LeakCanary的原理,你知道么?

LeakCanary 是由 Square 开源的针对 AndroidJava 的内存泄漏检测工具。

使用

LeakCanary 的集成过程很简单,首先在 build.gradle 文件中添加依赖:

dependencies {
  debugImplementation 'com.squareup.leakcanary:leakcanary-android:1.5.4'
  releaseImplementation 'com.squareup.leakcanary:leakcanary-android-no-op:1.5.4'
}

debugrelease 版本中使用的是不同的库。LeakCanary 运行时会经常执行 GC 操作,在 release 版本中会影响效率。android-no-op 版本中基本没有逻辑实现,用于 release 版本。

然后实现自己的 Application 类:

public class ExampleApplication extends Application {

  @Override public void onCreate() {
    super.onCreate();
    if (LeakCanary.isInAnalyzerProcess(this)) {
      // This process is dedicated to LeakCanary for heap analysis.
      // You should not init your app in this process.
      return;
    }
    LeakCanary.install(this);
    // Normal app init code...
  }
}

这样就集成完成了。当 LeakCanary 检测到内存泄露时,会自动弹出 Notification 通知开发者发生内存泄漏的 Activity 和引用链,以便进行修复。

源码分析

从入口函数 LeakCanary.install(this) 开始分析:

LeakCanary.install

LeakCanary.java

/**
 * Creates a {@link RefWatcher} that works out of the box, and starts watching activity
 * references (on ICS+).
 */
public static RefWatcher install(Application application) {
  return refWatcher(application).listenerServiceClass(DisplayLeakService.class)
      .excludedRefs(AndroidExcludedRefs.createAppDefaults().build())
      .buildAndInstall();
}

LeakCanary.refWatcher LeakCanary.java

/** Builder to create a customized {@link RefWatcher} with appropriate Android defaults. */
public static AndroidRefWatcherBuilder refWatcher(Context context) {
  return new AndroidRefWatcherBuilder(context);
}

refWatcher() 方法新建了一个 AndroidRefWatcherBuilder 对象,该对象继承于 RefWatcherBuilder 类,配置了一些默认参数,利用建造者构建一个 RefWatcher 对象。

AndroidRefWatcherBuilder.listenerServiceClass AndroidRefWatcherBuilder.java

public AndroidRefWatcherBuilder listenerServiceClass(
    Class<? extends AbstractAnalysisResultService> listenerServiceClass) {
  return heapDumpListener(new ServiceHeapDumpListener(context, listenerServiceClass));
}

RefWatcherBuilder.java

/** @see HeapDump.Listener */
public final T heapDumpListener(HeapDump.Listener heapDumpListener) {
  this.heapDumpListener = heapDumpListener;
  return self();
}

DisplayLeakService.java

/**
 * Logs leak analysis results, and then shows a notification which will start {@link
 * DisplayLeakActivity}.
 *
 * You can extend this class and override {@link #afterDefaultHandling(HeapDump, AnalysisResult,
 * String)} to add custom behavior, e.g. uploading the heap dump.
 */
public class DisplayLeakService extends AbstractAnalysisResultService {}

listenerServiceClass() 方法绑定了一个后台服务 DisplayLeakService,这个服务主要用来分析内存泄漏结果并发送通知。你可以继承并重写这个类来进行一些自定义操作,比如上传分析结果等。

RefWatcherBuilder.excludedRefs RefWatcherBuilder.java

public final T excludedRefs(ExcludedRefs excludedRefs) {
  this.excludedRefs = excludedRefs;
  return self();
}

AndroidExcludedRefs.java

/**
 * This returns the references in the leak path that can be ignored for app developers. This
 * doesn't mean there is no memory leak, to the contrary. However, some leaks are caused by bugs
 * in AOSP or manufacturer forks of AOSP. In such cases, there is very little we can do as app
 * developers except by resorting to serious hacks, so we remove the noise caused by those leaks.
 */
public static ExcludedRefs.Builder createAppDefaults() {
  return createBuilder(EnumSet.allOf(AndroidExcludedRefs.class));
}

public static ExcludedRefs.Builder createBuilder(EnumSet<AndroidExcludedRefs> refs) {
  ExcludedRefs.Builder excluded = ExcludedRefs.builder();
  for (AndroidExcludedRefs ref : refs) {
    if (ref.applies) {
      ref.add(excluded);
      ((ExcludedRefs.BuilderWithParams) excluded).named(ref.name());
    }
  }
  return excluded;
}

excludedRefs() 方法定义了一些对于开发者可以忽略的路径,意思就是即使这里发生了内存泄漏,LeakCanary 也不会弹出通知。这大多是系统 Bug 导致的,无需用户进行处理。

AndroidRefWatcherBuilder.buildAndInstall

最后调用 buildAndInstall() 方法构建 RefWatcher 实例并开始监听 Activity 的引用:

AndroidRefWatcherBuilder.java

/**
 * Creates a {@link RefWatcher} instance and starts watching activity references (on ICS+).
 */
public RefWatcher buildAndInstall() {
  RefWatcher refWatcher = build();
  if (refWatcher != DISABLED) {
    LeakCanary.enableDisplayLeakActivity(context);
    ActivityRefWatcher.install((Application) context, refWatcher);
  }
  return refWatcher;
}

看一下主要的 build()install() 方法:

RefWatcherBuilder.build

RefWatcherBuilder.java

/** Creates a {@link RefWatcher}. */
 public final RefWatcher build() {
   if (isDisabled()) {
     return RefWatcher.DISABLED;
   }

   ExcludedRefs excludedRefs = this.excludedRefs;
   if (excludedRefs == null) {
     excludedRefs = defaultExcludedRefs();
   }

   HeapDump.Listener heapDumpListener = this.heapDumpListener;
   if (heapDumpListener == null) {
     heapDumpListener = defaultHeapDumpListener();
   }

   DebuggerControl debuggerControl = this.debuggerControl;
   if (debuggerControl == null) {
     debuggerControl = defaultDebuggerControl();
   }

   HeapDumper heapDumper = this.heapDumper;
   if (heapDumper == null) {
     heapDumper = defaultHeapDumper();
   }

   WatchExecutor watchExecutor = this.watchExecutor;
   if (watchExecutor == null) {
     watchExecutor = defaultWatchExecutor();
   }

   GcTrigger gcTrigger = this.gcTrigger;
   if (gcTrigger == null) {
     gcTrigger = defaultGcTrigger();
   }

   return new RefWatcher(watchExecutor, debuggerControl, gcTrigger, heapDumper, heapDumpListener,
           excludedRefs);
 }

build() 方法利用建造者模式构建 RefWatcher 实例,看一下其中的主要参数:

  • watchExecutor : 线程控制器,在 onDestroy() 之后并且主线程空闲时执行内存泄漏检测
  • debuggerControl : 判断是否处于调试模式,调试模式中不会进行内存泄漏检测
  • gcTrigger : 用于 GCwatchExecutor 首次检测到可能的内存泄漏,会主动进行 GCGC 之后会再检测一次,仍然泄漏的判定为内存泄漏,进行后续操作
  • heapDumper : dump 内存泄漏处的 heap 信息,写入 hprof 文件
  • heapDumpListener : 解析完 hprof 文件并通知 DisplayLeakService 弹出提醒
  • excludedRefs : 排除可以忽略的泄漏路径

LeakCanary.enableDisplayLeakActivity

接下来就是最核心的 install() 方法,这里就开始观察 Activity 的引用了。在这之前还执行了一步操作,LeakCanary.enableDisplayLeakActivity(context);

public static void enableDisplayLeakActivity(Context context) {
  setEnabled(context, DisplayLeakActivity.class, true);
}

最后执行到 LeakCanaryInternals#setEnabledBlocking

public static void setEnabledBlocking(Context appContext, Class<?> componentClass,
    boolean enabled) {
  ComponentName component = new ComponentName(appContext, componentClass);
  PackageManager packageManager = appContext.getPackageManager();
  int newState = enabled ? COMPONENT_ENABLED_STATE_ENABLED : COMPONENT_ENABLED_STATE_DISABLED;
  // Blocks on IPC.
  packageManager.setComponentEnabledSetting(component, newState, DONT_KILL_APP);
}

这里启用了 DisplayLeakActivity 并且显示应用图标。注意,这是指的不是你自己的应用图标,是一个单独的 LeakCanary 的应用,用于展示内存泄露历史的,入口函数是 DisplayLeakActivity,在 AndroidManifest.xml 中可以看到默认情况下 android:enabled="false" :

<activity
    android:theme="@style/leak_canary_LeakCanary.Base"
    android:name=".internal.DisplayLeakActivity"
    android:process=":leakcanary"
    android:enabled="false"
    android:label="@string/leak_canary_display_activity_label"
    android:icon="@mipmap/leak_canary_icon"
    android:taskAffinity="com.squareup.leakcanary.${applicationId}"
    >
  <intent-filter>
    <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN"/>
    <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER"/>
  </intent-filter>
</activity>

ActivityRefWatcher.install

ActivityRefWatcher.java

public static void install(Application application, RefWatcher refWatcher) {
  new ActivityRefWatcher(application, refWatcher).watchActivities();
}

public void watchActivities() {
  // Make sure you don't get installed twice.
  stopWatchingActivities();
  application.registerActivityLifecycleCallbacks(lifecycleCallbacks);
}

watchActivities() 方法中先解绑生命周期回调注册 lifecycleCallbacks,再重新绑定,避免重复绑定。lifecycleCallbacks 监听了 Activity 的各个生命周期,在 onDestroy() 中开始检测当前 Activity 的引用。

private final Application.ActivityLifecycleCallbacks lifecycleCallbacks =
    new Application.ActivityLifecycleCallbacks() {
      @Override public void onActivityCreated(Activity activity, Bundle savedInstanceState) {
      }

      @Override public void onActivityStarted(Activity activity) {
      }

      @Override public void onActivityResumed(Activity activity) {
      }

      @Override public void onActivityPaused(Activity activity) {
      }

      @Override public void onActivityStopped(Activity activity) {
      }

      @Override public void onActivitySaveInstanceState(Activity activity, Bundle outState) {
      }

      @Override public void onActivityDestroyed(Activity activity) {
        ActivityRefWatcher.this.onActivityDestroyed(activity);
      }
    };

    void onActivityDestroyed(Activity activity) {
      refWatcher.watch(activity);
    }

下面着重分析 RefWatcher 是如何检测 Activity 的。

RefWatcher.watch

调用 RefWatcher#watch 检测 ActivityRefWatcher.java

/**
 * Identical to {@link #watch(Object, String)} with an empty string reference name.
 *
 * @see #watch(Object, String)
 */
public void watch(Object watchedReference) {
  watch(watchedReference, "");
}

/**
 * Watches the provided references and checks if it can be GCed. This method is non blocking,
 * the check is done on the {@link WatchExecutor} this {@link RefWatcher} has been constructed
 * with.
 *
 * @param referenceName An logical identifier for the watched object.
 */
public void watch(Object watchedReference, String referenceName) {
  if (this == DISABLED) {
    return;
  }
  checkNotNull(watchedReference, "watchedReference");
  checkNotNull(referenceName, "referenceName");
  final long watchStartNanoTime = System.nanoTime();
  String key = UUID.randomUUID().toString();
  retainedKeys.add(key);
  final KeyedWeakReference reference =
      new KeyedWeakReference(watchedReference, key, referenceName, queue);

  ensureGoneAsync(watchStartNanoTime, reference);
}

watch() 方法的参数是 ObjectLeakCanary 并不仅仅是针对 Android 的,它可以检测任何对象的内存泄漏,原理都是一致的。

这里出现了几个新面孔,先来了解一下各自是什么:

  • retainedKeys : 一个 Set<String> 集合,每个检测的对象都对应着一个唯一的 key,存储在 retainedKeys
  • KeyedWeakReference : 自定义的弱引用,持有检测对象和对用的 key
final class KeyedWeakReference extends WeakReference<Object> {
  public final String key;
  public final String name;

  KeyedWeakReference(Object referent, String key, String name,
      ReferenceQueue<Object> referenceQueue) {
    super(checkNotNull(referent, "referent"), checkNotNull(referenceQueue, "referenceQueue"));
    this.key = checkNotNull(key, "key");
    this.name = checkNotNull(name, "name");
  }
}
  • queue : ReferenceQueue 对象,和 KeyedWeakReference 配合使用

这里有个小知识点,弱引用和引用队列 ReferenceQueue 联合使用时,如果弱引用持有的对象被垃圾回收,Java 虚拟机就会把这个弱引用加入到与之关联的引用队列中。即 KeyedWeakReference 持有的 Activity 对象如果被垃圾回收,该对象就会加入到引用队列 queue 中。

接着看看具体的内存泄漏判断过程:

RefWatcher.ensureGoneAsync

private void ensureGoneAsync(final long watchStartNanoTime, final KeyedWeakReference reference) {
  watchExecutor.execute(new Retryable() {
    @Override public Retryable.Result run() {
      return ensureGone(reference, watchStartNanoTime);
    }
  });
}

通过 watchExecutor 执行检测操作,这里的 watchExecutorAndroidWatchExecutor 对象。

@Override protected WatchExecutor defaultWatchExecutor() {
  return new AndroidWatchExecutor(DEFAULT_WATCH_DELAY_MILLIS);
}

DEFAULT_WATCH_DELAY_MILLIS 为 5 s。

public AndroidWatchExecutor(long initialDelayMillis) {
  mainHandler = new Handler(Looper.getMainLooper());
  HandlerThread handlerThread = new HandlerThread(LEAK_CANARY_THREAD_NAME);
  handlerThread.start();
  backgroundHandler = new Handler(handlerThread.getLooper());
  this.initialDelayMillis = initialDelayMillis;
  maxBackoffFactor = Long.MAX_VALUE / initialDelayMillis;
}

看看其中用到的几个对象:

  • mainHandler : 主线程消息队列
  • handlerThread : 后台线程,HandlerThread 对象,线程名为 LeakCanary-Heap-Dump
  • backgroundHandler : 上面的后台线程的消息队列
  • initialDelayMillis : 5 s,即之前的 DEFAULT_WATCH_DELAY_MILLIS
@Override public void execute(Retryable retryable) {
  if (Looper.getMainLooper().getThread() == Thread.currentThread()) {
    waitForIdle(retryable, 0);
  } else {
    postWaitForIdle(retryable, 0);
  }
}

void postWaitForIdle(final Retryable retryable, final int failedAttempts) {
  mainHandler.post(new Runnable() {
    @Override public void run() {
      waitForIdle(retryable, failedAttempts);
    }
  });
}

void waitForIdle(final Retryable retryable, final int failedAttempts) {
  // This needs to be called from the main thread.
  Looper.myQueue().addIdleHandler(new MessageQueue.IdleHandler() {
    @Override public boolean queueIdle() {
      postToBackgroundWithDelay(retryable, failedAttempts);
      return false;
    }
  });
}

在具体的 execute() 过程中,不管是 waitForIdle 还是 postWaitForIdle,最终还是要切换到主线程中执行。要注意的是,这里的 IdleHandler 到底是什么时候去执行?

我们都知道 Handler 是循环处理 MessageQueue 中的消息的,当消息队列中没有更多消息需要处理的时候,且声明了 IdleHandler 接口,这是就会去处理这里的操作。即指定一些操作,当线程空闲的时候来处理。当主线程空闲时,就会通知后台线程延时 5 秒执行内存泄漏检测工作。

void postToBackgroundWithDelay(final Retryable retryable, final int failedAttempts) {
  long exponentialBackoffFactor = (long) Math.min(Math.pow(2, failedAttempts), maxBackoffFactor);
  long delayMillis = initialDelayMillis * exponentialBackoffFactor;
  backgroundHandler.postDelayed(new Runnable() {
    @Override public void run() {
      Retryable.Result result = retryable.run();
      if (result == RETRY) {
        postWaitForIdle(retryable, failedAttempts + 1);
      }
    }
  }, delayMillis);
}

下面是真正的检测过程,AndroidWatchExecutor 在执行时调用 ensureGone() 方法:

RefWatcher.ensureGone

Retryable.Result ensureGone(final KeyedWeakReference reference, final long watchStartNanoTime) {
  long gcStartNanoTime = System.nanoTime();
  long watchDurationMs = NANOSECONDS.toMillis(gcStartNanoTime - watchStartNanoTime);

  removeWeaklyReachableReferences();

  if (debuggerControl.isDebuggerAttached()) {
    // The debugger can create false leaks.
    return RETRY;
  }
  if (gone(reference)) {
    return DONE;
  }
  gcTrigger.runGc();
  removeWeaklyReachableReferences();
  if (!gone(reference)) {
    long startDumpHeap = System.nanoTime();
    long gcDurationMs = NANOSECONDS.toMillis(startDumpHeap - gcStartNanoTime);

    File heapDumpFile = heapDumper.dumpHeap();
    if (heapDumpFile == RETRY_LATER) {
      // Could not dump the heap.
      return RETRY;
    }
    long heapDumpDurationMs = NANOSECONDS.toMillis(System.nanoTime() - startDumpHeap);
    heapdumpListener.analyze(
        new HeapDump(heapDumpFile, reference.key, reference.name, excludedRefs, watchDurationMs,
            gcDurationMs, heapDumpDurationMs));
  }
  return DONE;
}

再重复一次几个变量的含义,retainedKeys 是一个 Set集合,存储检测对象对应的唯一 key 值,queue是一个引用队列,存储被垃圾回收的对象。

主要过程有一下几步:

RefWatcher.emoveWeaklyReachableReferences()

private void removeWeaklyReachableReferences() {
  // WeakReferences are enqueued as soon as the object to which they point to becomes weakly
  // reachable. This is before finalization or garbage collection has actually happened.
  KeyedWeakReference ref;
  while ((ref = (KeyedWeakReference) queue.poll()) != null) {
    retainedKeys.remove(ref.key);
  }
}

遍历引用队列 queue,判断队列中是否存在当前 Activity 的弱引用,存在则删除 retainedKeys 中对应的引用的 key值。

RefWatcher.gone()

private boolean gone(KeyedWeakReference reference) {
  return !retainedKeys.contains(reference.key);
}

判断 retainedKeys 中是否包含当前 Activity 引用的 key 值。

如果不包含,说明上一步操作中 retainedKeys 移除了该引用的 key 值,也就说上一步操作之前引用队列 queue 中包含该引用,GC 处理了该引用,未发生内存泄漏,返回 DONE,不再往下执行。

如果包含,并不会立即判定发生内存泄漏,可能存在某个对象已经不可达,但是尚未进入引用队列 queue。这时会主动执行一次 GC 操作之后再次进行判断。

gcTrigger.runGc()

/**
 * Called when a watched reference is expected to be weakly reachable, but hasn't been enqueued
 * in the reference queue yet. This gives the application a hook to run the GC before the {@link
 * RefWatcher} checks the reference queue again, to avoid taking a heap dump if possible.
 */
public interface GcTrigger {
  GcTrigger DEFAULT = new GcTrigger() {
    @Override public void runGc() {
      // Code taken from AOSP FinalizationTest:
      // https://android.googlesource.com/platform/libcore/+/master/support/src/test/java/libcore/
      // java/lang/ref/FinalizationTester.java
      // System.gc() does not garbage collect every time. Runtime.gc() is
      // more likely to perfom a gc.
      Runtime.getRuntime().gc();
      enqueueReferences();
      System.runFinalization();
    }

    private void enqueueReferences() {
      // Hack. We don't have a programmatic way to wait for the reference queue daemon to move
      // references to the appropriate queues.
      try {
        Thread.sleep(100);
      } catch (InterruptedException e) {
        throw new AssertionError();
      }
    }
  };

  void runGc();
}

注意这里调用 GC 的写法,并不是使用 System.gcSystem.gc 仅仅只是通知系统在合适的时间进行一次垃圾回收操作,实际上并不能保证一定执行。

主动进行 GC 之后会再次进行判定,过程同上。首先调用 removeWeaklyReachableReferences() 清除 retainedKeys 中弱引用的 key 值,再判断是否移除。如果仍然没有移除,判定为内存泄漏。

内存泄露结果处理

AndroidHeapDumper.dumpHeap

判定内存泄漏之后,调用 heapDumper.dumpHeap() 进行处理:

AndroidHeapDumper.java

@SuppressWarnings("ReferenceEquality") // Explicitly checking for named null.
@Override public File dumpHeap() {
  File heapDumpFile = leakDirectoryProvider.newHeapDumpFile();

  if (heapDumpFile == RETRY_LATER) {
    return RETRY_LATER;
  }

  FutureResult<Toast> waitingForToast = new FutureResult<>();
  showToast(waitingForToast);

  if (!waitingForToast.wait(5, SECONDS)) {
    CanaryLog.d("Did not dump heap, too much time waiting for Toast.");
    return RETRY_LATER;
  }

  Toast toast = waitingForToast.get();
  try {
    Debug.dumpHprofData(heapDumpFile.getAbsolutePath());
    cancelToast(toast);
    return heapDumpFile;
  } catch (Exception e) {
    CanaryLog.d(e, "Could not dump heap");
    // Abort heap dump
    return RETRY_LATER;
  }
}

leakDirectoryProvider.newHeapDumpFile() 新建了 hprof 文件,然后调用 Debug.dumpHprofData() 方法 dump 当前堆内存并写入刚才创建的文件。

回到 RefWatcher.ensureGone() 方法中,生成 heapDumpFile 文件之后,通过 heapdumpListener 分析。

ServiceHeapDumpListener.analyze

heapdumpListener.analyze(
          new HeapDump(heapDumpFile, reference.key, reference.name, excludedRefs, watchDurationMs,
              gcDurationMs, heapDumpDurationMs));

这里的 heapdumpListenerServiceHeapDumpListener 对象,接着进入 ServiceHeapDumpListener.runAnalysis() 方法。

@Override public void analyze(HeapDump heapDump) {
  checkNotNull(heapDump, "heapDump");
  HeapAnalyzerService.runAnalysis(context, heapDump, listenerServiceClass);
}

这里的 listenerServiceClass 指的是 DisplayLeakService.class,文章开头提到的 AndroidRefWatcherBuilder 中进行了配置。

@Override protected HeapDump.Listener defaultHeapDumpListener() {
  return new ServiceHeapDumpListener(context, DisplayLeakService.class);
}

HeapAnalyzerService.runAnalysis HeapAnalyzerService.runAnalysis() 方法中启动了它自己,传递了两个参数,DisplayLeakService 类名和要分析的 heapDump。启动自己后,在 onHandleIntent 中进行处理。

/**
 * This service runs in a separate process to avoid slowing down the app process or making it run
 * out of memory.
 */
public final class HeapAnalyzerService extends IntentService {

  private static final String LISTENER_CLASS_EXTRA = "listener_class_extra";
  private static final String HEAPDUMP_EXTRA = "heapdump_extra";

  public static void runAnalysis(Context context, HeapDump heapDump,
      Class<? extends AbstractAnalysisResultService> listenerServiceClass) {
    Intent intent = new Intent(context, HeapAnalyzerService.class);
    intent.putExtra(LISTENER_CLASS_EXTRA, listenerServiceClass.getName());
    intent.putExtra(HEAPDUMP_EXTRA, heapDump);
    context.startService(intent);
  }

  public HeapAnalyzerService() {
    super(HeapAnalyzerService.class.getSimpleName());
  }

  @Override protected void onHandleIntent(Intent intent) {
    if (intent == null) {
      CanaryLog.d("HeapAnalyzerService received a null intent, ignoring.");
      return;
    }
    String listenerClassName = intent.getStringExtra(LISTENER_CLASS_EXTRA);
    HeapDump heapDump = (HeapDump) intent.getSerializableExtra(HEAPDUMP_EXTRA);

    HeapAnalyzer heapAnalyzer = new HeapAnalyzer(heapDump.excludedRefs);

    AnalysisResult result = heapAnalyzer.checkForLeak(heapDump.heapDumpFile, heapDump.referenceKey);
    AbstractAnalysisResultService.sendResultToListener(this, listenerClassName, heapDump, result);
  }
}

heapAnalyzer.checkForLeak

checkForLeak 方法中主要使用了 Square 公司的另一个库 haha 来分析 Android heap dump,得到结果后回调给 DisplayLeakService

AbstractAnalysisResultService.sendResultToListener

public static void sendResultToListener(Context context, String listenerServiceClassName,
    HeapDump heapDump, AnalysisResult result) {
  Class<?> listenerServiceClass;
  try {
    listenerServiceClass = Class.forName(listenerServiceClassName);
  } catch (ClassNotFoundException e) {
    throw new RuntimeException(e);
  }
  Intent intent = new Intent(context, listenerServiceClass);
  intent.putExtra(HEAP_DUMP_EXTRA, heapDump);
  intent.putExtra(RESULT_EXTRA, result);
  context.startService(intent);
}

同样在 onHandleIntent 中进行处理。

DisplayLeakService.onHandleIntent

@Override protected final void onHandleIntent(Intent intent) {
  HeapDump heapDump = (HeapDump) intent.getSerializableExtra(HEAP_DUMP_EXTRA);
  AnalysisResult result = (AnalysisResult) intent.getSerializableExtra(RESULT_EXTRA);
  try {
    onHeapAnalyzed(heapDump, result);
  } finally {
    //noinspection ResultOfMethodCallIgnored
    heapDump.heapDumpFile.delete();
  }
}

DisplayLeakService.onHeapAnalyzed

调用 onHeapAnalyzed() 之后,会将 hprof 文件删除。

DisplayLeakService.java

@Override protected final void onHeapAnalyzed(HeapDump heapDump, AnalysisResult result) {
  String leakInfo = leakInfo(this, heapDump, result, true);
  CanaryLog.d("%s", leakInfo);

  boolean resultSaved = false;
  boolean shouldSaveResult = result.leakFound || result.failure != null;
  if (shouldSaveResult) {
    heapDump = renameHeapdump(heapDump);
    resultSaved = saveResult(heapDump, result);
  }

  PendingIntent pendingIntent;
  String contentTitle;
  String contentText;

  if (!shouldSaveResult) {
    contentTitle = getString(R.string.leak_canary_no_leak_title);
    contentText = getString(R.string.leak_canary_no_leak_text);
    pendingIntent = null;
  } else if (resultSaved) {
    pendingIntent = DisplayLeakActivity.createPendingIntent(this, heapDump.referenceKey);

    if (result.failure == null) {
      String size = formatShortFileSize(this, result.retainedHeapSize);
      String className = classSimpleName(result.className);
      if (result.excludedLeak) {
        contentTitle = getString(R.string.leak_canary_leak_excluded, className, size);
      } else {
        contentTitle = getString(R.string.leak_canary_class_has_leaked, className, size);
      }
    } else {
      contentTitle = getString(R.string.leak_canary_analysis_failed);
    }
    contentText = getString(R.string.leak_canary_notification_message);
  } else {
    contentTitle = getString(R.string.leak_canary_could_not_save_title);
    contentText = getString(R.string.leak_canary_could_not_save_text);
    pendingIntent = null;
  }
  // New notification id every second.
  int notificationId = (int) (SystemClock.uptimeMillis() / 1000);
  showNotification(this, contentTitle, contentText, pendingIntent, notificationId);
  afterDefaultHandling(heapDump, result, leakInfo);
}

根据分析结果,调用 showNotification() 方法构建了一个 Notification 向开发者通知内存泄漏。

public static void showNotification(Context context, CharSequence contentTitle,
    CharSequence contentText, PendingIntent pendingIntent, int notificationId) {
  NotificationManager notificationManager =
      (NotificationManager) context.getSystemService(Context.NOTIFICATION_SERVICE);

  Notification notification;
  Notification.Builder builder = new Notification.Builder(context) //
      .setSmallIcon(R.drawable.leak_canary_notification)
      .setWhen(System.currentTimeMillis())
      .setContentTitle(contentTitle)
      .setContentText(contentText)
      .setAutoCancel(true)
      .setContentIntent(pendingIntent);
  if (SDK_INT >= O) {
    String channelName = context.getString(R.string.leak_canary_notification_channel);
    setupNotificationChannel(channelName, notificationManager, builder);
  }
  if (SDK_INT < JELLY_BEAN) {
    notification = builder.getNotification();
  } else {
    notification = builder.build();
  }
  notificationManager.notify(notificationId, notification);
}

DisplayLeakService.afterDefaultHandling

最后还会执行一个空实现的方法 afterDefaultHandling

/**
 * You can override this method and do a blocking call to a server to upload the leak trace and
 * the heap dump. Don't forget to check {@link AnalysisResult#leakFound} and {@link
 * AnalysisResult#excludedLeak} first.
 */
protected void afterDefaultHandling(HeapDump heapDump, AnalysisResult result, String leakInfo) {
}

你可以重写这个方法进行一些自定义的操作,比如向服务器上传泄漏的堆栈信息等。

这样,LeakCanary 就完成了整个内存泄漏检测的过程。可以看到,LeakCanary 的设计思路十分巧妙,同时也很清晰,有很多有意思的知识点,像对于弱引用和 ReferenceQueue 的使用, IdleHandler 的使用,四大组件的开启和关闭等等,都很值的大家去深究。

原创投稿:孙路遥

原文链接:https://www.jianshu.com/p/751f99918711

原文发布于微信公众号 - 何俊林(DriodDeveloper)

原文发表时间:2018-05-08

本文参与腾讯云自媒体分享计划,欢迎正在阅读的你也加入,一起分享。

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