c语言_头文件_stdlib

简介

stdlib 头文件即standard library标准库头文件

stdlib 头文件里包含了C、C++语言的最常用的系统函数

该文件包含了C语言标准库函数的定义

stdlib.h里面定义了五种类型、一些宏和通用工具函数。 类型例如size_t、wchar_t、div_t、ldiv_t和lldiv_t; 宏例如EXIT_FAILURE、EXIT_SUCCESS、RAND_MAX和MB_CUR_MAX等等; 常用的函数如malloc()、calloc()、realloc()、free()、system()、atoi()、atol()、rand()、srand()、exit()等等。 具体的内容你自己可以打开编译器的include目录里面的stdlib.h头文件看看。

内容

  1 /*****stdlib.h - declarations/definitions for commonly used library functions**       Copyright (c) Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.**Purpose:*       This include file contains the function declarations for commonly*       used library functions which either don't fit somewhere else, or,*       cannot be declared in the normal place for other reasons.*       [ANSI]**       [Public]*****/
  2 #if     _MSC_VER > 1000#pragma once#endif
  3 #ifndef _INC_STDLIB#define _INC_STDLIB
  4 #include <crtdefs.h>#include <limits.h>
  5 #ifdef  _MSC_VER/** * Currently, all MS C compilers for Win32 platforms default to 8 byte * alignment. */#pragma pack(push,_CRT_PACKING)#endif  /** _MSC_VER */
  6 #ifdef  __cplusplusextern "C" {#endif
  7 /** Define NULL pointer value */#ifndef NULL#ifdef __cplusplus#define NULL    0#else#define NULL    ((void *)0)#endif#endif
  8 /** Definition of the argument values for the exit() function */
  9 #define EXIT_SUCCESS    0#define EXIT_FAILURE    1
 10 #ifndef _ONEXIT_T_DEFINED
 11 #if !defined (_M_CEE_PURE) || (_MSC_VER < 1400)typedef int (__cdecl * _onexit_t)(void);#elsetypedef int (__clrcall * _onexit_t)(void);typedef _onexit_t _onexit_m_t;#endif
 12 #if defined (_M_CEE_MIXED) && (_MSC_VER >= 1400)typedef int (__clrcall * _onexit_m_t)(void);#endif
 13 #if     !__STDC__/** Non-ANSI name for compatibility */#define onexit_t _onexit_t#endif
 14 #define _ONEXIT_T_DEFINED#endif
 15 /** Data structure definitions for div and ldiv runtimes. */
 16 #ifndef _DIV_T_DEFINED
 17 typedef struct _div_t {        int quot;        int rem;} div_t;
 18 typedef struct _ldiv_t {        long quot;        long rem;} ldiv_t;
 19 #define _DIV_T_DEFINED#endif
 20 /** * structs used to fool the compiler into not generating floating point * instructions when copying and pushing [long] double values */
 21 #ifndef _CRT_DOUBLE_DEC
 22 #ifndef _LDSUPPORT
 23 #pragma pack(4)typedef struct {    unsigned char ld[10];} _LDOUBLE;#pragma pack()
 24 #define _PTR_LD(x) ((unsigned char  *)(&(x)->ld))
 25 #else
 26 /** push and pop long, which is #defined as __int64 by a spec2k test */#pragma push_macro("long")#undef longtypedef long double _LDOUBLE;#pragma pop_macro("long")
 27 #define _PTR_LD(x) ((unsigned char  *)(x))
 28 #endif
 29 typedef struct {        double x;} _CRT_DOUBLE;
 30 typedef struct {    float f;} _CRT_FLOAT;
 31 /** push and pop long, which is #defined as __int64 by a spec2k test */#pragma push_macro("long")#undef long
 32 typedef struct {        /**         * Assume there is a long double type         */        long double x;} _LONGDOUBLE;
 33 #pragma pop_macro("long")
 34 #pragma pack(4)typedef struct {    unsigned char ld12[12];} _LDBL12;#pragma pack()
 35 #define _CRT_DOUBLE_DEC#endif
 36 /** Maximum value that can be returned by the rand function. */
 37 #define RAND_MAX 0x7fff
 38 /** * Maximum number of bytes in multi-byte character in the current locale * (also defined in ctype.h). */#ifndef MB_CUR_MAX#if defined (_MT) && (defined (_M_CEE_PURE))#define MB_CUR_MAX ___mb_cur_max_func()#else#define MB_CUR_MAX __mb_cur_max#endif#if !defined(_M_CEE_PURE)_CRTIMP extern int __mb_cur_max;#else_CRTIMP int* __cdecl __p___mb_cur_max();#define __mb_cur_max (*__p___mb_cur_max())#endif /** !defined(_M_CEE_PURE) */_CRTIMP int __cdecl ___mb_cur_max_func(void);_CRTIMP int __cdecl ___mb_cur_max_l_func(_locale_t);#endif  /** MB_CUR_MAX */
 39 /** Minimum and maximum macros */
 40 #define __max(a,b)  (((a) > (b)) ? (a) : (b))#define __min(a,b)  (((a) < (b)) ? (a) : (b))
 41 /** * Sizes for buffers used by the _makepath() and _splitpath() functions. * note that the sizes include space for 0-terminator */#define _MAX_PATH   260 /** max. length of full pathname */#define _MAX_DRIVE  3   /** max. length of drive component */#define _MAX_DIR    256 /** max. length of path component */#define _MAX_FNAME  256 /** max. length of file name component */#define _MAX_EXT    256 /** max. length of extension component */
 42 /** * Argument values for _set_error_mode(). */#define _OUT_TO_DEFAULT 0#define _OUT_TO_STDERR  1#define _OUT_TO_MSGBOX  2#define _REPORT_ERRMODE 3
 43 /** * Argument values for _set_abort_behavior(). */#define _WRITE_ABORT_MSG    0x1#define _CALL_REPORTFAULT   0x2
 44 /** * Sizes for buffers used by the getenv/putenv family of functions. */#define _MAX_ENV 32767  
 45 /** External variable declarations */#ifndef _CRT_ERRNO_DEFINED#define _CRT_ERRNO_DEFINED#ifdef _NTSUBSET_extern int errno;#else /** _NTSUBSET_ */_CRTIMP extern int * __cdecl _errno(void);#define errno   (*_errno())
 46 errno_t __cdecl _set_errno(__in int _Value);errno_t __cdecl _get_errno(__out int * _Value);
 47 #endif /** _NTSUBSET_ */#endif /** _CRT_ERRNO_DEFINED */
 48 #ifndef _NTSUBSET__CRTIMP unsigned long * __cdecl __doserrno(void);#define _doserrno   (*__doserrno())
 49 errno_t __cdecl _set_doserrno(__in unsigned long _Value);errno_t __cdecl _get_doserrno(__out unsigned long * _Value);#endif /** _NTSUBSET_ */
 50 #define _CRT_SYS_ERR_DATA
 51 #ifndef _CRT_SYS_ERR_DATA
 52 /** you can't modify this, but it is non-const for backcompat */_CRTIMP _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(strerror) char ** __cdecl __sys_errlist(void);#define _sys_errlist (__sys_errlist())
 53 _CRTIMP _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(strerror) int * __cdecl __sys_nerr(void);#define _sys_nerr (*__sys_nerr())
 54 #else /** _CRT_SYS_ERR_DATA */
 55 #ifndef _M_CEE_PURE
 56 _CRTIMP _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(strerror) extern char const * const _sys_errlist[];   /** perror error message table */_CRTIMP _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(strerror) extern const int _sys_nerr;           /** # of entries in sys_errlist table */
 57 #endif
 58 #endif /** _CRT_SYS_ERR_DATA */
 59 #if     defined(_DLL) && defined(_M_IX86)
 60 _CRTIMP int *          __cdecl __p___argc(void);_CRTIMP char ***       __cdecl __p___argv(void);_CRTIMP wchar_t ***    __cdecl __p___wargv(void);_CRTIMP char ***       __cdecl __p__environ(void);_CRTIMP wchar_t ***    __cdecl __p__wenviron(void);_CRTIMP char **        __cdecl __p__pgmptr(void);_CRTIMP wchar_t **     __cdecl __p__wpgmptr(void);
 61 #endif  /** _M_IX86 && _DLL */
 62 #if !defined(_M_CEE_PURE)_CRTIMP extern int __argc;          /** count of cmd line args */_CRTIMP extern char ** __argv;      /** pointer to table of cmd line args */_CRTIMP extern wchar_t ** __wargv;  /** pointer to table of wide cmd line args */#else_CRTIMP int* __cdecl __p___argc();_CRTIMP char*** __cdecl __p___argv();_CRTIMP wchar_t*** __cdecl __p___wargv();#define __argv (*__p___argv())#define __argc (*__p___argc())#define __wargv (*__p___wargv())#endif
 63 _CRTIMPerrno_t__cdecl_get_environ(    __out char*** Value    );
 64 _CRTIMPerrno_t__cdecl_get_wenviron(    __out wchar_t*** Value    );
 65 #if !defined(_M_CEE_PURE)_CRTIMP extern char ** _environ;    /** pointer to environment table */_CRTIMP extern wchar_t ** _wenviron;    /** pointer to wide environment table */
 66 _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE_GLOBALS(_get_pgmptr) _CRTIMP extern char * _pgmptr;      /** points to the module (EXE) name */_CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE_GLOBALS(_get_wpgmptr) _CRTIMP extern wchar_t * _wpgmptr;  /** points to the module (EXE) wide name */
 67 #else
 68 _CRTIMP char*** __cdecl __p__environ();_CRTIMP wchar_t*** __cdecl __p__wenviron();_CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE_GLOBALS(_get_pgmptr) _CRTIMP char** __cdecl __p__pgmptr();_CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE_GLOBALS(_get_wpgmptr) _CRTIMP wchar_t** __cdecl __p__wpgmptr();
 69 #define _environ   (*__p__environ())#define _wenviron  (*__p__wenviron())#define _pgmptr    (*__p__pgmptr())#define _wpgmptr   (*__p__wpgmptr())
 70 #endif /** !defined(_M_CEE_PURE) */
 71 errno_t __cdecl _get_pgmptr(__deref_out_z char ** _Value);errno_t __cdecl _get_wpgmptr(__deref_out_z wchar_t ** _Value);
 72 #if !defined(_M_CEE_PURE)_CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE_GLOBALS(_get_fmode) _CRTIMP extern int _fmode;          /** default file translation mode */#else_CRTIMP int* __cdecl __p__fmode();#define _fmode (*__p__fmode())#endif /** !defined(_M_CEE_PURE) */
 73 _CRTIMP errno_t __cdecl _set_fmode(__in int _Mode);_CRTIMP errno_t __cdecl _get_fmode(__out int * _PMode);
 74 #if !defined(_M_CEE_PURE) __declspec(deprecated) _CRTIMP extern int _fileinfo;       /** open file info mode (for spawn) */#endif /** !defined(_M_CEE_PURE) */__declspec(deprecated) errno_t __cdecl _set_fileinfo(int);__declspec(deprecated) errno_t __cdecl _get_fileinfo(int *);
 75 /** Windows major/minor and O.S. version numbers */
 76 #pragma warning(push)#pragma warning(disable:4141)
 77 #if !defined(_M_CEE_PURE)_CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_get_osplatform) _CRT_OBSOLETE(GetVersionEx) _CRTIMP extern unsigned int _osplatform;_CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_get_osver) _CRT_OBSOLETE(GetVersionEx)   _CRTIMP extern unsigned int _osver;_CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_get_winver) _CRT_OBSOLETE(GetVersionEx)  _CRTIMP extern unsigned int _winver;_CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_get_winmajor) _CRT_OBSOLETE(GetVersionEx)  _CRTIMP extern unsigned int _winmajor;_CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_get_winminor) _CRT_OBSOLETE(GetVersionEx)  _CRTIMP extern unsigned int _winminor;
 78 #else_CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_get_osplatform) _CRT_OBSOLETE(GetVersionEx) _CRTIMP unsigned int* __cdecl __p__osplatform();_CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_get_osver) _CRT_OBSOLETE(GetVersionEx)   _CRTIMP unsigned int* __cdecl __p__osver();_CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_get_winver) _CRT_OBSOLETE(GetVersionEx)  _CRTIMP unsigned int* __cdecl __p__winver();_CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_get_winmajor) _CRT_OBSOLETE(GetVersionEx)  _CRTIMP unsigned int* __cdecl __p__winmajor();_CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_get_winminor) _CRT_OBSOLETE(GetVersionEx)  _CRTIMP unsigned int* __cdecl __p__winminor();
 79 #define _osplatform  (*__p__osplatform())#define _osver       (*__p__osver())#define _winver      (*__p__winver())#define _winmajor    (*__p__winmajor())#define _winminor    (*__p__winminor())#endif /** !defined(_M_CEE_PURE) */
 80 #pragma warning(pop)
 81 _CRT_OBSOLETE(GetVersionEx) errno_t __cdecl _get_osplatform(__out unsigned int * _Value);_CRT_OBSOLETE(GetVersionEx) errno_t __cdecl _get_osver(__out unsigned int * _Value);_CRT_OBSOLETE(GetVersionEx) errno_t __cdecl _get_winver(__out unsigned int * _Value);_CRT_OBSOLETE(GetVersionEx) errno_t __cdecl _get_winmajor(__out unsigned int * _Value);_CRT_OBSOLETE(GetVersionEx) errno_t __cdecl _get_winminor(__out unsigned int * _Value);
 82 /** _countof helper */#if !defined(_countof)#if !defined(__cplusplus)#define _countof(_Array) (sizeof(_Array) / sizeof(_Array[0]))#elseextern "C++"{template <typename _CountofType, size_t _SizeOfArray>char (*__countof_helper(UNALIGNED _CountofType (&_Array)[_SizeOfArray]))[_SizeOfArray];#define _countof(_Array) sizeof(*__countof_helper(_Array))}#endif#endif
 83 /** function prototypes */
 84 #ifndef _CRT_TERMINATE_DEFINED#define _CRT_TERMINATE_DEFINED_CRTIMP __declspec(noreturn) void __cdecl exit(__in int _Code);_CRTIMP __declspec(noreturn) void __cdecl _exit(__in int _Code);_CRTIMP void __cdecl abort(void);#endif
 85 _CRTIMP unsigned int __cdecl _set_abort_behavior(__in unsigned int _Flags, __in unsigned int _Mask);
 86 #ifndef _CRT_ABS_DEFINED#define _CRT_ABS_DEFINED        int     __cdecl abs(__in int _X);        long    __cdecl labs(__in long _X);#endif
 87 #if     _INTEGRAL_MAX_BITS >= 64        __int64    __cdecl _abs64(__int64);#endif#if _MSC_VER >= 1400 && defined(_M_CEE)        __checkReturn int    __clrcall _atexit_m_appdomain(__in_opt void (__clrcall * _Func)(void));#if defined(_M_CEE_MIXED)        __checkReturn int    __clrcall _atexit_m(__in_opt void (__clrcall * _Func)(void));#else        __checkReturn inline int __clrcall _atexit_m(__in_opt void (__clrcall *_Function)(void))        {            return _atexit_m_appdomain(_Function);        }#endif#endif#if defined(_M_CEE_PURE)        /** In pure mode, atexit is the same as atexit_m */extern "C++"{inline  int    __clrcall atexit(    void (__clrcall *_Function)(void)){    return _atexit_m_appdomain(_Function);}}#else        int    __cdecl atexit(void (__cdecl *)(void));#endif#ifndef _CRT_ATOF_DEFINED#define _CRT_ATOF_DEFINED_CRTIMP double  __cdecl atof(__in_z const char *_String);_CRTIMP double  __cdecl _atof_l(__in_z const char *_String, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);#endif_CRTIMP _CRT_JIT_INTRINSIC __checkReturn int    __cdecl atoi(__in_z const char *_Str);_CRTIMP __checkReturn int    __cdecl _atoi_l(__in_z const char *_Str, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn long   __cdecl atol(__in_z const char *_Str);_CRTIMP __checkReturn long   __cdecl _atol_l(__in_z const char *_Str, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);#ifndef _CRT_ALGO_DEFINED#define _CRT_ALGO_DEFINED#if __STDC_WANT_SECURE_LIB___CRTIMP __checkReturn void * __cdecl bsearch_s(__in const void * _Key, __in_bcount(_NumOfElements * _SizeOfElements) const void * _Base,         __in rsize_t _NumOfElements, __in rsize_t _SizeOfElements,        __in int (__cdecl * _PtFuncCompare)(void *, const void *, const void *), void * _Context);#endif_CRTIMP __checkReturn void * __cdecl bsearch(__in const void * _Key, __in_bcount(_NumOfElements * _SizeOfElements) const void * _Base,         __in size_t _NumOfElements, __in size_t _SizeOfElements,        __in int (__cdecl * _PtFuncCompare)(const void *, const void *));
 88 #if __STDC_WANT_SECURE_LIB___CRTIMP_ALT void __cdecl qsort_s(__inout_bcount(_NumOfElements* _SizeOfElements) void * _Base,         __in rsize_t _NumOfElements, __in rsize_t _SizeOfElements,        __in int (__cdecl * _PtFuncCompare)(void *, const void *, const void *), void *_Context);#endif_CRTIMP void __cdecl qsort(__inout_bcount(_NumOfElements * _SizeOfElements) void * _Base,  __in size_t _NumOfElements, __in size_t _SizeOfElements,         __in int (__cdecl * _PtFuncCompare)(const void *, const void *));#endif        __checkReturn unsigned short __cdecl _byteswap_ushort(__in unsigned short _Short);        __checkReturn unsigned long  __cdecl _byteswap_ulong (__in unsigned long _Long);#if     _INTEGRAL_MAX_BITS >= 64        __checkReturn unsigned __int64 __cdecl _byteswap_uint64(unsigned __int64 _Int64);#endif_CRTIMP __checkReturn div_t  __cdecl div(__in int _Numerator, __in int _Denominator);_CRTIMP _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_dupenv_s) __checkReturn char * __cdecl getenv(__in_z const char * _VarName);#if __STDC_WANT_SECURE_LIB___CRTIMP __checkReturn_opt errno_t __cdecl getenv_s(__out size_t * _ReturnSize, __out_ecount_z(_DstSize) char * _DstBuf, __in rsize_t _DstSize, __in_z const char * _VarName);#endif__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_1_1(errno_t, getenv_s, __out size_t *, _ReturnSize, __out_ecount(_Size) char, _Dest, __in_z const char *, _VarName)_CRTIMP __checkReturn_opt errno_t __cdecl _dupenv_s(__deref_out_ecount_z_opt(*_PBufferSizeInBytes) char **_PBuffer, __out_opt size_t * _PBufferSizeInBytes, __in_z const char * _VarName);_CRTIMP_ALT __checkReturn_opt errno_t __ALTDECL _itoa_s(__in int _Value, __out_ecount_z(_Size) char * _DstBuf, __in size_t _Size, __in int _Radix);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_1_1(errno_t, _itoa_s, __in int, _Value, __out_ecount(_Size) char, _Dest, __in int, _Radix)__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_STANDARD_FUNC_1_1(char *, __RETURN_POLICY_DST, _CRTIMP, _itoa, __in int, _Value, __out_z char, _Dest, __in int, _Radix)#if     _INTEGRAL_MAX_BITS >= 64_CRTIMP_ALT __checkReturn_opt errno_t __ALTDECL _i64toa_s(__in __int64 _Val, __out_ecount_z(_Size) char * _DstBuf, __in size_t _Size, __in int _Radix);_CRTIMP _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_i64toa_s) char * __cdecl _i64toa(__in __int64 _Val, __out_z char * _DstBuf, __in int _Radix);_CRTIMP_ALT __checkReturn_opt errno_t __ALTDECL _ui64toa_s(__in unsigned __int64 _Val, __out_ecount_z(_Size) char * _DstBuf, __in size_t _Size, __in int _Radix);_CRTIMP _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_ui64toa_s) char * __cdecl _ui64toa(__in unsigned __int64 _Val, __out_z char * _DstBuf, __in int _Radix);_CRTIMP __checkReturn __int64 __cdecl _atoi64(__in_z const char * _String);_CRTIMP __checkReturn __int64 __cdecl _atoi64_l(__in_z const char * _String, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn __int64 __cdecl _strtoi64(__in_z const char * _String, __deref_opt_out_z char ** _EndPtr, __in int _Radix);_CRTIMP __checkReturn __int64 __cdecl _strtoi64_l(__in_z const char * _String, __deref_opt_out_z char ** _EndPtr, __in int _Radix, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn unsigned __int64 __cdecl _strtoui64(__in_z const char * _String, __deref_opt_out_z char ** _EndPtr, __in int _Radix);_CRTIMP __checkReturn unsigned __int64 __cdecl _strtoui64_l(__in_z const char * _String, __deref_opt_out_z char ** _EndPtr, __in int  _Radix, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);#endif_CRTIMP __checkReturn ldiv_t __cdecl ldiv(__in long _Numerator, __in long _Denominator);#ifdef __cplusplusextern "C++"{    inline ldiv_t  div(__in long _A1, __in long _A2)    {        return ldiv(_A1, _A2);    }}#endif_CRTIMP_ALT __checkReturn_opt errno_t __ALTDECL _ltoa_s(__in long _Val, __out_ecount_z(_Size) char * _DstBuf, __in size_t _Size, __in int _Radix);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_1_1(errno_t, _ltoa_s, __in long, _Value, __out_ecount(_Size) char, _Dest, __in int, _Radix)__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_STANDARD_FUNC_1_1(char *, __RETURN_POLICY_DST, _CRTIMP, _ltoa, __in long, _Value, __out_z char, _Dest, __in int, _Radix)_CRTIMP __checkReturn int    __cdecl mblen(__in_bcount_z_opt(_MaxCount) const char * _Ch, __in size_t _MaxCount);_CRTIMP __checkReturn int    __cdecl _mblen_l(__in_bcount_z_opt(_MaxCount) const char * _Ch, __in size_t _MaxCount, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn size_t __cdecl _mbstrlen(__in_z const char * _Str);_CRTIMP __checkReturn size_t __cdecl _mbstrlen_l(__in_z const char *_Str, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn size_t __cdecl _mbstrnlen(__in_bcount_z(_MaxCount) const char *_Str, __in size_t _MaxCount);_CRTIMP __checkReturn size_t __cdecl _mbstrnlen_l(__in_bcount_z(_MaxCount) const char *_Str, __in size_t _MaxCount, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP int    __cdecl mbtowc(__out_z wchar_t * _DstCh, __in_bcount_z_opt(_SrcSizeInBytes) const char * _SrcCh, __in size_t _SrcSizeInBytes);_CRTIMP int    __cdecl _mbtowc_l(__out_z wchar_t * _DstCh, __in_bcount_z_opt(_SrcSizeInBytes) const char * _SrcCh, __in size_t _SrcSizeInBytes, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn_opt errno_t __cdecl mbstowcs_s(__out_opt size_t * _PtNumOfCharConverted, __out_ecount_part_opt(_SizeInWords, *_PtNumOfCharConverted) wchar_t * _DstBuf, __in size_t _SizeInWords, __in_ecount_z(_MaxCount) const char * _SrcBuf, __in size_t _MaxCount );__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_1_2(errno_t, mbstowcs_s, __out_opt size_t *, _PtNumOfCharConverted, __out_ecount_z(_Size) wchar_t, _Dest, __in_z const char *, _Source, __in size_t, _MaxCount)__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_STANDARD_NFUNC_0_2_SIZE(_CRTIMP, mbstowcs, __out_z_opt wchar_t, _Dest, __in_z const char *, _Source, __in size_t, _MaxCount)
 89 _CRTIMP __checkReturn_opt errno_t __cdecl _mbstowcs_s_l(__out_opt size_t * _PtNumOfCharConverted, __out_ecount_part_opt(_SizeInWords, *_PtNumOfCharConverted) wchar_t * _DstBuf, __in size_t _SizeInWords, __in_ecount_z(_MaxCount) const char * _SrcBuf, __in size_t _MaxCount, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_1_3(errno_t, _mbstowcs_s_l, __out_opt size_t *, _PtNumOfCharConverted, __out_ecount(_Size) wchar_t, _Dest, __in_z const char *, _Source, __in size_t, _MaxCount, __in_opt _locale_t, _Locale)__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_STANDARD_NFUNC_0_3_SIZE_EX(_CRTIMP, _mbstowcs_l, _mbstowcs_s_l, __out_ecount_z_opt(_Size) wchar_t, __out_z_opt wchar_t, _Dest, __in_z const char *, _Source, __in size_t, _MaxCount, __in_opt _locale_t, _Locale)
 90 _CRTIMP __checkReturn int    __cdecl rand(void);#if defined(_CRT_RAND_S)_CRTIMP errno_t __cdecl rand_s ( __out unsigned int *_RandomValue);#endif
 91 _CRTIMP __checkReturn_opt int    __cdecl _set_error_mode(__in int _Mode);
 92 _CRTIMP void   __cdecl srand(__in unsigned int _Seed);_CRTIMP __checkReturn double __cdecl strtod(__in_z const char * _Str, __deref_opt_out_z char ** _EndPtr);_CRTIMP __checkReturn double __cdecl _strtod_l(__in_z const char * _Str, __deref_opt_out_z char ** _EndPtr, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn long   __cdecl strtol(__in_z const char * _Str, __deref_opt_out_z char ** _EndPtr, __in int _Radix );_CRTIMP __checkReturn long   __cdecl _strtol_l(__in_z const char *_Str, __deref_opt_out_z char **_EndPtr, __in int _Radix, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn unsigned long __cdecl strtoul(__in_z const char * _Str, __deref_opt_out_z char ** _EndPtr, __in int _Radix);_CRTIMP __checkReturn unsigned long __cdecl _strtoul_l(const char * _Str, __deref_opt_out_z char **_EndPtr, __in int _Radix, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);#ifndef _CRT_SYSTEM_DEFINED#define _CRT_SYSTEM_DEFINED_CRTIMP int __cdecl system(__in_z_opt const char * _Command);#endif_CRTIMP_ALT __checkReturn_opt errno_t __ALTDECL _ultoa_s(__in unsigned long _Val, __out_ecount_z(_Size) char * _DstBuf, __in size_t _Size, __in int _Radix);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_1_1(errno_t, _ultoa_s, __in unsigned long, _Value, __out_ecount(_Size) char, _Dest, __in int, _Radix)__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_STANDARD_FUNC_1_1(char *, __RETURN_POLICY_DST, _CRTIMP, _ultoa, __in unsigned long, _Value, __out_z char, _Dest, __in int, _Radix)_CRTIMP _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(wctomb_s) int    __cdecl wctomb(__out_bcount_z_opt(MB_LEN_MAX) char * _MbCh, __in_z wchar_t _WCh);_CRTIMP _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_wctomb_s_l) int    __cdecl _wctomb_l(__out_z_opt char * _MbCh, __in_z wchar_t _WCh, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);#if __STDC_WANT_SECURE_LIB___CRTIMP __checkReturn_wat errno_t __cdecl wctomb_s(__out_opt int * _SizeConverted, __out_bcount_part_opt(_SizeInBytes, *_SizeConverted) char * _MbCh, __in rsize_t _SizeInBytes, __in_z wchar_t _WCh);#endif_CRTIMP __checkReturn_wat errno_t __cdecl _wctomb_s_l(__out_opt int * _SizeConverted, __out_bcount_z_opt(_SizeInBytes) char * _MbCh, __in size_t _SizeInBytes, __in_z wchar_t _WCh, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn_wat errno_t __cdecl wcstombs_s(__out_opt size_t * _PtNumOfCharConverted, __out_bcount_part_opt(_DstSizeInBytes, *_PtNumOfCharConverted) char * _Dst, __in size_t _DstSizeInBytes, __in_z const wchar_t * _Src, __in size_t _MaxCountInBytes);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_1_2(errno_t, wcstombs_s, __out_opt size_t *, _PtNumOfCharConverted, __out_bcount_opt(_Size) char, _Dest, __in_z const wchar_t *, _Source, __in size_t, _MaxCount)__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_STANDARD_NFUNC_0_2_SIZE(_CRTIMP, wcstombs, __out_z_opt char, _Dest, __in_z const wchar_t *, _Source, __in size_t, _MaxCount)_CRTIMP __checkReturn_wat errno_t __cdecl _wcstombs_s_l(__out_opt size_t * _PtNumOfCharConverted, __out_bcount_part_opt(_DstSizeInBytes, *_PtNumOfCharConverted) char * _Dst, __in size_t _DstSizeInBytes, __in_z const wchar_t * _Src, __in size_t _MaxCountInBytes, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_1_3(errno_t, _wcstombs_s_l, __out_opt size_t *,_PtNumOfCharConverted, __out_ecount_opt(_Size) char, _Dest, __in_z const wchar_t *, _Source, __in size_t, _MaxCount, __in_opt _locale_t, _Locale)__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_STANDARD_NFUNC_0_3_SIZE_EX(_CRTIMP, _wcstombs_l, _wcstombs_s_l, __out_ecount_z_opt(_Size) char, __out_z_opt char, _Dest, __in_z const wchar_t *, _Source, __in size_t, _MaxCount, __in_opt _locale_t, _Locale)
 93 #if _MSC_VER >= 1400 && defined(__cplusplus) && defined(_M_CEE)/** * Managed search routines. Note __cplusplus, this is because we only support * managed C++. */extern "C++"{#if __STDC_WANT_SECURE_LIB____checkReturn void * __clrcall bsearch_s(__in const void * _Key, __in_bcount(_NumOfElements*_SizeOfElements) const void * _Base, __in rsize_t _NumOfElements, __in rsize_t _SizeOfElements,         __in int (__clrcall * _PtFuncCompare)(void *, const void *, const void *), void * _Context);#endif__checkReturn void * __clrcall bsearch  (__in const void * _Key, __in_bcount(_NumOfElements*_SizeOfElements) const void * _Base, __in size_t _NumOfElements, __in size_t _SizeOfElements,        __in int (__clrcall * _PtFuncCompare)(const void *, const void *));
 94 #if __STDC_WANT_SECURE_LIB__void __clrcall qsort_s(__inout_bcount(_NumOfElements*_SizeOfElements) void * _Base, __in rsize_t _NumOfElements, __in rsize_t _SizeOfElements,         __in int (__clrcall * _PtFuncCompare)(void *, const void *, const void *), void * _Context);#endifvoid __clrcall qsort  (__inout_bcount(_NumOfElements*_SizeOfElements) void * _Base, __in size_t _NumOfElements, __in size_t _SizeOfElements,         __in int (__clrcall * _PtFuncCompare)(const void *, const void *));}#endif
 95 #ifndef _CRT_ALLOCATION_DEFINED#define _CRT_ALLOCATION_DEFINED_CRTIMP _CRT_JIT_INTRINSIC  _CRTNOALIAS _CRTRESTRICT __checkReturn __bcount_opt(_NumOfElements* _SizeOfElements)    void * __cdecl calloc(__in size_t _NumOfElements, __in size_t _SizeOfElements);_CRTIMP                     _CRTNOALIAS void   __cdecl free(__inout_opt void * _Memory);_CRTIMP _CRT_JIT_INTRINSIC  _CRTNOALIAS _CRTRESTRICT __checkReturn __bcount_opt(_Size)                              void * __cdecl malloc(__in size_t _Size);_CRTIMP                     _CRTNOALIAS _CRTRESTRICT __checkReturn __bcount_opt(_NewSize)                           void * __cdecl realloc(__in_opt void * _Memory, __in size_t _NewSize);_CRTIMP                     _CRTNOALIAS _CRTRESTRICT __checkReturn __bcount_opt(_Size*_Count)                       void * __cdecl _recalloc(__in_opt void * _Memory, __in size_t _Count, __in size_t _Size);_CRTIMP                     _CRTNOALIAS void   __cdecl _aligned_free(__inout_opt void * _Memory);_CRTIMP                     _CRTNOALIAS _CRTRESTRICT __checkReturn __bcount_opt(_Size)                              void * __cdecl _aligned_malloc(__in size_t _Size, __in size_t _Alignment);_CRTIMP                     _CRTNOALIAS _CRTRESTRICT __checkReturn __bcount_opt(_Size)                              void * __cdecl _aligned_offset_malloc(__in size_t _Size, __in size_t _Alignment, __in size_t _Offset);_CRTIMP                     _CRTNOALIAS _CRTRESTRICT __checkReturn __bcount_opt(_Size)                              void * __cdecl _aligned_realloc(__in_opt void * _Memory, __in size_t _Size, __in size_t _Alignment);_CRTIMP                     _CRTNOALIAS _CRTRESTRICT __checkReturn __bcount_opt(_Size*_Count)                       void * __cdecl _aligned_recalloc(__in_opt void * _Memory, __in size_t _Count, __in size_t _Size, __in size_t _Alignment);_CRTIMP                     _CRTNOALIAS _CRTRESTRICT __checkReturn __bcount_opt(_Size)                              void * __cdecl _aligned_offset_realloc(__in_opt void * _Memory, __in size_t _Size, __in size_t _Alignment, __in size_t _Offset);_CRTIMP                     _CRTNOALIAS _CRTRESTRICT __checkReturn __bcount_opt(_Size*_Count)                       void * __cdecl _aligned_offset_recalloc(__in_opt void * _Memory, __in size_t _Count, __in size_t _Size, __in size_t _Alignment, __in size_t _Offset);#endif
 96 #ifndef _WSTDLIB_DEFINED
 97 /** wide function prototypes, also declared in wchar.h  */
 98 _CRTIMP_ALT __checkReturn_wat errno_t __ALTDECL _itow_s (__in int _Val, __out_ecount_z(_SizeInWords) wchar_t * _DstBuf, __in size_t _SizeInWords, __in int _Radix);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_1_1(errno_t, _itow_s, __in int, _Value, __out_ecount(_Size) wchar_t, _Dest, __in int, _Radix)__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_STANDARD_FUNC_1_1(wchar_t *, __RETURN_POLICY_DST, _CRTIMP, _itow, __in int, _Value, __out_z wchar_t, _Dest, __in int, _Radix)_CRTIMP_ALT __checkReturn_wat errno_t __ALTDECL _ltow_s (__in long _Val, __out_ecount_z(_SizeInWords) wchar_t * _DstBuf, __in size_t _SizeInWords, __in int _Radix);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_1_1(errno_t, _ltow_s, __in long, _Value, __out_ecount(_Size) wchar_t, _Dest, __in int, _Radix)__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_STANDARD_FUNC_1_1(wchar_t *, __RETURN_POLICY_DST, _CRTIMP, _ltow, __in long, _Value, __out_z wchar_t, _Dest, __in int, _Radix)_CRTIMP_ALT __checkReturn_wat errno_t __ALTDECL _ultow_s (__in unsigned long _Val, __out_ecount_z(_SizeInWords) wchar_t * _DstBuf, __in size_t _SizeInWords, __in int _Radix);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_1_1(errno_t, _ultow_s, __in unsigned long, _Value, __out_ecount(_Size) wchar_t, _Dest, __in int, _Radix)__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_STANDARD_FUNC_1_1(wchar_t *, __RETURN_POLICY_DST, _CRTIMP, _ultow, __in unsigned long, _Value, __out_z wchar_t, _Dest, __in int, _Radix)_CRTIMP __checkReturn double __cdecl wcstod(__in_z const wchar_t * _Str, __deref_opt_out_z wchar_t ** _EndPtr);_CRTIMP __checkReturn double __cdecl _wcstod_l(__in_z const wchar_t *_Str, __deref_opt_out_z wchar_t ** _EndPtr, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn long   __cdecl wcstol(__in_z const wchar_t *_Str, __deref_opt_out_z wchar_t ** _EndPtr, int _Radix);_CRTIMP __checkReturn long   __cdecl _wcstol_l(__in_z const wchar_t *_Str, __deref_opt_out_z wchar_t **_EndPtr, int _Radix, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn unsigned long __cdecl wcstoul(__in_z const wchar_t *_Str, __deref_opt_out_z wchar_t ** _EndPtr, int _Radix);_CRTIMP __checkReturn unsigned long __cdecl _wcstoul_l(__in_z const wchar_t *_Str, __deref_opt_out_z wchar_t **_EndPtr, int _Radix, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_wdupenv_s) __checkReturn wchar_t * __cdecl _wgetenv(__in_z const wchar_t * _VarName);_CRTIMP __checkReturn_wat errno_t __cdecl _wgetenv_s(__out size_t * _ReturnSize, __out_ecount_z(_DstSizeInWords) wchar_t * _DstBuf, __in size_t _DstSizeInWords, __in_z const wchar_t * _VarName);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_1_1(errno_t, _wgetenv_s, __out size_t *, _ReturnSize, __out_ecount(_Size) wchar_t, _Dest, __in_z const wchar_t *, _VarName)_CRTIMP __checkReturn_wat errno_t __cdecl _wdupenv_s(__deref_out_ecount_z_opt(*_BufferSizeInWords) wchar_t **_Buffer, __out_opt size_t *_BufferSizeInWords, __in_z const wchar_t *_VarName);#ifndef _CRT_WSYSTEM_DEFINED#define _CRT_WSYSTEM_DEFINED_CRTIMP int __cdecl _wsystem(__in_z_opt const wchar_t * _Command);#endif_CRTIMP __checkReturn double __cdecl _wtof(__in_z const wchar_t *_Str);_CRTIMP __checkReturn double __cdecl _wtof_l(__in_z const wchar_t *_Str, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn int __cdecl _wtoi(__in_z const wchar_t *_Str);_CRTIMP __checkReturn int __cdecl _wtoi_l(__in_z const wchar_t *_Str, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn long __cdecl _wtol(__in_z const wchar_t *_Str);_CRTIMP __checkReturn long __cdecl _wtol_l(__in_z const wchar_t *_Str, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);
 99 #if     _INTEGRAL_MAX_BITS >= 64_CRTIMP_ALT __checkReturn_wat errno_t __ALTDECL _i64tow_s(__in __int64 _Val, __out_ecount_z(_SizeInWords) wchar_t * _DstBuf, __in size_t _SizeInWords, __in int _Radix);_CRTIMP _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_i65tow_s) wchar_t * __cdecl _i64tow(__in __int64 _Val, __out_z wchar_t * _DstBuf, __in int _Radix);_CRTIMP_ALT __checkReturn_wat errno_t __ALTDECL _ui64tow_s(__in unsigned __int64 _Val, __out_ecount_z(_SizeInWords) wchar_t * _DstBuf, __in size_t _SizeInWords, __in int _Radix);_CRTIMP _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_ui64tow_s) wchar_t * __cdecl _ui64tow(__in unsigned __int64 _Val, __out_z wchar_t * _DstBuf, __in int _Radix);_CRTIMP __checkReturn __int64   __cdecl _wtoi64(__in_z const wchar_t *_Str);_CRTIMP __checkReturn __int64   __cdecl _wtoi64_l(__in_z const wchar_t *_Str, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn __int64   __cdecl _wcstoi64(__in_z const wchar_t * _Str, __deref_opt_out_z wchar_t ** _EndPtr, __in int _Radix);_CRTIMP __checkReturn __int64   __cdecl _wcstoi64_l(__in_z const wchar_t * _Str, __deref_opt_out_z wchar_t ** _EndPtr, __in int _Radix, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn unsigned __int64  __cdecl _wcstoui64(__in_z const wchar_t * _Str, __deref_opt_out_z wchar_t ** _EndPtr, __in int _Radix);_CRTIMP __checkReturn unsigned __int64  __cdecl _wcstoui64_l(__in_z const wchar_t *_Str , __deref_opt_out_z wchar_t ** _EndPtr, __in int _Radix, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);#endif
100 #define _WSTDLIB_DEFINED#endif
101 /** Buffer size required to be passed to _gcvt, fcvt and other fp conversion routines*/#define _CVTBUFSIZE (309+40) /** # of digits in max. dp value + slop */
102 #if (defined(_DEBUG) || defined(_SYSCRT_DEBUG)) && defined(_CRTDBG_MAP_ALLOC)#pragma push_macro("_fullpath")#undef _fullpath#endif
103 _CRTIMP __checkReturn char * __cdecl _fullpath(__out_ecount_z_opt(_SizeInBytes) char * _FullPath, __in_z const char * _Path, __in size_t _SizeInBytes);
104 #if (defined(_DEBUG) || defined(_SYSCRT_DEBUG)) && defined(_CRTDBG_MAP_ALLOC)#pragma pop_macro("_fullpath")#endif
105 _CRTIMP_ALT __checkReturn_wat errno_t __cdecl _ecvt_s(__out_ecount_z(_Size) char * _DstBuf, __in size_t _Size, __in double _Val, __in int _NumOfDights, __out int * _PtDec, __out int * _PtSign);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_0_4(errno_t, _ecvt_s, __out_ecount(_Size) char, _Dest, __in double, _Value, __in int, _NumOfDigits, __out int *, _PtDec, __out int *, _PtSign)_CRTIMP _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_ecvt_s) __checkReturn char * __cdecl _ecvt(__in double _Val, __in int _NumOfDigits, __out int * _PtDec, __out int * _PtSign);_CRTIMP __checkReturn_wat errno_t __cdecl _fcvt_s(__out_ecount_z(_Size) char * _DstBuf, __in size_t _Size, __in double _Val, __in int _NumOfDec, __out int * _PtDec, __out int * _PtSign);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_0_4(errno_t, _fcvt_s, __out_ecount(_Size) char, _Dest, __in double, _Value, __in int, _NumOfDigits, __out int *, _PtDec, __out int *, _PtSign)_CRTIMP _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_fcvt_s) __checkReturn char * __cdecl _fcvt(__in double _Val, __in int _NumOfDec, __out int * _PtDec, __out int * _PtSign);_CRTIMP_ALT errno_t __ALTDECL _gcvt_s(__out_ecount_z(_Size) char * _DstBuf, __in size_t _Size, __in double _Val, __in int _NumOfDigits);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_0_2(errno_t, _gcvt_s, __out_ecount(_Size) char, _Dest, __in double, _Value, __in int, _NumOfDigits)_CRTIMP _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_gcvt_s) char * __cdecl _gcvt(__in double _Val, __in int _NumOfDigits, __out_z char * _DstBuf);
106 _CRTIMP __checkReturn int __cdecl _atodbl(__out _CRT_DOUBLE * _Result, __in_z char * _Str);_CRTIMP __checkReturn int __cdecl _atoldbl(__out _LDOUBLE * _Result, __in_z char * _Str);_CRTIMP __checkReturn int __cdecl _atoflt(__out _CRT_FLOAT * _Result, __in_z char * _Str);_CRTIMP __checkReturn int __cdecl _atodbl_l(__out _CRT_DOUBLE * _Result, __in_z char * _Str, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn int __cdecl _atoldbl_l(__out _LDOUBLE * _Result, __in_z char * _Str, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);_CRTIMP __checkReturn int __cdecl _atoflt_l(__out _CRT_FLOAT * _Result, __in_z char * _Str, __in_opt _locale_t _Locale);        __checkReturn unsigned long __cdecl _lrotl(__in unsigned long _Val, __in int _Shift);        __checkReturn unsigned long __cdecl _lrotr(__in unsigned long _Val, __in int _Shift);_CRTIMP_ALT __checkReturn_wat errno_t   __ALTDECL _makepath_s(__out_ecount_z(_Size) char * _PathResult, __in_opt size_t _Size, __in_z_opt const char * _Drive, __in_z_opt const char * _Dir, __in_z_opt const char * _Filename,        __in_z_opt const char * _Ext);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_0_4(errno_t, _makepath_s, __out_ecount(_Size) char, _Path, __in_z_opt const char *, _Drive, __in_z_opt const char *, _Dir, __in_z_opt const char *, _Filename, __in_z_opt const char *, _Ext)__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_STANDARD_FUNC_0_4(void, __RETURN_POLICY_VOID, _CRTIMP, _makepath, __out_z char, _Path, __in_z_opt const char *, _Drive, __in_z_opt const char *, _Dir, __in_z_opt const char *, _Filename, __in_z_opt const char *, _Ext)
107 #if _MSC_VER >= 1400 && defined(_M_CEE)  _onexit_m_t    __clrcall _onexit_m_appdomain(_onexit_m_t _Function); #if defined(_M_CEE_MIXED)  _onexit_m_t    __clrcall _onexit_m(_onexit_m_t _Function); #else  inline _onexit_m_t    __clrcall _onexit_m(_onexit_t _Function)  {   return _onexit_m_appdomain(_Function);  } #endif        #endif#if defined(_M_CEE_PURE)        /** In pure mode, _onexit is the same as _onexit_m_appdomain */extern "C++"{inline  _onexit_t    __clrcall _onexit(    _onexit_t _Function){    return _onexit_m_appdomain(_Function);}}#else        _onexit_t __cdecl _onexit(__in_opt _onexit_t _Func);#endif        #ifndef _CRT_PERROR_DEFINED#define _CRT_PERROR_DEFINED_CRTIMP void __cdecl perror(__in_z_opt const char * _ErrMsg);#endif_CRTIMP __checkReturn int    __cdecl _putenv(__in_z const char * _EnvString);_CRTIMP __checkReturn_wat errno_t __cdecl _putenv_s(__in_z const char * _Name, __in_z const char * _Value);        __checkReturn unsigned int __cdecl _rotl(__in unsigned int _Val, __in int _Shift);#if     _INTEGRAL_MAX_BITS >= 64        __checkReturn unsigned __int64 __cdecl _rotl64(__in unsigned __int64 _Val, __in int _Shift);#endif        __checkReturn unsigned int __cdecl _rotr(__in unsigned int _Val, __in int _Shift);#if     _INTEGRAL_MAX_BITS >= 64        __checkReturn unsigned __int64 __cdecl _rotr64(__in unsigned __int64 _Val, __in int _Shift);#endif_CRTIMP errno_t __cdecl _searchenv_s(__in_z const char * _Filename, __in_z const char * _EnvVar, __out_ecount_z(_SizeInBytes) char * _ResultPath, __in size_t _SizeInBytes);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_2_0(errno_t, _searchenv_s, __in_z const char *, _Filename, __in_z const char *, _EnvVar, __out_ecount(_Size) char, _ResultPath)__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_STANDARD_FUNC_2_0(void, __RETURN_POLICY_VOID, _CRTIMP, _searchenv, __in_z const char *, _Filename, __in_z const char *, _EnvVar, __out_z char, _ResultPath)
108 _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_splitpath_s) _CRTIMP void   __cdecl _splitpath(__in_z const char * _FullPath, __out_z_opt char * _Drive, __out_z_opt char * _Dir, __out_z_opt char * _Filename, __out_z_opt char * _Ext);_CRTIMP_ALT __checkReturn_wat errno_t  __ALTDECL _splitpath_s(__in_z const char * _FullPath,   __out_ecount_z_opt(_DriveSize) char * _Drive, __in size_t _DriveSize,   __out_ecount_z_opt(_DirSize) char * _Dir, __in size_t _DirSize,   __out_ecount_z_opt(_FilenameSize) char * _Filename, __in size_t _FilenameSize,   __out_ecount_z_opt(_ExtSize) char * _Ext, __in size_t _ExtSize);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_SPLITPATH(errno_t, _splitpath_s,  char, _Dest)
109 _CRTIMP void   __cdecl _swab(__inout_ecount_full(_SizeInBytes) char * _Buf1, __inout_ecount_full(_SizeInBytes) char * _Buf2, int _SizeInBytes);
110 #ifndef _WSTDLIBP_DEFINED
111 /** wide function prototypes, also declared in wchar.h  */
112 #if (defined(_DEBUG) || defined(_SYSCRT_DEBUG)) && defined(_CRTDBG_MAP_ALLOC)#pragma push_macro("_wfullpath")#undef _wfullpath#endif
113 _CRTIMP __checkReturn wchar_t * __cdecl _wfullpath(__out_ecount_z_opt(_SizeInWords) wchar_t * _FullPath, __in_z const wchar_t * _Path, __in size_t _SizeInWords);
114 #if (defined(_DEBUG) || defined(_SYSCRT_DEBUG)) && defined(_CRTDBG_MAP_ALLOC)#pragma pop_macro("_wfullpath")#endif
115 _CRTIMP_ALT __checkReturn_wat errno_t __ALTDECL _wmakepath_s(__out_ecount_z(_SizeInWords) wchar_t * _PathResult, __in_opt size_t _SizeInWords, __in_z_opt const wchar_t * _Drive, __in_z_opt const wchar_t * _Dir, __in_z_opt const wchar_t * _Filename,        __in_z_opt const wchar_t * _Ext);        __DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_0_4(errno_t, _wmakepath_s, __out_ecount(_Size) wchar_t, _ResultPath, __in_z_opt const wchar_t *, _Drive, __in_z_opt const wchar_t *, _Dir, __in_z_opt const wchar_t *, _Filename, __in_z_opt const wchar_t *, _Ext)__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_STANDARD_FUNC_0_4(void, __RETURN_POLICY_VOID, _CRTIMP, _wmakepath, __out_z wchar_t, _ResultPath, __in_z_opt const wchar_t *, _Drive, __in_z_opt const wchar_t *, _Dir, __in_z_opt const wchar_t *, _Filename, __in_z_opt const wchar_t *, _Ext)#ifndef _CRT_WPERROR_DEFINED#define _CRT_WPERROR_DEFINED_CRTIMP void __cdecl _wperror(__in_z_opt const wchar_t * _ErrMsg);#endif _CRTIMP __checkReturn int    __cdecl _wputenv(__in_z const wchar_t * _EnvString);_CRTIMP __checkReturn_wat errno_t __cdecl _wputenv_s(__in_z const wchar_t * _Name, __in_z const wchar_t * _Value);_CRTIMP errno_t __cdecl _wsearchenv_s(__in_z const wchar_t * _Filename, __in_z const wchar_t * _EnvVar, __out_ecount_z(_SizeInWords) wchar_t * _ResultPath, __in size_t _SizeInWords);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_2_0(errno_t, _wsearchenv_s, __in_z const wchar_t *, _Filename, __in_z const wchar_t *, _EnvVar, __out_ecount(_Size) wchar_t, _ResultPath)__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_STANDARD_FUNC_2_0(void, __RETURN_POLICY_VOID, _CRTIMP, _wsearchenv, __in_z const wchar_t *, _Filename, __in_z const wchar_t *, _EnvVar, __out_z wchar_t, _ResultPath)_CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_wsplitpath_s) _CRTIMP void   __cdecl _wsplitpath(__in_z const wchar_t * _FullPath, __out_z_opt wchar_t * _Drive, __out_z_opt wchar_t * _Dir, __out_z_opt wchar_t * _Filename, __out_z_opt wchar_t * _Ext);_CRTIMP_ALT errno_t __ALTDECL _wsplitpath_s(__in_z const wchar_t * _FullPath,   __out_ecount_z_opt(_DriveSizeInWords) wchar_t * _Drive, __in size_t _DriveSizeInWords,   __out_ecount_z_opt(_DirSizeInWords) wchar_t * _Dir, __in size_t _DirSizeInWords,   __out_ecount_z_opt(_FilenameSizeInWords) wchar_t * _Filename, __in size_t _FilenameSizeInWords,   __out_ecount_z_opt(_ExtSizeInWords) wchar_t * _Ext, __in size_t _ExtSizeInWords);__DEFINE_CPP_OVERLOAD_SECURE_FUNC_SPLITPATH(errno_t, _wsplitpath_s, wchar_t, _Path)
116 #define _WSTDLIBP_DEFINED#endif
117 /** The Win32 API SetErrorMode, Beep and Sleep should be used instead. */_CRT_OBSOLETE(SetErrorMode) _CRTIMP void __cdecl _seterrormode(__in int _Mode);_CRT_OBSOLETE(Beep) _CRTIMP void __cdecl _beep(__in unsigned _Frequency, __in unsigned _Duration);_CRT_OBSOLETE(Sleep) _CRTIMP void __cdecl _sleep(__in unsigned long _Duration);
118 #if     !__STDC__
119 /** Non-ANSI names for compatibility */
120 #ifndef __cplusplus#define max(a,b)    (((a) > (b)) ? (a) : (b))#define min(a,b)    (((a) < (b)) ? (a) : (b))#endif
121 #define sys_errlist _sys_errlist#define sys_nerr    _sys_nerr#define environ     _environ
122 #pragma warning(push)#pragma warning(disable: 4141) /** Using deprecated twice */ _CRT_NONSTDC_DEPRECATE(_ecvt) _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_ecvt_s)  _CRTIMP __checkReturn char * __cdecl ecvt(__in double _Val, __in int _NumOfDigits, __out int * _PtDec, __out int * _PtSign);_CRT_NONSTDC_DEPRECATE(_fcvt) _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_fcvt_s)  _CRTIMP __checkReturn char * __cdecl fcvt(__in double _Val, __in int _NumOfDec, __out int * _PtDec, __out int * _PtSign);_CRT_NONSTDC_DEPRECATE(_gcvt) _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_fcvt_s)  _CRTIMP char * __cdecl gcvt(__in double _Val, __in int _NumOfDigits, __out_z char * _DstBuf);_CRT_NONSTDC_DEPRECATE(_itoa) _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_itoa_s)  _CRTIMP char * __cdecl itoa(__in int _Val, __out_z char * _DstBuf, __in int _Radix);_CRT_NONSTDC_DEPRECATE(_ltoa) _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_ltoa_s)  _CRTIMP char * __cdecl ltoa(__in long _Val, __out_z char * _DstBuf, __in int _Radix);_CRT_NONSTDC_DEPRECATE(_putenv)          _CRTIMP __checkReturn int    __cdecl putenv(__in_z const char * _EnvString);_CRT_NONSTDC_DEPRECATE(_swab)          _CRTIMP void   __cdecl swab(__inout_bcount_z(_SizeInBytes) char * _Buf1,__inout_bcount_z(_SizeInBytes) char * _Buf2, __in int _SizeInBytes);_CRT_NONSTDC_DEPRECATE(_ultoa) _CRT_INSECURE_DEPRECATE(_ultoa_s) _CRTIMP char * __cdecl ultoa(__in unsigned long _Val, __out_z char * _Dstbuf, __in int _Radix);#pragma warning(pop)onexit_t __cdecl onexit(__in_opt onexit_t _Func);
123 #endif  /** __STDC__ */
124 #ifdef  __cplusplus}
125 #endif
126 #ifdef  _MSC_VER#pragma pack(pop)#endif  /** _MSC_VER */
127 #endif  /** _INC_STDLIB *//** 88bf0570-3001-4e78-a5f2-be5765546192 */

包含的函数

输入样式:C语言模式:#include <stdlib.h>

C++样式:#include <cstdlib>

1函数名称:calloc

函数原型: void * calloc(unsigned n,unsigned size);

函数功能: 分配n个数据项的内存连续空间,每个数据项的大小为size

函数返回: 分配内存单元的起始地址,如果不成功,返回0

2函数名称:free

函数原型: void free(void* p);

函数功能: 释放p所指的内存区

函数返回:

参数说明: p-被释放的指针

3函数名称:malloc

函数原型: void * malloc(unsigned size);

函数功能: 分配size字节的存储区

函数返回: 所分配的内存区地址,如果内存不够,返回0

4函数名称: realloc

函数原型: void * realloc(void * p,unsigned size);

函数功能: 将p所指出的已分配内存区的大小改为size,size可以比原来分配的空间大或小

函数返回: 返回指向该内存区的指针.NULL-分配失败

5函数名称: rand

函数原型: int rand(void);

函数功能: 产生0到32767间的随机整数(0到0x7fff之间)

函数返回: 随机整数

6函数名称: abort

函数原型: void abort(void)

函数功能: 异常终止一个进程.

7函数名称: exit

函数原型: void exit(int state)

函数功能: 程序中止执行,返回调用过程

函数返回:

参数说明: state:0-正常中止,非0-非正常中止

8函数名称: getenv

函数原型: char* getenv(const char *name)

函数功能: 返回一个指向环境变量的指针

函数返回:环境变量的定义

参数说明: name-环境字符串

9函数名称: putenv

函数原型: int putenv(const char *name)

函数功能: 将字符串name增加到DOS环境变量中

函数返回: 0:操作成功,-1:操作失败

参数说明: name-环境字符串

10函数名称: labs

函数原型: long labs(long num)

函数功能: 求长整型参数的绝对值

函数返回:绝对值

11函数名称: atof

函数原型: double atof(char *str)

函数功能: 将字符串转换成一个双精度数值

函数返回: 转换后的数值

参数说明: str-待转换浮点型数的字符串

12函数名称: atoi

函数原型: int atoi(char *str)

函数功能: 将字符串转换成一个整数值

函数返回: 转换后的数值

参数说明: str-待转换为整型数的字符串

13函数名称: atol

函数原型: long atol(char *str)

函数功能: 将字符串转换成一个长整数

函数返回: 转换后的数值

参数说明: str-待转换为长整型的字符串

14函数名称:ecvt

函数原型: char *ecvt(double value,int ndigit,int *dec,int *sign)

函数功能: 将浮点数转换为字符串

函数返回: 转换后的字符串指针

参数说明: value-待转换底浮点数,ndigit-转换后的字符串长度

15函数名称:fcvt

函数原型: char *fcvt(double value,int ndigit,int *dec,int *sign)

函数功能: 将浮点数变成一个字符串

函数返回: 转换后字符串指针

参数说明: value-待转换底浮点数,ndigit-转换后底字符串长度

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