原 荐 深入分析Kubernetes Sch

Author: xidianwangtao@gmail.com

Kubernetes 1.8抢占式调度Preemption源码分析中,有好几处我们提到了NominatedPods,当时没有给出足够的分析,今天我们就重点分析一下NominatedPods的意义和原理。

NominatedPods是什么?

当enable PodPriority feature gate后,scheduler会在集群资源资源不足时为preemptor抢占低优先级的Pods(成为victims)的资源,然后preemptor会再次入调度队列,等待下次victims的优雅终止并进行下一次调度。

为了尽量避免从preemptor抢占资源到真正再次执行调度这个时间段的scheduler能感知到那些资源已经被抢占,在scheduler调度其他更高优先级的Pods时考虑这些资源已经被抢占,因此在抢占阶段,为给preemptor设置pod.Status.NominatedNodeName,表示在NominatedNodeName上发生了抢占,preemptor期望调度在该node上。

PriorityQueue中缓存了每个node上的NominatedPods,这些NominatedPods表示已经被该node提名的,期望调度在该node上的,但是又还没最终成功调度过来的Pods。

抢占调度时发生了什么?

我们来重点关注下scheduler进行preempt时相关的流程。

func (sched *Scheduler) preempt(preemptor *v1.Pod, scheduleErr error) (string, error) {
	...
	node, victims, nominatedPodsToClear, err := sched.config.Algorithm.Preempt(preemptor, sched.config.NodeLister, scheduleErr)
	...
	var nodeName = ""
	if node != nil {
		nodeName = node.Name
		err = sched.config.PodPreemptor.SetNominatedNodeName(preemptor, nodeName)
		if err != nil {
			glog.Errorf("Error in preemption process. Cannot update pod %v annotations: %v", preemptor.Name, err)
			return "", err
		}
		...
	}
	// Clearing nominated pods should happen outside of "if node != nil". Node could
	// be nil when a pod with nominated node name is eligible to preempt again,
	// but preemption logic does not find any node for it. In that case Preempt()
	// function of generic_scheduler.go returns the pod itself for removal of the annotation.
	for _, p := range nominatedPodsToClear {
		rErr := sched.config.PodPreemptor.RemoveNominatedNodeName(p)
		if rErr != nil {
			glog.Errorf("Cannot remove nominated node annotation of pod: %v", rErr)
			// We do not return as this error is not critical.
		}
	}
	return nodeName, err
}
  • invoke ScheduleAlgorithm.Preempt进行资源抢占,返回抢占发生的node,victims,nominatedPodsToClear。
    • node:抢占发生的最佳node;
    • victims:待删除的pods,以释放资源给preemptor;
    • nominatedPodsToClear:那些将要被删除.Status.NominatedNodeName的Pods列表,这些Pods是首先是属于PriorityQueue中的nominatedPods Cache中的Pods,并且他们的Pod Priority要低于preemptor Pod Priority,意味着这些nominatedPods已经不再适合调度到之前抢占时选择的这个node上了。

    func (g *genericScheduler) Preempt(pod *v1.Pod, nodeLister algorithm.NodeLister, scheduleErr error) (*v1.Node, []*v1.Pod, []*v1.Pod, error) { ... candidateNode := pickOneNodeForPreemption(nodeToVictims) if candidateNode == nil { return nil, nil, nil, err } nominatedPods := g.getLowerPriorityNominatedPods(pod, candidateNode.Name) if nodeInfo, ok := g.cachedNodeInfoMap[candidateNode.Name]; ok { return nodeInfo.Node(), nodeToVictims[candidateNode].Pods, nominatedPods, err } return nil, nil, nil, fmt.Errorf( "preemption failed: the target node %s has been deleted from scheduler cache", candidateNode.Name) } func (g *genericScheduler) getLowerPriorityNominatedPods(pod *v1.Pod, nodeName string) []*v1.Pod { pods := g.schedulingQueue.WaitingPodsForNode(nodeName) if len(pods) == 0 { return nil } var lowerPriorityPods []*v1.Pod podPriority := util.GetPodPriority(pod) for _, p := range pods { if util.GetPodPriority(p) < podPriority { lowerPriorityPods = append(lowerPriorityPods, p) } } return lowerPriorityPods }

  • 如果抢占成功(node非空),则调用podPreemptor.SetNominatedNodeName设置preemptor的.Status.NominatedNodeName为该node name,表示该preemptor期望抢占在该node上。 func (p *podPreemptor) SetNominatedNodeName(pod *v1.Pod, nominatedNodeName string) error { podCopy := pod.DeepCopy() podCopy.Status.NominatedNodeName = nominatedNodeName _, err := p.Client.CoreV1().Pods(pod.Namespace).UpdateStatus(podCopy) return err }
  • 无论抢占是否成功(node是否为空),nominatedPodsToClear都可能不为空,都需要遍历nominatedPodsToClear内的所有Pods,调用podPreemptor.RemoveNominatedNodeName将其.Status.NominatedNodeName设置为空。 func (p *podPreemptor) RemoveNominatedNodeName(pod *v1.Pod) error { if len(pod.Status.NominatedNodeName) == 0 { return nil } return p.SetNominatedNodeName(pod, "") }

Preemptor抢占成功后,发生了什么?

Premmptor抢占成功后,该Pod会被再次加入到PriorityQueue中的Unschedulable Sub-Queue队列中,等待条件再次出发调度。关于这部分内容更深入的解读,请参考我的博客深入分析Kubernetes Scheduler的优先级队列。preemptor再次会通过podFitsOnNode对node进行predicate逻辑处理。

func podFitsOnNode(
	pod *v1.Pod,
	meta algorithm.PredicateMetadata,
	info *schedulercache.NodeInfo,
	predicateFuncs map[string]algorithm.FitPredicate,
	ecache *EquivalenceCache,
	queue SchedulingQueue,
	alwaysCheckAllPredicates bool,
	equivCacheInfo *equivalenceClassInfo,
) (bool, []algorithm.PredicateFailureReason, error) {
	var (
		eCacheAvailable  bool
		failedPredicates []algorithm.PredicateFailureReason
	)
	predicateResults := make(map[string]HostPredicate)

	podsAdded := false
	
	for i := 0; i < 2; i++ {
		metaToUse := meta
		nodeInfoToUse := info
		if i == 0 {
			podsAdded, metaToUse, nodeInfoToUse = addNominatedPods(util.GetPodPriority(pod), meta, info, queue)
		} else if !podsAdded || len(failedPredicates) != 0 {  // 有问题吧?应该是podsAdded,而不是!podsAdded
			break
		}
		// Bypass eCache if node has any nominated pods.
		// TODO(bsalamat): consider using eCache and adding proper eCache invalidations
		// when pods are nominated or their nominations change.
		eCacheAvailable = equivCacheInfo != nil && !podsAdded
		for _, predicateKey := range predicates.Ordering() {
			var (
				fit     bool
				reasons []algorithm.PredicateFailureReason
				err     error
			)
			
				func() {
					var invalid bool
					if eCacheAvailable {
						...
					}

					if !eCacheAvailable || invalid {
						// we need to execute predicate functions since equivalence cache does not work
						fit, reasons, err = predicate(pod, metaToUse, nodeInfoToUse)
						if err != nil {
							return
						}

						...
					}
				}()

				...
			}
		}
	}

	return len(failedPredicates) == 0, failedPredicates, nil
}

一共会尝试进行两次predicate:

  • 第一次predicate时,调用addNominatedPods,遍历PriorityQueue nominatedPods中所有Pods,将那些PodPriority大于等于该调度Pod的优先级的所有nominatedPods添加到SchedulerCache的NodeInfo中,意味着调度该pod时要考虑这些高优先级nominatedPods进行预选,比如要减去它们的resourceRequest等,并更新到PredicateMetadata中,接着执行正常的predicate逻辑。
  • 第二次predicate时,如果前面的predicate逻辑有失败的情况,或者前面的podsAdded为false(如果在addNominatedPods时,发现该node对应nominatedPods cache是空的,那么返回值podAdded为false),那么第二次predicate立马结束,并不会触发真正的predicate逻辑。
  • 第二次predicate时,如果前面的predicate逻辑都成功,并且podAdded为true的情况下,那么需要触发真正的第二次predicate逻辑,因为nominatedPods的添加成功,可能会Inter-Pod Affinity会影响predicate结果。

下面是addNominatedPods的代码,负责生成临时的schedulercache.NodeInfo和algorithm.PredicateMetadata,提供给具体的predicate Function进行预选处理。

// addNominatedPods adds pods with equal or greater priority which are nominated
// to run on the node given in nodeInfo to meta and nodeInfo. It returns 1) whether
// any pod was found, 2) augmented meta data, 3) augmented nodeInfo.
func addNominatedPods(podPriority int32, meta algorithm.PredicateMetadata,
	nodeInfo *schedulercache.NodeInfo, queue SchedulingQueue) (bool, algorithm.PredicateMetadata,
	*schedulercache.NodeInfo) {
	if queue == nil || nodeInfo == nil || nodeInfo.Node() == nil {
		// This may happen only in tests.
		return false, meta, nodeInfo
	}
	nominatedPods := queue.WaitingPodsForNode(nodeInfo.Node().Name)
	if nominatedPods == nil || len(nominatedPods) == 0 {
		return false, meta, nodeInfo
	}
	var metaOut algorithm.PredicateMetadata
	if meta != nil {
		metaOut = meta.ShallowCopy()
	}
	nodeInfoOut := nodeInfo.Clone()
	for _, p := range nominatedPods {
		if util.GetPodPriority(p) >= podPriority {
			nodeInfoOut.AddPod(p)
			if metaOut != nil {
				metaOut.AddPod(p, nodeInfoOut)
			}
		}
	}
	return true, metaOut, nodeInfoOut
}

// WaitingPodsForNode returns pods that are nominated to run on the given node,
// but they are waiting for other pods to be removed from the node before they
// can be actually scheduled.
func (p *PriorityQueue) WaitingPodsForNode(nodeName string) []*v1.Pod {
	p.lock.RLock()
	defer p.lock.RUnlock()
	if list, ok := p.nominatedPods[nodeName]; ok {
		return list
	}
	return nil
}

addNominatedPods的逻辑如下:

  • 调用WaitingPodsForNode获取PriorityQueue中的该node上的nominatedPods cache数据,如果nominatedPods为空,则返回podAdded为false,addNominatedPods流程结束。
  • 克隆出PredicateMeta和NodeInfo对象,遍历nominatedPods,逐个将优先级不低于待调度pod的nominated pod加到克隆出来的NodeInfo对象中,并更新到克隆出来的PredicateMeta对象中。这些克隆出来的NodeInfo和PredicateMeta对象,最终会传入到predicate Functions中进行预选处理。遍历完成后,返回podAdded(true)和NodeInfo和PredicateMeta对象。

如何维护PriorityQueue NominatedPods Cache

深入分析Kubernetes Scheduler的优先级队列中分析了scheduler中podInformer、nodeInformer、serviceInformer、pvcInformer等注册的EventHandler中对PriorityQueue的操作,其中跟NominatedPods相关的EventHandler如下。

Add Pod to PriorityQueue

  • 当往PriorityQueue中active queue添加Pod后,会调用addNominatedPodIfNeeded相应的将待添加的pod先从PriorityQueue nominatedPods Cache中删除,删除后再重新添加到nominatedPods cache中。
// Add adds a pod to the active queue. It should be called only when a new pod
// is added so there is no chance the pod is already in either queue.
func (p *PriorityQueue) Add(pod *v1.Pod) error {
	p.lock.Lock()
	defer p.lock.Unlock()
	err := p.activeQ.Add(pod)
	if err != nil {
		glog.Errorf("Error adding pod %v to the scheduling queue: %v", pod.Name, err)
	} else {
		if p.unschedulableQ.get(pod) != nil {
			glog.Errorf("Error: pod %v is already in the unschedulable queue.", pod.Name)
			p.deleteNominatedPodIfExists(pod)
			p.unschedulableQ.delete(pod)
		}
		p.addNominatedPodIfNeeded(pod)
		p.cond.Broadcast()
	}
	return err
}

func (p *PriorityQueue) addNominatedPodIfNeeded(pod *v1.Pod) {
	nnn := NominatedNodeName(pod)
	if len(nnn) > 0 {
		for _, np := range p.nominatedPods[nnn] {
			if np.UID == pod.UID {
				glog.Errorf("Pod %v/%v already exists in the nominated map!", pod.Namespace, pod.Name)
				return
			}
		}
		p.nominatedPods[nnn] = append(p.nominatedPods[nnn], pod)
	}
}
  • 当往PriorityQueue中unSchedulableQ queue添加Pod后,会调用addNominatedPodIfNeeded相应的将待添加的pod添加/更新到PriorityQueue nominatedPods Cache中。
func (p *PriorityQueue) AddUnschedulableIfNotPresent(pod *v1.Pod) error {
	p.lock.Lock()
	defer p.lock.Unlock()
	if p.unschedulableQ.get(pod) != nil {
		return fmt.Errorf("pod is already present in unschedulableQ")
	}
	if _, exists, _ := p.activeQ.Get(pod); exists {
		return fmt.Errorf("pod is already present in the activeQ")
	}
	if !p.receivedMoveRequest && isPodUnschedulable(pod) {
		p.unschedulableQ.addOrUpdate(pod)
		p.addNominatedPodIfNeeded(pod)
		return nil
	}
	err := p.activeQ.Add(pod)
	if err == nil {
		p.addNominatedPodIfNeeded(pod)
		p.cond.Broadcast()
	}
	return err
}

注意将pod添加到nominatedPods cache中的前提是该pod的.Status.NominatedNodeName不为空。

Update Pod in PriorityQueue

当更新PriorityQueue中Pod后,会接着调用updateNominatedPod更新PriorityQueue中nominatedPods Cache。

// Update updates a pod in the active queue if present. Otherwise, it removes
// the item from the unschedulable queue and adds the updated one to the active
// queue.
func (p *PriorityQueue) Update(oldPod, newPod *v1.Pod) error {
	p.lock.Lock()
	defer p.lock.Unlock()
	// If the pod is already in the active queue, just update it there.
	if _, exists, _ := p.activeQ.Get(newPod); exists {
		p.updateNominatedPod(oldPod, newPod)
		err := p.activeQ.Update(newPod)
		return err
	}
	// If the pod is in the unschedulable queue, updating it may make it schedulable.
	if usPod := p.unschedulableQ.get(newPod); usPod != nil {
		p.updateNominatedPod(oldPod, newPod)
		if isPodUpdated(oldPod, newPod) {
			p.unschedulableQ.delete(usPod)
			err := p.activeQ.Add(newPod)
			if err == nil {
				p.cond.Broadcast()
			}
			return err
		}
		p.unschedulableQ.addOrUpdate(newPod)
		return nil
	}
	// If pod is not in any of the two queue, we put it in the active queue.
	err := p.activeQ.Add(newPod)
	if err == nil {
		p.addNominatedPodIfNeeded(newPod)
		p.cond.Broadcast()
	}
	return err
}

updateNominatedPod更新PriorityQueue nominatedPods Cache的逻辑是:先删除oldPod,再添加newPod进去。

// updateNominatedPod updates a pod in the nominatedPods.
func (p *PriorityQueue) updateNominatedPod(oldPod, newPod *v1.Pod) {
	// Even if the nominated node name of the Pod is not changed, we must delete and add it again
	// to ensure that its pointer is updated.
	p.deleteNominatedPodIfExists(oldPod)
	p.addNominatedPodIfNeeded(newPod)
}

Delete Pod from PriorityQueue

当从PriorityQueue中删除Pod前,会先调用deleteNominatedPodIfExists从PriorityQueue nominatedPods cache中删除该pod。

// Delete deletes the item from either of the two queues. It assumes the pod is
// only in one queue.
func (p *PriorityQueue) Delete(pod *v1.Pod) error {
	p.lock.Lock()
	defer p.lock.Unlock()
	p.deleteNominatedPodIfExists(pod)
	err := p.activeQ.Delete(pod)
	if err != nil { // The item was probably not found in the activeQ.
		p.unschedulableQ.delete(pod)
	}
	return nil
}

deleteNominatedPodIfExists时,先检查该pod的.Status.NominatedNodeName是否为空:

  • 如果为空,则不做任何操作,直接return结束流程。
  • 如果不为空,则遍历nominatedPods cache,一旦找到UID匹配的pod,就说明nominatedPods中存在该pod,然后就从cache中删除该pod。如果删除后,发现该pod对应的NominatedNode上没有nominatePods了,则把整个node的nominatedPods从map cache中删除。
func (p *PriorityQueue) deleteNominatedPodIfExists(pod *v1.Pod) {
	nnn := NominatedNodeName(pod)
	if len(nnn) > 0 {
		for i, np := range p.nominatedPods[nnn] {
			if np.UID == pod.UID {
				p.nominatedPods[nnn] = append(p.nominatedPods[nnn][:i], p.nominatedPods[nnn][i+1:]...)
				if len(p.nominatedPods[nnn]) == 0 {
					delete(p.nominatedPods, nnn)
				}
				break
			}
		}
	}
}

总结

本文对NominatedPods和NominatedNode的作用进行了阐述,并从源码角度分析了抢占调度时及抢占调度后,NominatedPods都有哪些变更操作,最后分析了PriorityQueue中Pod的Add/Update/Delete操作对PriorityQueue NominatedPods Cache的影响,希望有助于读者加深对scheduler抢占调度和优先级队列的理解。

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