两大Linux发行版迎来大幅更新 Debian 9及Fedora 26 Beta终于发布

Debian 9终于发布

Debian 发行版宣布正式释出代号为 Stretch 的 Debian 9,该版本将提供五年的支持。Stretch 将专门献给于 2015 年 12 月 28 日去世的项目创始人 Ian Murdock。Stretch 的主要变化包括:默认 MySQL 变种改为 MariaDB;Firefox 和 Thunderbird 替代去品牌名的版本 Iceweasel 和 Icedove;

九成以上的源包用逐位对应的方式构建,未来版本的 Debian 还将提供验证包的工具和元数据;X 显示系统不再需要 root 权限运行;GnuPG 经典版本将被淘汰,引入的现代版本增加了椭圆曲线加密,改进默认设置,模块化架构,改进智能卡支持;改进 UEFI 支持等。

软件方面的变化包括:Apache 2.4.25、Chromium 59.0.3071.8、Firefox 45.9、GIMP 2.8.18、更新版的 GNOME 3.22、GnuPG 2.1、LibreOffice 5.2、Linux 4.9、MariaDB 10.1、PHP 7.0....

以下是官方更新公告:

Debian 9 Stretch released June 17th, 2017 After 26 months of development the Debian project is proud to present its new stable version 9 (code name Stretch), which will be supported for the next 5 years thanks to the combined work of the Debian Security team and of the Debian Long Term Support team. Debian 9 is dedicated to the project's founder Ian Murdock, who passed away on 28 December 2015. In Stretch, the default MySQL variant is now MariaDB. The replacement of packages for MySQL 5.5 or 5.6 by the MariaDB 10.1 variant will happen automatically upon upgrade. Firefox and Thunderbird return to Debian with the release of Stretch, and replace their debranded versions Iceweasel and Icedove, which were present in the archive for more than 10 years. Thanks to the Reproducible Builds project, over 90% of the source packages included in Debian 9 will build bit-for-bit identical binary packages. This is an important verification feature which protects users from malicious attempts to tamper with compilers and build networks. Future Debian releases will include tools and metadata so that end-users can validate the provenance of packages within the archive. Administrators and those in security-sensitive environments can be comforted in the knowledge that the X display system no longer requires root privileges to run. The Stretch release is the first version of Debian to feature the modern branch of GnuPG in the gnupg package. This brings with it elliptic curve cryptography, better defaults, a more modular architecture, and improved smartcard support. We will continue to supply the classic branch of GnuPG as gnupg1 for people who need it, but it is now deprecated. Debug packages are easier to obtain and use in Debian 9 Stretch. A new dbg-sym repository can be added to the APT source list to provide debug symbols automatically for many packages. The UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) support first introduced in Wheezy continues to be greatly improved in Stretch, and also supports installing on 32-bit UEFI firmware with a 64-bit kernel. The Debian live images now include support for UEFI booting as a new feature, too. This release includes numerous updated software packages, such as:

  • Apache 2.4.25
  • Asterisk 13.14.1
  • Chromium 59.0.3071.86
  • Firefox 45.9 (in the firefox-esr package)
  • GIMP 2.8.18
  • an updated version of the GNOME desktop environment 3.22
  • GNU Compiler Collection 6.3
  • GnuPG 2.1
  • Golang 1.7
  • KDE Frameworks 5.28, KDE Plasma 5.8, and KDE Applications 16.08 and 16.04 for PIM components
  • LibreOffice 5.2
  • Linux 4.9
  • MariaDB 10.1
  • MATE 1.16
  • OpenJDK 8
  • Perl 5.24
  • PHP 7.0
  • PostgreSQL 9.6
  • Python 2.7.13 and 3.5.3
  • Ruby 2.3
  • Samba 4.5
  • systemd 232
  • Thunderbird 45.8
  • Tomcat 8.5
  • Xen Hypervisor
  • the Xfce 4.12 desktop environment
  • more than 51,000 other ready-to-use software packages, built from a bit more of 25,000 source packages.

With this broad selection of packages and its traditional wide architecture support, Debian once again stays true to its goal of being the universal operating system. It is suitable for many different use cases: from desktop systems to netbooks; from development servers to cluster systems; and for database, web, or storage servers. At the same time, additional quality assurance efforts like automatic installation and upgrade tests for all packages in Debian's archive ensure that Stretch fulfills the high expectations that users have of a stable Debian release. A total of ten architectures are supported: 64-bit PC / Intel EM64T / x86-64 (amd64), 32-bit PC / Intel IA-32 (i386), 64-bit little-endian Motorola/IBM PowerPC (ppc64el), 64-bit IBM S/390 (s390x), for ARM, armel and armhf for older and more recent 32-bit hardware, plus arm64 for the 64-bit AArch64 architecture, and for MIPS, in addition to the two 32-bit mips (big-endian) and mipsel (little-endian), there is a new mips64el architecture for 64-bit little-endian hardware. Support for 32-bit Motorola/IBM PowerPC (powerpc) has been removed in Stretch. Want to give it a try? If you simply want to try Debian 9 Stretch without installing it, you can use one of the available live images which loads and runs the complete operating system in a read-only state via your computer's memory. Should you enjoy the operating system you have the option of installing from the live image onto your computer's hard disk. The live image is available for CDs, USB sticks, and netboot setups. Initially, these images are provided for the amd64 and i386 architectures only. More information is available in the live install images section of the Debian website. Should you choose to install Debian 9 Stretch directly onto your computer's hard disk you can choose from a variety of installation media such as Blu-ray Disc, DVD, CD, USB stick, or via internal network. Several desktop environments — GNOME, KDE Plasma Desktop and Applications, LXDE, and Xfce — may be installed through those images with your desired selection chosen from the boot menus of the install media. In addition, multi-architecture CDs and DVDs are available which support installation of multiple architectures from a single disc. Or you can always create bootable USB installation media (see the Installation Guide for more details). For cloud users Debian also offers pre-built OpenStack images for amd64 and arm64 architectures, ready to use. Debian can now be installed in 75 languages, with most of them available in both text-based and graphical user interfaces. The installation images may be downloaded right now via bittorrent (the recommended method), jigdo, or HTTP; see Debian on CDs for further information. Stretch will soon be available on physical DVD, CD-ROM, and Blu-ray Discs from numerous vendors too. Upgrading Debian Upgrades to Debian 9 from the previous release, Debian 8 (codenamed Jessie), are automatically handled by the apt-get package management tool for most configurations. As always, Debian systems may be upgraded painlessly, in place, without any forced downtime, but it is strongly recommended to read the release notes as well as the installation guide for possible issues, and for detailed instructions on installing and upgrading. The release notes will be further improved and translated to additional languages in the weeks after the release. About Debian Debian is a free operating system, developed by thousands of volunteers from all over the world who collaborate via the Internet. The Debian project's key strengths are its volunteer base, its dedication to the Debian Social Contract and Free Software, and its commitment to provide the best operating system possible. This new release is another important step in that direction. Contact Information For further information, please visit the Debian web pages at https://www.debian.org/ or send mail to <press@debian.org>.

在此之前,跳票五次的Fedora 26 Beta 版本发布。

Fedora 团队在跳票 5 次后,终于发布了 Fedora 26 Beta :

新的 Fedora 26 Beta 版本附带了最新版本的 GNU Compiler Collection,也称为 GCC,为用户和开发团队构建的软件带来最新的语言特性和优化。 Go 语言也更新到了最新的 1.8 版本,包括对32位 MIPS 的支持和速度改进。

还有就是向安装程序添加“blivet-gui”。这将为熟悉存储系统细节的系统管理员和爱好者提供一个“building-blocks”样式的分区管理器。

此外,还在安全性方面做了许多改进,提高用户体验,降低风险。

以下是发行日志:

The Fedora Project is pleased to announce the immediate availability of Fedora 26 Beta, the next big step on our journey to the exciting Fedora 26 release in July. Download the prerelease from our Get Fedora site:

  • Get Fedora 26 Beta Workstation
  • Get Fedora 26 Beta Server
  • Get Fedora 26 Prerelease Atomic Host

Or, check out one of our popular variants, including KDE Plasma, Xfce, and other desktop environments, as well as images for ARM devices like the Raspberry Pi 2 and 3:

  • Get Fedora 26 Beta Spins
  • Get Fedora 26 Beta Labs
  • Get Fedora 26 Beta ARM

Looking for Fedora Cloud Base? This is replaced by Atomic as a Fedora Edition for the container use case, but we still produce it for those of you who want to build up your own cloud-computing environment in a more traditional way — see Alternative Downloads below. Fedora’s journey is not simply about updating one operating system with the latest and greatest packages. It’s also about innovation for the many different platforms represented in the Fedora Project: Workstation, Server, Atomic, and the various Spins. Coordinating the efforts across the many working groups is no small task, and serves as a testament to the talent and professionalism found within the Fedora community. As we move into this Beta phase of the Fedora 26 release cycle, what can users expect? Fedora-Wide Changes Fedora, always in the path of innovation, will ship with the latest version of the GNU Compiler Collection, also known as GCC, bringing the latest language features and optimizations to users and to the software we build. Also the Go Language is updated to the latest version, 1.8, which includes 32-bits MIPS support and speed improvements. One of the most important changes is the addition of “blivet-gui” to the installer. This provides a “building-blocks” style partitioning GUI for sysadmins and enthusiast users who are familiar with the details of storage systems.

More traditional partitioning interface able to handle complex configurations Also, we’ve made and included many improvements in security, improving user experience and reducing the risks of the digital life. Fedora Editions The Workstation edition of Fedora 26 Beta features GNOME 3.24, which includes important changes like Night Light, which changes the color temperature of the display based on time of day. It also includes the latest update of LibreOffice.

Updated Fedora Media Writer able to search and downloads Spins directly Our Atomic Host Edition also has many improvements, including more options to run containers, the latest version of the docker container platform, the cockpit manager and the atomic CLI, improving the way containers are managed, making being a sysadmin easier. Spins and Labs The Fedora Project is proud to announce two new versions: The LXQt Spin, a lightweight desktop supporting the latest version of the Qt libraries; and the Python Classroom Lab, a new version focused in the teaching and learning of the Python programming language. And, in the Cinnamon Spin, the desktop is updated to the latest version. Alternative Architectures and Other Downloads We are also simultaneously releasing 64-bit F26 Beta for ARM (AArch64), Power (both little and big endian) and s390x architectures. You’ll also find minimal network installers and the Fedora 26 Beta Cloud Base image here:

  • Get Beta Alternative Architectures and Other Downloads.

What is the Beta Release? A Beta release is code-complete and bears a very strong resemblance to the third and final release. The final release of Fedora 26 is expected in July. If you take the time to download and try out the Beta, you can check and make sure the things that are important to you are working. Every bug you find and report doesn’t just help you, it improves the experience of millions of Fedora users worldwide! Together, we can make Fedora rock-solid. We have a culture of coordinating new features and pushing fixes upstream as much as we can, and your feedback improves not only Fedora, but Linux and Free software as a whole. Issues and Details Since this is a Beta release, we expect that you may encounter bugs or missing features. To report issues encountered during testing, contact the Fedora QA team via the mailing list or in #fedora-qa on Freenode. As testing progresses, common issues are tracked on the Common F26 Bugs page. For tips on reporting a bug effectively, read how to file a bug report. More information For more detailed information about what’s new on Fedora 26 Beta Release, you can consult our Talking Points and the F26 Change Set. They contain more technical information about the new packages and improvements shipped with this release.

原文发布于微信公众号 - 马哥Linux运维(magedu-Linux)

原文发表时间:2017-06-20

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