

2)、将嵌入式的Tomcat指定为provided;

<dependency>
   <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
   <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-tomcat</artifactId>
   <scope>provided</scope>
</dependency>

3)、必须编写一个SpringBootServletInitializer的子类,并调用configure方法

public class ServletInitializer extends SpringBootServletInitializer {

   @Override
   protected SpringApplicationBuilder configure(SpringApplicationBuilder application) {
       //传入SpringBoot应用的主程序
      return application.sources(SpringBoot04WebJspApplication.class);
   }

}

4)、启动服务器就可以使用;

原理

jar包:执行SpringBoot主类的main方法,启动ioc容器,创建嵌入式的Servlet容器;

war包:启动服务器,服务器启动SpringBoot应用【SpringBootServletInitializer】,启动ioc容器;

servlet3.0(Spring注解版):

8.2.4 Shared libraries / runtimes pluggability:

规则:

​ 1)、服务器启动(web应用启动)会创建当前web应用里面每一个jar包里面ServletContainerInitializer实例:

​ 2)、ServletContainerInitializer的实现放在jar包的META-INF/services文件夹下,有一个名为javax.servlet.ServletContainerInitializer的文件,内容就是ServletContainerInitializer的实现类的全类名

​ 3)、还可以使用@HandlesTypes,在应用启动的时候加载我们感兴趣的类;

流程:

1)、启动Tomcat

2)、org\springframework\spring-web\4.3.14.RELEASE\spring-web-4.3.14.RELEASE.jar!\META-INF\services\javax.servlet.ServletContainerInitializer:

Spring的web模块里面有这个文件:org.springframework.web.SpringServletContainerInitializer

3)、SpringServletContainerInitializer将@HandlesTypes(WebApplicationInitializer.class)标注的所有这个类型的类都传入到onStartup方法的Set>;为这些WebApplicationInitializer类型的类创建实例;

4)、每一个WebApplicationInitializer都调用自己的onStartup;

5)、相当于我们的SpringBootServletInitializer的类会被创建对象,并执行onStartup方法

6)、SpringBootServletInitializer实例执行onStartup的时候会createRootApplicationContext;创建容器

protected WebApplicationContext createRootApplicationContext(
      ServletContext servletContext) {
    //1、创建SpringApplicationBuilder
   SpringApplicationBuilder builder = createSpringApplicationBuilder();
   StandardServletEnvironment environment = new StandardServletEnvironment();
   environment.initPropertySources(servletContext, null);
   builder.environment(environment);
   builder.main(getClass());
   ApplicationContext parent = getExistingRootWebApplicationContext(servletContext);
   if (parent != null) {
      this.logger.info("Root context already created (using as parent).");
      servletContext.setAttribute(
            WebApplicationContext.ROOT_WEB_APPLICATION_CONTEXT_ATTRIBUTE, null);
      builder.initializers(new ParentContextApplicationContextInitializer(parent));
   }
   builder.initializers(
         new ServletContextApplicationContextInitializer(servletContext));
   builder.contextClass(AnnotationConfigEmbeddedWebApplicationContext.class);
    
    //调用configure方法,子类重写了这个方法,将SpringBoot的主程序类传入了进来
   builder = configure(builder);
    
    //使用builder创建一个Spring应用
   SpringApplication application = builder.build();
   if (application.getSources().isEmpty() && AnnotationUtils
         .findAnnotation(getClass(), Configuration.class) != null) {
      application.getSources().add(getClass());
   }
   Assert.state(!application.getSources().isEmpty(),
         "No SpringApplication sources have been defined. Either override the "
               + "configure method or add an @Configuration annotation");
   // Ensure error pages are registered
   if (this.registerErrorPageFilter) {
      application.getSources().add(ErrorPageFilterConfiguration.class);
   }
    //启动Spring应用
   return run(application);
}

7)、Spring的应用就启动并且创建IOC容器

public ConfigurableApplicationContext run(String... args) {
   StopWatch stopWatch = new StopWatch();
   stopWatch.start();
   ConfigurableApplicationContext context = null;
   FailureAnalyzers analyzers = null;
   configureHeadlessProperty();
   SpringApplicationRunListeners listeners = getRunListeners(args);
   listeners.starting();
   try {
      ApplicationArguments applicationArguments = new DefaultApplicationArguments(
            args);
      ConfigurableEnvironment environment = prepareEnvironment(listeners,
            applicationArguments);
      Banner printedBanner = printBanner(environment);
      context = createApplicationContext();
      analyzers = new FailureAnalyzers(context);
      prepareContext(context, environment, listeners, applicationArguments,
            printedBanner);
       
       //刷新IOC容器
      refreshContext(context);
      afterRefresh(context, applicationArguments);
      listeners.finished(context, null);
      stopWatch.stop();
      if (this.logStartupInfo) {
         new StartupInfoLogger(this.mainApplicationClass)
               .logStarted(getApplicationLog(), stopWatch);
      }
      return context;
   }
   catch (Throwable ex) {
      handleRunFailure(context, listeners, analyzers, ex);
      throw new IllegalStateException(ex);
   }
}

==启动Servlet容器,再启动SpringBoot应用==

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