1) Trust in Truth
... 2) Realize that you have nothing to fear from truth. Understanding, accepting, and knowing how to effectively deal with reality are crucial for achieving success. Having truth on your side is extremely powerful. While the truth itself may be scary—you have a weakness, you have a deadly disease, etc.—knowing the truth will allow you to deal with your situation better. Being truthful, and letting others be truthful with you, allows you to explore your own thoughts and exposes you to the feedback that is essential for your learning. Being truthful is an extension of your freedom to be you; people who are one way on the inside and another on the outside become conflicted and often lose touch with their own values. It’s difficult for them to be happy, and almost impossible for them to be at their best. While the first-order effects of being radically truthful might not be desirable, the second- and third-order effects are great. ... 2) 你要知道，真相没什么可怕的。理解、接受、并了解如何能够有效处理现实问题，这对于取得成功而言至关重要。站在真相一边，就最有说服力。当然，有时真相本身可能会让人惧怕，比如，你暴露了一个弱点或者甚至是身患绝症，而了解真相却能让你更从容地处理事情。对自己坦诚、对他人坦诚，让别人也对自己坦诚，才能更好地了解自己的想法，获得他人的反馈，从而学到知识。诚实，同时也是做自己的自由的延伸。表里不一的人往往会自相矛盾，也容易丢失自己的价值观。他们不易开心，更不可能展现出自己最好的一面。尽管从一级效应的角度来看，过于诚实未免使人难以接受，但是从二、三级效应的角度而言，这样做却收效可观。
... 3) Create an environment in which everyone has the right to understand what makes sense and no one has the right to hold a critical opinion without speaking up about it. ... 3) 创造这样一种氛围：人人都有权理解合理之事，如果任何人有意见，都拥有开诚布公地表达自己想法的环境。。
... 4) Be extremely open. Openness leads to truth and trust. Being open about what you dislike is especially important, because things you don’t like need to be changed or resolved. Discuss your issues until you are in synch or until you understand each other’s positions and can determine what should be done. As someone I worked with once explained, “It’s simple - just don’t filter.” The main reason Bridgewater performs well is that all people here have the power to speak openly and equally and because their views are judged on the merits of what they are saying. Through that extreme openness and a meritocracy of thought, we identify and solve problems better. Since we know we can rely on honesty, we succeed more and we ultimately become closer, and since we succeed and are close, we are more committed to this mission and to each other. It is a self-reinforcing, virtuous cycle. ... 4) 要极为坦诚。坦诚能够揭示真相，增强互信。对于自己不喜欢的事情开诚布公尤为重要，因为你必须改变或彻底解决这些你不喜欢的事情。各抒己见，直到达成一致，或者直到充分理解彼此的处境，找到解决方案。一位曾经的同事说过，“这其实很简单，（表达观点时）不作任何过滤就行了。”桥水联合基金的成功经验之一就是公司所有人都能够以开放的、平等的方式进行沟通，他们的观点会得到客观公正的对待。遵循极致坦诚和观点至上的原则，我们才能够更好的发现并解决问题。对诚实的依赖，使我们更频繁地取得成功，彼此变得更加亲密。而因为这些成功和亲密，我们能更坚定地投入到事业与彼此之中。这是一个自我增强的过程，一个良性循环。
... 5) Have integrity and demand it from others. Integrity comes from the Latin word integer,meaning “one.” People who are one way on the inside and another way outside lack integrity; they have duality. ... 5) 为人正直，要求别人也保持正直。英文中的正直（integrity）一词来源于拉丁语的整体（integer）一词，含有唯一性。表里不一的人缺少唯一性，他们具有两面性。
The second- and third-order effects of having integrity and avoiding duality are great. Thinking solely about what’s accurate instead of how it is perceived helps you to be more focused on important things. It helps you sort the people you are around and the environments you are in. It improves the organization’s efficiency and camaraderie because the secret things that people think and don't say to each other drive resentment and key issues underground and don’t lead to improvement. Having nothing to hide relieves stress. It also builds trust. For these reasons: 坚持正直，拒绝两面性的二、三级效应是显著的。只考虑事物的准确本质而不是其表象能够帮助你抓住主要矛盾。同时，这样做还能帮你筛选身边的人和环境，提高组织效率，促进同事之谊。那些不为人知、不与人言的隐秘心思会掩盖埋怨与关键问题，更不能解决问题。相反，毫不隐瞒却能释放压力，增强互信，理由如下：
5a) Never say anything about a person you wouldn’t say to them directly, and don’t try people without accusing them to their face. Badmouthing people behind their backs shows a serious lack of integrity and is counterproductive. It doesn’t yield any beneficial change, and it subverts both the people you are badmouthing and the environment as a whole. Next to being dishonest, it is the worst thing you can do at Bridgewater. Criticism is both welcomed and encouraged at Bridgewater, so there is no good reason to talk behind people’s backs. You need to follow this policy to an extreme degree. For example, managers should not talk about people who work for them without those people being in the room. If you talk behind people’s backs at Bridgewater you are called a slimy weasel. 5a) 若当面不对别人进行评论，背地里也不要说。若未曾当面控诉过别人，也不要背地里试探。暗箭伤人是不正直的表现，只会产生消极效果，不能带来有价值的改变，不仅会中伤他人，也会对整体环境带来负面影响。在桥水联合基金，暗箭伤人被认为是仅次于不诚实的恶劣行径。我们公司欢迎并鼓励批评，完全没有必要背后对别人说三道四。这一原则必须得到最严格的遵守，比如说，管理者们不应该在当事人不在场的情况下指责下属。如果你在桥水基金背地说人坏话，别人会称你为“令人厌恶的黄鼠狼”。
5b) Don’t let “loyalty” stand in the way of truth and openness. In some companies, employees hide their employer’s mistakes, and employers do the same in return. In these places, openly expressing your concerns is considered disloyal, and discouraged. Because it prevents people from bringing their mistakes and weaknesses to the surface and because it encourages deception and eliminates the subordinates’ right of appeal, unhealthy loyalty stands in the way of improvement. I believe in a truer, healthier form of loyalty, which does the opposite. Healthy loyalty fosters improvement through openly addressing mistakes and weaknesses. The more people are open about their challenges, the more helpful others can be. In an environment in which mistakes and weaknesses are dealt with frankly, those who face their challenges have the most admirable character. By contrast, when mistakes and weaknesses are hidden, unhealthy character is legitimized. 5b) 所谓的“忠诚”不能成为真相与坦诚的拦路虎。在某些公司，雇员会隐瞒雇主的错误，而雇主也会隐瞒雇员的错误。这些公司，公开表达自己的疑虑被认为是不忠诚的，也不被鼓励。那么，所谓的忠诚就会阻止人们将错误和弱点摆到台面上来，鼓励欺瞒，剥夺下属向领导层上诉问题的权利，这种不健康的忠诚就是阻碍进步的拦路虎。我坚持的是另一种更加真实、健康的忠诚，效果正好相反。健康的忠诚通过坦诚应对错误和弱点实现进步，人们越是对自己的问题开诚布公，越是能够获得他人的帮助。在这样一种坦诚的环境之下，错误和弱点都得以解决，那些直面自己问题的人最令人敬仰。相应的，如果错误和弱点被一再掩盖，那么不健康的人格也会因此形成。
... 6) Be radically transparent. Provide people with as much exposure as possible to what’s going on around them. Allowing people direct access lets them form their own views and greatly enhances accuracy and the pursuit of truth. Winston Churchill said, “There is no worse course in leadership than to hold out false hopes soon to be swept away.” The candid question-and-answer process allows people to probe your thinking. You can then modify your thinking to get at the best possible answer, reinforcing your confidence that you’re on the best possible path. ... 6）要极为透明。尽可能多的为人们提供对周围事物的知情权。允许人们直接获取信息能够使他们形成自己的观点，从而提高对事物认识的准确性，激励人们追求真相。丘吉尔曾经说过，“没有什么比在领导过程中给公众虚假的、会迅速破灭的希望来的更糟的错误了。”坦诚的问答模式让人们挑战你的想法，从而促使你不断修改，直到获得最佳方案。这一过程会增强你的信心，保证自己是在最正确的方向上前行。
6a) Record almost all meetings and share them with all relevant people. Provide tapes of all meetings that don’t contain confidential information to enhance transparency. Of course, there are some times when privacy is required. If someone gives you confidential information, keep it confidential until you have permission to disclose it. 6a) 记录每一次会议成果，并分享给所有相关人士。为促进透明度，请向大家提供所有不含涉密信息的会议录音带。当然，有时还需考虑隐私问题。当别人给了你保密信息，在获得披露许可之前，你都必须严守秘密。
... 7) Don’t tolerate dishonesty. People typically aren’t totally honest, which stands in the way of progress, so don’t tolerate this. There’s an adjustment process at Bridgewater in which one learns to be completely honest and expect the same from others. Increasingly you engage in logical, unemotional discussions in pursuit of truth in which criticisms are not viewed as attacks, but as explorations of possible sources of problems. ... 7) 对不诚实零容忍。无法做到完全诚实是人之本性，但这却阻碍了人取得进步，因此，不该容忍不诚实的现象。在桥水，我们拥有一项调整程序，在此程序中，人们学习该如何完全诚实，并期待他人对自己坦诚相见。你会逐步参与到理智的、不带感情色彩的讨论当中。这些讨论旨在追求真相，讨论过程中的批评不会被看作是人身攻击，而会被当成探寻问题之源的途径。
7a) Don’t believe it when someone caught being dishonest says they have seen the light and will never do that sort of thing again. Chances are they will. The cost of keeping someone around who has been dishonest is likely to be higher than any benefits. 7a) 不要相信不诚实之人说他已痛改前非，绝不再犯。他们很可能重蹈覆辙。将这种不诚信之人留在身边只会遗患无穷。
... 8) Create a Culture in Which It Is OK to Make Mistakes but Unacceptable Not to Identify, Analyze, and Learn From Them
... 9) Recognize that effective, innovative thinkers are going to make mistakes and learn from them because it is a natural part of the innovation process.For every mistake that you learn from you will save thousands of similar mistakes in the future, so if you treat mistakes as learning opportunities that yield rapid improvements you should be excited by them. But if you treat them as bad things, you will make yourself and others miserable, and you won’t grow. Your work environment will be marked by petty back-biting and malevolent barbs rather than by a healthy, honest search for truth that leads to evolution and improvement. Because of this, the more mistakes you make and the more quality, honest diagnoses you have, the more rapid your progress will be. That’s not B.S. or just talk. That’s the reality of learning.50 ... 9) 要意识到处事高效、具有创新思维的人都会犯错，从错误中吸取教训，这都是创新过程的自然组成部分。你每吃一堑，长一智，就能在未来避免犯数千次类似的错误。如果你将错误当做快速提升自我的学习机会，那么你就会对发现错误激动不已。如果你将他人向你指出的错误视为一件坏事，那么你不仅自己痛苦，指出错误的人也会痛苦，你更不会因为这个错误而得到成长。你的工作环境会充斥着小肚鸡肠和暗箭伤人，而缺乏健康的、诚实的对真相的探索。然而，只有通过这一探索过程才能实现成长和提升。基于此，你犯的错越多，你获得的高质量的诚实的诊断就越多，你就会进步得越快。这一过程不是简单的头脑风暴或者聊天，而是学习的本质所在。
Thomas Edison said about failure: “I have not failed. I’ve just found 10,000 ways that don’t work.” “I am not discouraged, because every wrong attempt discarded is another step forward.” “Results! Why, man, I have gotten a lot of results. I know several thousand things that won’t work.” “When I have fully decided that a result is worth getting I go ahead of it and make trial after trial until it comes.” “Many of life’s failures are men who did not realize how close they were to success when they gave up.” 爱迪生在谈论失败时曾说，“我并没有失败，我只是成功找到了一万种不合适的方法。”“我不气馁，因为每一个错误的尝试都是向成功迈进的一步。”“成果呢！为什么要这样问，我获得了很多成果。我发现了数以千计不对的方法。”“当我下定决心要达到目的，那么我就会一直努力，不断尝试，直到成功。”“生活中许多的失败都是距离成功一步之遥的放弃。” A good book about this is Einstein’s Mistakes by Hans Ohanian. 汉斯·欧哈尼亚（Hans Ohanian）的《爱因斯坦的错误》一书很好的阐述了这一观点。
... 10) Do not feel bad about your mistakes or those of others. Love them! Remember that 1) they are to be expected, 2) they’re the first and most essential part of the learning process, and 3) feeling bad about them will prevent you from getting better. People typically feel bad about mistakes because they think in a short-sighted way that mistakes reflect their badness or because they’re worried about being punished (or not being rewarded) . People also tend to get angry at those who make mistakes because in a short-sighted way they focus on the bad outcome rather than the educational, evolutionary process they’re a part of. That’s a real tragedy. ... 10) 不要为自己或别人犯的错而郁郁寡欢，要热爱这些错! 记住，1）错误是不可避免的；2）错误是学习过程中第一个也是最重要的一个环节；3）为犯错而懊恼会阻碍你的成长。人们总是对犯错耿耿于怀，这可能是因为人们短视地认为错误反映了他们的缺点，又或者他们担心会因此受到惩罚（或者无法获得奖励）。同时，人们会因为他人犯错而生气，因为从短视的角度来看，大家只会将注意力放在犯错带来的坏结果上，而没有看到错误的教育意义和其作为成长过程的一部分。这才是悲剧所在。
... 11) Observe the patterns of mistakes to see if they are a product of weaknesses. Connect the dots without ego barriers. If there is a pattern of mistakes, it probably signifies a weakness. Everyone has weaknesses. The fastest path to success is to know what they are and how to deal with them so that they don’t stand in your way. Weaknesses are due to deficiencies in learning or deficiencies in abilities. Deficiencies in learning can be rectified over time, though usually not quickly, while deficiencies in abilities are virtually impossible to change. Neither is a meaningful impediment to getting what you want if you accept it as a problem that can be designed around. **... 11) 仔细观察所犯错误的模式，看看它们是不是⾃⾝缺陷所导致的。以不设自我障碍的方式回想过去的点点滴滴。如果有错误模式，它很可能意味着一种缺陷。每个人都有很多缺陷，最快的成功方式就是知道这些缺陷和如何处理这些缺陷，那么它们就不会阻挡你成功的路。缺陷来自于学习的不足或者能力的不足。学习的不足可以通过时间来改进，但是通常不会很快，然而能力的不足几乎不能改变。但是只要你认为缺陷是一个可以用新方法解决的问题，不论是学习缺陷还是能力缺陷都不会是一个阻碍你得到你想要的东西的有实际意义的障碍。
I once had a ski instructor who had taught Michael Jordan, the greatest basketball player of all time, how to ski. He explained that Jordan enjoyed his mistakes and got the most out of them. At the start of high school, Jordan was an unimpressive basketball player; he became a champion because he loved using his mistakes to improve. Yet despite Jordan’s example and the example of countless other successful people, it is far more common for people to allow ego to stand in the way of learning. Perhaps it’s because school learning overemphasizes the value of having the right answers and punishes wrong answers. Good school learners are often bad mistake-based learners because they are bothered by their mistakes. I particularly see this problem in recent graduates from the best colleges, who frequently shy away from exploring their own weaknesses. Remember that intelligent people who are open to recognizing and learning from their weaknesses substantially outperform people with the same abilities who aren’t similarly open. 我遇到过一个滑雪教练，他曾教过世界最优秀的篮球运动员乔丹滑雪。他说，他说，乔丹很热爱自己所犯的错，因为他会尽可能地从中吸取教训。刚上高中时，乔丹并不是一个引人注目的篮球运动员，他热衷于通过自己不断犯错来自我提升，终成世界冠军。尽管大家了解乔丹和许多其他成功人士的例子，但还是会让“自我”成为学习的阻力。这可能是因为学校的教育过分强调正确答案，惩罚错误的答案。一个学校里的好学生往往是一个糟糕的错误导向型学习者，因为他们总是为自己的错误感到苦恼。我发现最近的名校毕业生身上这一点特别明显，他们总是对自身的缺点避而不谈。切记，那些善于发现自己的缺点并从中学习的聪明人会比那些能力相等却不够坦诚的人表现好很多。
... 12) Do not feel bad about your weaknesses or those of others. They are opportunities to improve. If you can solve the puzzle of what is causing them, you will get a gem - i.e., the ability to stop making them in the future. Everyone has weaknesses and can benefit from knowing about them. Don’t view explorations of weaknesses as attacks. A person who receives criticism - particularly if he tries to objectively consider if it’s true - is someone to be admired. ... 12) 不要因为自己或别人的缺点而感到糟糕。缺点意味着进步的机会。如果你能解决迷阵，就能获得一颗宝石，如果你能解决迷阵，就能获得一颗宝石，即获得了将来不再犯此类错误的能力。每个人都有缺点，也都能从了解自身缺点中受益。不要将寻找弱点的过程当作是对自身的攻击。一个从善如流的人能够接受批评，并客观判断批评是否客观，尤其值得别人的敬仰。
... 13) Don’t worry about looking good - worry about achieving your goals. Put your insecurities away and get on with achieving your goals. ... 13) 别老担心面子上过不过得去，而要担心是否能达成目标。克服安全感缺失，一心一意实现自己的目标。
To test if you are worrying too much about looking good, observe how you feel when you find out you’ve made a mistake or don’t know something. If you find yourself feeling bad, reflect - remind yourself that the most valuable comments are accurate criticisms. Imagine how silly and unproductive it would be if you thought your ski instructor was blaming you when he told you that you fell because you didn’t shift your weight properly. If a criticism is accurate, it is a good thing. You should appreciate it and try to learn from it.
... 14) Get over “blame” and “credit” and get on with “accurate” and “inaccurate.” When people hear, “You did XYZ wrong,” they have an instinctual reaction to figure out possible consequences or punishments rather than to try to understand how to improve. Remember that what has happened lies in the past and no longer matters, except as a method for learning how to be better in the future. Create an environment in which people understand that remarks such as “You handled that badly” are meant to be helpful (for the future) rather than punitive (for the past) . While people typically feel unhappy about blame and good about credit, that attitude gets everything backwards and can cause major problems. Worrying about “blame” and “credit” or “positive” and “negative” feedback impedes the iterative process essential to learning. ... 14) 别去管“责备”或“赞扬”，要去判断“精准”还是“不精准”。当人们听到别人说“这事你做错了”，大家的本能反应是担心后果，害怕惩罚，而不是去想办法改进。要记住，要记住，过去的事情已经过去，也不再重要，过去只能当作学习的参照，以便让自己在未来做的更好。努力创造这样一种环境，当听到有人说，“这件事你处理的很差劲”时，当事人应该看到这种评价是对未来的帮助，而不是对过去的惩罚。人们面对责备时总是闷闷不乐，而对赞扬总是沾沾自喜，这种处事态度于事无补，甚至会引发重大问题。纠结反馈是“责备”还是“赞扬”，是“积极”还是“消极”，只会阻碍学习必须的互动过程。
... 15) Don’t depersonalize mistakes. Identifying who made mistakes is essential to learning. It is also a test of whether a person will put improvement ahead of ego and whether he will fit into the Bridgewater culture. A common error is to say, “We didn’t handle this well” rather than “Harry didn’t handle this well.” This occurs when people are uncomfortable connecting specific mistakes to specific people because of ego sensitivities. This creates dysfunctional and dishonest organizations. Since individuals are the most important building blocks of any organization and since individuals are responsible for the ways things are done, the diagnosis must connect the mistake to the specific individual by name. Someone created the procedure that went wrong, or decided we should act according to that procedure, and ignoring that fact will slow our progress toward successfully dealing with the problem. ... 15) 错误归因要具体到个人。确定是谁犯了错误，对于学习而言至关重要。问责也是检验一个人是否能够将进步置于自我之上，检验他是否能够融入桥水的文化。人们会犯一个普遍的错误，我们总说，“这件事我们处理的不好”而不是“哈利这件事处理的不好”。将具体的错误归因到具体的人身上会有碍自尊，让人难堪。但是如果没有个人追责制，只会导致公司运营紊乱，诚信缺失。每一个人都是组织最重要的构建模块，因为每个人都对组织的运行方式负责。因此针对问题的诊断必须将错误具体到个人。是谁设立了出问题的流程，又是谁决定我们应该按此流程办事，忽视个人归责将拖累我们成功处理问题的步伐。
... 16) Write down your weaknesses and the weaknesses of others to help remember and acknowledge them. It’s unhealthy to hide them because if you hide them, it will slow your progress towards successfully dealing with them. Conversely, if you don’t want them and you stare at them, you will inevitably evolve past them. ... 16) 写下你和别人的缺点，帮助彼此牢记并承认这些缺点。隐藏缺点是不健康的，因为隐藏只会拖累成功解决问题的步伐。相反，如果你不想要这些缺点，对它们横眉冷对，最终也会逐渐克服它们。
... 17) When you experience pain, remember to reflect. You can convert the “pain” of seeing your mistakes and weaknesses into pleasure. If there is only one piece of advice I can get you to remember it is this one. Calm yourself down and think about what is causing your psychological pain. Ask other objective, believable parties for their help to figure it out. Find out what is true. Don’t let ego barriers stand in your way. Remember that pains that come from seeing mistakes and weaknesses are “growing pains” that you learn from.51 Don’t rush through them. Stay in them and explore them because that will help build the foundation for improvement. It is widely recognized that 1) changing your deep-seated, harmful behavior is very difficult yet necessary for improvement and 2) doing this generally requires a deeply felt recognition of the connection between your harmful behavior and the pain it causes. Psychologists call this “hitting bottom.” Embracing your failures is the first step toward genuine improvement; it is also why “confession” precedes forgiveness in many societies.52 If you keep doing this you will learn to improve and feel the pleasures of it. ... 17) 若因犯了错而感到痛苦，记住要进行反思。若因犯错后而感到痛苦，记住要习惯反思。你有把发现自己的错误和缺点后的痛苦转化成快乐的自由，你有资格善用它，这是你的权利，如果你只能记住一条建议，那么我希望是这一条。冷静思考痛苦的心理原因，向客观、可信的他人求证，最终找到真相。不要让自我成为进步的拦路虎。记住，那些因看到了错误或缺点而感到的痛苦，是成长的痛苦，是可以从中受益的痛苦。不要试图匆忙结束这种痛苦，而应该沉浸在其中，探索痛苦，因为这样做能够为提升自我打好基础。众所周知，1）改变自己深层次的有害行为是非常困难的，但这是取得进步的必由之路；2）要想成功，还需要深刻认识到有害行为和其所带来的痛苦之间的联系。心理学家将这一过程称之为“探底”。拥抱失败是通向真正进步的第一步，这也是为什么在整个社会迭代的进程中，都凸显出一个相同的真理，即要先坦白，才能获得宽恕。如此往复，你就能学会提升自我，并从中获得快乐。
If you recognize short-term failure as a step toward long-term success, which it really is if you learn from it, you won’t be afraid of it or made uncomfortable by it and you will approach all of your experiences as learning experiences, even the most difficult ones. 如果你将短期的失败看作通向长期成功的一步，如果你能吃一堑、长一智，那么事实也的确是这样。你不会对失败感到惧怕或难受，却能够将所有的经历都当做学习的机会，即便是最痛苦的经历也不例外。 Ego often stands in the way of acknowledging your weaknesses (which is the essential first step in overcoming them) , like being afraid to ask a question because people might think you’re stupid because you don’t know something. Yet acknowledging those weaknesses (e.g., “I know I‘m a dumb shit, but I’d just like to know…”) helps you move beyond ego toward learning and improving. 自我总是阻碍我们看到自己的缺点，而看到缺点是克服缺点的第一步。比如说，你害怕提出问题，因为这会显示出你的无知，人们就会认为你很愚蠢。然而，承认缺点，比如，“我知道我有点傻，可我就是想知道……”，却能够帮你克服自我，学习新知识，提升水平。
... 18) Be self-reflective and make sure your people are self-reflective. This quality differentiates those who evolve fast from those who don’t. When there is pain, the animal instinct is ‘fight or flight’ (i.e., to either strike back or run away) - reflect instead. When you can calm yourself down, thinking about the dilemma that is causing you pain will bring you to a higher level and enlighten you, leading to progress. That is because the pain you are feeling is due to something being at odds - maybe it’s you encountering reality, such as the death of a friend, and not being able to accept it. If when you are calm, you can think clearly about what things are at odds, you will learn more about what reality is like and how to better deal with it. It really will produce progress. If, on the other hand, the pain causes you to tense-up, not think, feel sorry for yourself, and blame others, it will be a very bad experience. So, when you are in pain, try to remember: Pain + Reflection = Progress. It’s pretty easy to determine whether a person is reflective or deflective: self-reflective people openly and objectively look at themselves while deflective people don’t. ... 18) 要经常自我反思，也确保你身边的朋友们也都懂得自我反思。这一特质因人而异，有的人成长得快，有的人慢。当人感受到痛苦的时候，其动物本性就是“战斗还是逃跑”，而此时，你需要去反思。使自己冷静下来，反思自己痛苦的根源将有助于从更高层次启发自我，取得进步。因为你感觉到的痛苦是由生活中的变数带来的，可能是你所面临的现实，比如好友的逝去，使你一时无法接受。当你平静下来，你可以更清晰地思索生活中的变数，更好地了解现实，从而更好处理生活事物，这样做真的裨益良多。而如果痛苦让你紧张，无法思考，陷入懊丧，责备他人，那么这将是一段非常糟糕的经历。所以，当你经历痛苦的时候，请记住：痛苦+反思=进步。判断一个人是否会反思很简单，经常自省的人能够开放、客观地看待自己，而不会反思的人则反之。
... 19) Teach and reinforce the merits of mistake-based learning. We must bring mistakes into the open and analyze them objectively, so managers need to foster a culture that makes this normal and penalizes suppressing or covering up mistakes. Probably the worst mistake anyone can make at Bridgewater is not facing up to mistakes - i.e., hiding rather than highlighting them. Highlighting them, diagnosing them, thinking about what should be done differently in the future, and then adding that new knowledge to the procedures manual are all essential to our improvement. ... 19) 树立从错误中吸取教训的观念，传递并强化这个观念。我们必须坦诚对待错误，客观分析错误。管理者应该努力营造一种文化，使从错误中吸取教训的学习方式常规化，惩罚打压或掩盖错误的行为。在桥水，一个人所能犯的最糟糕的错误就是不能直面错误，就是躲避错误而不是强调错误。强调错误，诊断错误，思考未来的改进方案，将这些吸取的新知识加入到流程手册中，所以这些都是取得进步的必要步骤。
19a) The most valuable tool we have for this is the issues log (explained fully later) , which is aimed at identifying and learning from mistakes. Using this tool is mandatory because we believe that enforcing this behavior is far better than leaving it optional. 19a) 最有效的工具是建立“问题日志”（后详），旨在鉴别问题，并从中吸取教训。要求员工必须使用问题日志这一工具，因为我们认为强制要求记录日志会比选择性使用效果好得多。
... 20) Constantly Get in Synch
... 21) Constantly get in synch about what is true and what to do about it. Getting in synch helps you achieve better answers through considering alternative viewpoints. It can take the forms of asking, debating, discussing, and teaching how things should be done. Sometimes it is to make our views on our strengths, weaknesses, and values transparent in order to reach the understanding that helps us move forward. Sometimes it is to be clear about who will do what and the game plan for handling responsibilities. So this process can be both a means of finding the best answers and pushing them ahead. Quality conversations about what is true and what should be done will produce better outcomes and many fewer misunderstandings in the future. ... 21) 要在去伪存真和解决方案上争取意见统一。争取意见统一能够使你通过参考不同意见从而获得更好的解决方案。形式可以是多种多样的，比如提问、辩论、讨论或者教别人如何解决问题。有时，我们需要公开对自己长处、短处、价值观的看法，以此达成谅解，帮助我们前行。有时，我们需要明确分工，对于处理任务有一个计划方案。因此，这一流程既能找到最优方案，又能敦促解决方案的实施。关于去伪存真和解决方案的高质量进行沟通，能够带来更优产出，也会在未来避免很多误解。
... 22) Talk about “Is it true?” and “Does it make sense?” In a culture that values both independent thinking and innovation, each individual has both the right and the obligation to ensure that what they do, and what we collectively do, in pursuit of excellence, makes sense to them. So, get in synch about these things. ... 22) 养成对“这是对的么？”和“这事有意义么？”这两个问题反复讨论的习惯。在我们的文化里，独立思考和创新思维受到同样的重视。在追求卓越的过程中，确保保个人做的事和集体做的事都有意义，这既是每个人的权利也是每个人的义务。因此，我们需要就这些问题争取意见统一。
...23) Fight for right. Discuss or debate important issues with the right relevant parties in an open-minded way until the best answers are determined. This process will maximize learning and mutual understanding. Thrash it out to get to the best answer. ... 23) 认为对的事情，要据理力争。与合适的相关方本着开放的态度讨论或辩论重要问题直到确定最佳方案。这一过程能够将学习效果和互相理解最大化。据理力争，直到获得最佳方案。
... 24) Be assertive and open-minded at the same time. Just try to find out what is true.Don’t try to ‘win’ the argument. Finding out that you are wrong is even more valuable than being right, because you are learning. ... 24）既要立场坚定，也要开诚布公。我们的目的是探寻真相而不是赢得辩论。找出你的错往往比证明自己是对的更有价值，因为你在学习。
24a) Ask yourself whether you have earned the right to have an opinion. Opinions are easy to produce, so bad ones abound. Knowing that you don’t know something is nearly as valuable as knowing it. The worst situation is thinking you know something when you don’t. 24a) 在想表达意见的时候，先问问自己，是否拥有发表观点的权利。 观点来之容易，错误的观点则不可避免。知道自己无知与知识本身的价值相等，即便他们对讨论的话题知之甚少。 24b) Recognize that you always have the right to have and ask questions. 24b) 要知道自己始终拥有提问的权利。 24c) Distinguish open-minded people from closed-minded people. Open- minded people seek to learn by asking questions; they realize that what they know is little in relation to what there is to know and recognize that they might be wrong. Closed- minded people always tell you what they know, even if they know hardly anything about the subject being discussed. They are typically made uncomfortable by being around those who know a lot more about a subject, unlike open-minded people who are thrilled by such company. 24c) 区分思想开放的人和思想保守的人。 思想开放的人通过问问题来学习，他们知道自己所知与未知相比实在微不足道，也承认自己可能会犯错。思想保守的人会不停向你诉说他们的见解，即便他们对讨论的话题一无所知。思想保守的人通常会因为身处一群专业人士之中感到不安，而思想开放的人则最见贤思齐，不亦乐乎。
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