Oracle 控制文件(CONTROLFILE)

--=============================

-- Oracle 控制文件(CONTROLFILE)

--=============================

一、Oracle 控制文件

为二进制文件,初始化大小由CREATE DATABASE指定,可以使用RMAN备份

记录了当前数据库的结构信息,同时也包含数据文件及日志文件的信息以及相关的状态,归档信息等等

在参数文件中描述其位置,个数等等。通常采用分散放开,多路复用的原则。在mount阶段被读取,open阶段一直被使用

维护数据库一致性(数据库启动时会比较控制文件与联机日志文件中的ckpt,即起始scn号,如相等则正常启动,否则需要介质恢复)

一个控制文件只能属于一个数据库

控制文件的任意修改将写入到初始化参数中指定的所有控制文件中,读取时则仅读取第一个控制文件

控制文件只能连接一个数据库,控制文件的大小一般不要超过MB,最多为个,最少一个,互为镜像

控制文件中包含的内容

数据库的名字、ID、创建的时间戳

表空间的名字

联机日志文件、数据文件的位置、个数、名字

联机日志的Sequence号码

检查点的信息

撤销段的开始或结束

归档信息

备份信息

二、查看控制文件的相关信息

1.使用相关视图来查看

V$CONTROLFILE --列出实例中所有控制文件的名字及状态信息

V$PARAMETER --列出所有参数的位置及状态信息

V$CONTROLFILE_RECORD_SECTION --列出控制文件中记录的部分信息

SHOW PARAMETER CONTROL_FILES --列出控制文件的名字、状态、位置等

SQL> select * from v$controlfile;

STATUS NAME IS_ BLOCK_SIZE FILE_SIZE_BLKS

------- -------------------------------------------------- --- ---------- --------------

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl NO 16384 430

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control02.ctl NO 16384 430

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control03.ctl NO 16384 430

SQL> select name,type,value from v$parameter where name like '%control%';

NAME TYPE VALUE

------------------------------ ---------- ------------------------------------------------------------

control_files 2 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl, /u01/app/oracle/

oradata/orcl/control02.ctl, /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/con

trol03.ctl

control_file_record_keep_time 3 7

SQL> select * from v$controlfile_record_section;

TYPE RECORD_SIZE RECORDS_TOTAL RECORDS_USED FIRST_INDEX LAST_INDEX LAST_RECID

---------------------------- ----------- ------------- ------------ ----------- ---------- ----------

DATABASE 316 1 1 0 0 0

CKPT PROGRESS 8180 11 0 0 0 0

REDO THREAD 256 8 1 0 0 0

REDO LOG 72 16 9 0 0 20

DATAFILE 428 100 8 0 0 28

FILENAME 524 2298 21 0 0 0

TABLESPACE 68 100 7 0 0 7

TEMPORARY FILENAME 56 100 1 0 0 1

RMAN CONFIGURATION 1108 50 0 0 0 0

LOG HISTORY 56 292 35 1 35 35

OFFLINE RANGE 200 163 0 0 0 0

TYPE RECORD_SIZE RECORDS_TOTAL RECORDS_USED FIRST_INDEX LAST_INDEX LAST_RECID

---------------------------- ----------- ------------- ------------ ----------- ---------- ----------

ARCHIVED LOG 584 28 20 1 20 20

BACKUP SET 40 409 0 0 0 0

BACKUP PIECE 736 200 0 0 0 0

BACKUP DATAFILE 116 282 0 0 0 0

BACKUP REDOLOG 76 215 0 0 0 0

DATAFILE COPY 660 223 1 1 1 1

BACKUP CORRUPTION 44 371 0 0 0 0

COPY CORRUPTION 40 409 0 0 0 0

DELETED OBJECT 20 818 3 1 3 3

PROXY COPY 852 249 0 0 0 0

BACKUP SPFILE 36 454 0 0 0 0

TYPE RECORD_SIZE RECORDS_TOTAL RECORDS_USED FIRST_INDEX LAST_INDEX LAST_RECID

---------------------------- ----------- ------------- ------------ ----------- ---------- ----------

DATABASE INCARNATION 56 292 2 1 2 2

FLASHBACK LOG 84 2048 0 0 0 0

RECOVERY DESTINATION 180 1 1 0 0 0

INSTANCE SPACE RESERVATION 28 1055 1 0 0 0

REMOVABLE RECOVERY FILES 32 1000 0 0 0 0

RMAN STATUS 116 141 0 0 0 0

THREAD INSTANCE NAME MAPPING 80 8 8 0 0 0

MTTR 100 8 1 0 0 0

DATAFILE HISTORY 568 57 0 0 0 0

STANDBY DATABASE MATRIX 400 10 10 0 0 0

GUARANTEED RESTORE POINT 212 2048 0 0 0 0

TYPE RECORD_SIZE RECORDS_TOTAL RECORDS_USED FIRST_INDEX LAST_INDEX LAST_RECID

---------------------------- ----------- ------------- ------------ ----------- ---------- ----------

RESTORE POINT 212 2083 0 0 0 0

SQL> show parameter control_files;

NAME TYPE VALUE

------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------

control_files string /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/c

ontrol01.ctl, /u01/app/oracle/

oradata/orcl/control02.ctl, /u

01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/con

trol03.ctl

SQL> select controlfile_sequence# from v$database;

CONTROLFILE_SEQUENCE#

---------------------

985

2.使用STRINGS命令来查看控制文件中的具体内容

SQL> host strings /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl | more

}|{z

JORCL

L-+RG

+ORCL

+ORCL

orcl

orcl

-+-='

-+-='

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo03.log

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo3.log

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo02.log

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo2.log

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo01.log

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/tbs1_2.dbf

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/tbs1_1.dbf

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/example01.dbf

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf

u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs02.dbf

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo03.log

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo3.log

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo02.log

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo2.log

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo01.log

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/tbs1_2.dbf

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/tbs1_1.dbf

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/example01.dbf

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf

u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs02.dbf

SYSTEM

UNDOTBS1

SYSAUX

USERS

EXAMPLE

TBS1

TEMP

3.备份控制文件到平面文件(然后查看控制文件中的具体内容)

SQL> alter database backup controlfile to trace as '/u01/app/oracle/ctl.txt';

Database altered.

--或者使用

SQL> host strings /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl > /u01/app/oracle/ctl.txt

SQL> host cat /u01/app/oracle/ctl.txt;

-- The following are current System-scope REDO Log Archival related

-- parameters and can be included in the database initialization file.

--

-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST=''

-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DUPLEX_DEST=''

--

-- LOG_ARCHIVE_FORMAT=%t_%s_%r.dbf

--

-- DB_UNIQUE_NAME="orcl"

--

-- LOG_ARCHIVE_CONFIG='SEND, RECEIVE, NODG_CONFIG'

-- LOG_ARCHIVE_MAX_PROCESSES=2

-- STANDBY_FILE_MANAGEMENT=MANUAL

-- STANDBY_ARCHIVE_DEST=?/dbs/arch

-- FAL_CLIENT=''

-- FAL_SERVER=''

--

-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_10='LOCATION=USE_DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST'

-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_10='OPTIONAL REOPEN=300 NODELAY'

-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_10='ARCH NOAFFIRM NOEXPEDITE NOVERIFY SYNC'

-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_10='REGISTER NOALTERNATE NODEPENDENCY'

-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_10='NOMAX_FAILURE NOQUOTA_SIZE NOQUOTA_USED NODB_UNIQUE_NAME'

-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_10='VALID_FOR=(PRIMARY_ROLE,ONLINE_LOGFILES)'

-- LOG_ARCHIVE_DEST_STATE_10=ENABLE

--

-- Below are two sets of SQL statements, each of which creates a new

-- control file and uses it to open the database. The first set opens

-- the database with the NORESETLOGS option and should be used only if

-- the current versions of all online logs are available. The second

-- set opens the database with the RESETLOGS option and should be used

-- if online logs are unavailable.

-- The appropriate set of statements can be copied from the trace into

-- a script file, edited as necessary, and executed when there is a

-- need to re-create the control file.

--

-- Set #1. NORESETLOGS case

--

-- The following commands will create a new control file and use it

-- to open the database.

-- Data used by Recovery Manager will be lost.

-- Additional logs may be required for media recovery of offline

-- Use this only if the current versions of all online logs are

-- available.

-- After mounting the created controlfile, the following SQL

-- statement will place the database in the appropriate

-- protection mode:

-- ALTER DATABASE SET STANDBY DATABASE TO MAXIMIZE PERFORMANCE

STARTUP NOMOUNT

CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "ORCL" NORESETLOGS NOARCHIVELOG

MAXLOGFILES 16

MAXLOGMEMBERS 3

MAXDATAFILES 100

MAXINSTANCES 8

MAXLOGHISTORY 292

LOGFILE

GROUP 1 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo01.log' SIZE 50M,

GROUP 2 (

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo02.log',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo2.log'

) SIZE 50M,

GROUP 3 (

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo03.log',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo3.log'

) SIZE 100M,

GROUP 4 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo04.log ' SIZE 50M,

GROUP 7 (

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo07.log ',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo7.log '

) SIZE 50M,

GROUP 8 (

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo08.log',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo8.log'

) SIZE 50M

-- STANDBY LOGFILE

DATAFILE

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/example01.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/tbs1_1.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/tbs1_2.dbf'

CHARACTER SET WE8ISO8859P1

;

-- Commands to re-create incarnation table

-- Below log names MUST be changed to existing filenames on

-- disk. Any one log file from each branch can be used to

-- re-create incarnation records.

-- ALTER DATABASE REGISTER LOGFILE '/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area

-- /ORCL/archivelog/2010_05_20/o1_mf_1_1_%u_.arc';

-- ALTER DATABASE REGISTER LOGFILE '/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area

-- /ORCL/archivelog/2010_05_20/o1_mf_1_1_%u_.arc';

-- Recovery is required if any of the datafiles are restored backups,

-- or if the last shutdown was not normal or immediate.

RECOVER DATABASE

-- Database can now be opened normally.

ALTER DATABASE OPEN;

-- Commands to add tempfiles to temporary tablespaces.

-- Online tempfiles have complete space information.

-- Other tempfiles may require adjustment.

ALTER TABLESPACE TEMP ADD TEMPFILE '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/temp01.dbf'

SIZE 26214400 REUSE AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 655360 MAXSIZE 32767M;

-- End of tempfile additions.

--

-- Set #2. RESETLOGS case

--

-- The following commands will create a new control file and use it

-- to open the database.

-- Data used by Recovery Manager will be lost.

-- The contents of online logs will be lost and all backups will

-- be invalidated. Use this only if online logs are damaged.

-- After mounting the created controlfile, the following SQL

-- statement will place the database in the appropriate

-- protection mode:

-- ALTER DATABASE SET STANDBY DATABASE TO MAXIMIZE PERFORMANCE

STARTUP NOMOUNT

CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "ORCL" RESETLOGS NOARCHIVELOG

MAXLOGFILES 16

MAXLOGMEMBERS 3

MAXDATAFILES 100

MAXINSTANCES 8

MAXLOGHISTORY 292

LOGFILE

GROUP 1 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo01.log' SIZE 50M,

GROUP 2 (

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo02.log',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo2.log'

) SIZE 50M,

GROUP 3 (

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo03.log',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo3.log'

) SIZE 100M,

GROUP 4 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo04.log ' SIZE 50M,

GROUP 7 (

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo07.log ',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo7.log '

) SIZE 50M,

GROUP 8 (

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo08.log',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo8.log'

) SIZE 50M

-- STANDBY LOGFILE

DATAFILE

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/example01.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/tbs1_1.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/tbs1_2.dbf'

CHARACTER SET WE8ISO8859P1

;

-- Commands to re-create incarnation table

-- Below log names MUST be changed to existing filenames on

-- disk. Any one log file from each branch can be used to

-- re-create incarnation records.

-- ALTER DATABASE REGISTER LOGFILE '/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area

-- /ORCL/archivelog/2010_05_20/o1_mf_1_1_%u_.arc';

-- ALTER DATABASE REGISTER LOGFILE '/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area

-- /ORCL/archivelog/2010_05_20/o1_mf_1_1_%u_.arc';

-- Recovery is required if any of the datafiles are restored backups,

-- or if the last shutdown was not normal or immediate.

RECOVER DATABASE USING BACKUP CONTROLFILE

-- Database can now be opened zeroing the online logs.

ALTER DATABASE OPEN RESETLOGS;

-- Commands to add tempfiles to temporary tablespaces.

-- Online tempfiles have complete space information.

-- Other tempfiles may require adjustment.

ALTER TABLESPACE TEMP ADD TEMPFILE '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/temp01.dbf'

SIZE 26214400 REUSE AUTOEXTEND ON NEXT 655360 MAXSIZE 32767M;

-- End of tempfile additions.

4.转储控制文件内容(查看控制文件中的具体内容)

alter session set events 'immediate trace name CONTROLF level 12'; level表示级别

或 --level1 块头的内容 --level2 数据文件内容 --levle 10 |12 所有内容

oradebug setmypid

oradebug dump controlf 12

SQL> alter system set events 'immediate trace name controlf level 10';

System altered.

SQL> show parameter user_dump;

NAME TYPE VALUE

------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------

user_dump_dest string /u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/udu

mp

--查看路径中最新的文件

[root@robinson ~]# vim /u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/udump/orcl_ora_5110.trc

--以下仅列出部分信息

Oracle Database 10g Enterprise Edition Release 10.2.0.1.0 - Production

With the Partitioning, OLAP and Data Mining options

ORACLE_HOME = /u01/app/oracle/10g

System name: Linux

Node name: robinson.com

Release: 2.6.18-164.el5xen

Version: #1 SMP Tue Aug 18 16:06:30 EDT 2009

Machine: i686

Instance name: orcl

Redo thread mounted by this instance: 1

Oracle process number: 19

Unix process pid: 5110, image: oracle@robinson.com (TNS V1-V3)

*** 2010-05-20 18:52:30.104

*** SERVICE NAME:(SYS$USERS) 2010-05-20 18:52:30.084

*** SESSION ID:(159.10) 2010-05-20 18:52:30.084

DUMP OF CONTROL FILES, Seq # 985 = 0x3d9

V10 STYLE FILE HEADER:

Compatibility Vsn = 169869568=0xa200100

Db ID=1242732291=0x4a129703, Db Name='ORCL'

Activation ID=0=0x0

Control Seq=985=0x3d9, File size=430=0x1ae

File Number=0, Blksiz=16384, File Type=1 CONTROL

Logical block number 1 (header block)

Dump of memory from 0xB7EF7E00 to 0xB7EFBE00

--使用oradebug setmypid

SQL> oradebug setmypid --标记当前进程

Statement processed.

--获得当前的spid

SQL> select spid from v$process where addr =

2 (select paddr from v$session where sid =

3 (select sid from v$mystat where rownum = 1));

SPID

------------

5110

SQL> oradebug dump controlf 3;--3表示包含头文件和数据文件内容

Statement processed.

--查看user_dump_dest 路径

SQL> show parameter user_d

NAME TYPE VALUE

------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------

user_dump_dest string /u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/udu

mp

--找到当前spid的trc文件

SQL> ! ls /u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/udump/*5110.* -- */

/u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/udump/orcl_ora_5110.trc

SQL> ! cat /u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/udump/orcl_ora_5110.trc

--下面列出的为部分内容

***************************************************************************

RMAN CONFIGURATION RECORDS

***************************************************************************

(size = 1108, compat size = 1108, section max = 50, section in-use = 0,

last-recid= 0, old-recno = 0, last-recno = 0)

(extent = 1, blkno = 90, numrecs = 50)

***************************************************************************

FLASHBACK LOGFILE RECORDS

***************************************************************************

(size = 84, compat size = 84, section max = 2048, section in-use = 0,

last-recid= 0, old-recno = 0, last-recno = 0)

(extent = 1, blkno = 139, numrecs = 2048)

***************************************************************************

THREAD INSTANCE MAPPING RECORDS

***************************************************************************

(size = 80, compat size = 80, section max = 8, section in-use = 8,

last-recid= 0, old-recno = 0, last-recno = 0)

(extent = 1, blkno = 156, numrecs = 8)

orcl recno=1

UNNAMED_INSTANCE_2 recno=2

UNNAMED_INSTANCE_3 recno=3

UNNAMED_INSTANCE_4 recno=4

UNNAMED_INSTANCE_5 recno=5

UNNAMED_INSTANCE_6 recno=6

UNNAMED_INSTANCE_7 recno=7

UNNAMED_INSTANCE_8 recno=8

***************************************************************************

MTTR RECORDS

***************************************************************************

(size = 100, compat size = 100, section max = 8, section in-use = 1,

last-recid= 0, old-recno = 0, last-recno = 0)

(extent = 1, blkno = 157, numrecs = 8)

MTTR record for thread 1

MTTR statistics status: 3

Init time: Avg: 47090974 us, Times measured: 4

File open time: Avg: 11225 us, Times measured: 21

Log block read time: Avg: 20 us, Times measured: 65536

Data block read/claim time: Avg: 170 us, Times measured: 1000

Data block write time: Avg: 390 us

1000 change vector apply time: Avg: 112435 us, Times measured: 37

Ratio Information:

# of log blocks measured: 207891

# of data blocks measured: 12536

# of change vectors measured: 564444

***************************************************************************

STANDBY DATABASE MAP RECORDS

***************************************************************************

(size = 400, compat size = 400, section max = 10, section in-use = 10,

last-recid= 0, old-recno = 0, last-recno = 0)

(extent = 1, blkno = 160, numrecs = 10)

***************************************************************************

RESTORE POINT RECORDS

***************************************************************************

(size = 212, compat size = 212, section max = 2048, section in-use = 0,

last-recid= 0, old-recno = 0, last-recno = 0)

(extent = 1, blkno = 161, numrecs = 2048)

三、控制文件的管理

规划原则:多路复用,建议存放到不同的磁盘或同一磁盘不同的分区

个数与位置及状态管理:

查看控制文件的状态是否与参数定义中的相吻合,当数据库发生结构修改时,将修改内容同时写入控制文件

备份管理

恢复管理

新建控制文件语句

spfile或pfile都可以实现对控制文件的个数及位置管理

spfile步骤

修改spfile参数中的control_files -- alter system ... scope = spfile | both |memory

一致性关闭数据库

增加或减少控制文件(cp or mv)

启动数据库使用spfile

验证结果

pfile步骤

一致性关闭数据库

修改pfile参数(vi或vim) 修改*.control_files=......这一段

增加或减少控制文件(cp or mv)

启动数据库使用pfile

验证结果

--演示spfile修改控制文件

SQL> show parameter control_file

NAME TYPE VALUE

------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------

control_file_record_keep_time integer 7

control_files string /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/c

ontrol01.ctl, /u01/app/oracle/

oradata/orcl/control02.ctl, /u

01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/con

trol03.ctl

--将控制文件减少到一个

SQL> alter system set control_files = '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl' scope = spfile;

System altered.

SQL> shutdown immediate;

Database closed.

Database dismounted.

ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL> startup mount

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 251658240 bytes

Fixed Size 1218796 bytes

Variable Size 88082196 bytes

Database Buffers 159383552 bytes

Redo Buffers 2973696 bytes

Database mounted.

--再次查看参数文件,已显示为一个

SQL> show parameter control_file

NAME TYPE VALUE

------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------

control_file_record_keep_time integer 7

control_files string /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/c

ontrol01.ctl

--增加控制文件(在nomount状态下即可修改)

SQL> alter system set control_files = '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl',

2 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control02.ctl',

3 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control03.ctl'

4 scope = spfile;

System altered.

--启动时可以看到在实例阶段出现了版本号不一致的问题

SQL> startup force

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 251658240 bytes

Fixed Size 1218796 bytes

Variable Size 88082196 bytes

Database Buffers 159383552 bytes

Redo Buffers 2973696 bytes

ORA-00214: control file '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl' version

1051 inconsistent with file '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control02.ctl'

version 1049

--处理办法,用版本号高的控制文件覆盖版本号低的控制文件

SQL> host cp /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control02.ctl;

SQL> host cp /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control03.ctl;

SQL> alter database mount;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database open;

Database altered.

对于控制文件丢失的情况下,通过查看参数文件中设置,使用操作系统命令逐个查看这些文件是否存在

SQL> host ls /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl

SQL> host ls /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control02.ctl

/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control02.ctl

查看控制文件所在的目录可用空间及控制文件的大小,建议不要超过100MB

SQL> host ls /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/c*.ctl -lh

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 6.8M May 23 10:55 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 6.8M May 23 10:55 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control02.ctl

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 6.8M May 23 10:55 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control03.ctl

SQL> ! df -h

Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on

/dev/sda2 6.4G 3.9G 2.2G 64% /

/dev/sdd1 6.8G 3.7G 2.8G 58% /u01

/dev/sdc2 1.2G 34M 1.1G 3% /home

/dev/sdc1 760M 17M 704M 3% /tmp

/dev/sda1 456M 18M 415M 5% /boot

tmpfs 450M 0 450M 0% /dev/shm

none 450M 104K 450M 1% /var/lib/xenstored

控制文件的备份

热备:

alter database backup controlfile to '<dir>'; --热备份控制文件

alter database backup controlfile to trace as '<dir>' ;--得到建立控制文件的脚本

RMAN:

backup current controlfile;

backup database include current controlfile;

-- 或者设置RMAN 为自动备份

RMAN > configure controlfile autobackup on;

--演示备份

--用于归档模式下的恢复,直接覆盖到控制文件

SQL> alter database backup controlfile to '/u01/app/oracle/control.bak';

Database altered.

--用于重建控制文件

SQL> alter database backup controlfile to trace as '/u01/app/oracle/recreate_controlfile.txt';

Database altered.

--使用RMAN备份

RMAN> connect target /;

connected to target database: ORCL (DBID=1242732291)

RMAN> backup current controlfile; --handle为备份文件的路径

Starting backup at 23-MAY-10

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=148 devtype=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset

including current control file in backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 23-MAY-10

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 23-MAY-10

piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ORCL/backupset/

2010_05_23/o1_mf_ncnnf_TAG20100523T131841_5zkgon2l_.bkp tag=TAG20100523T131841 comment=NONE

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:05

Finished backup at 23-MAY-10

RMAN> backup database include current controlfile;

Starting backup at 23-MAY-10

using target database control file instead of recovery catalog

allocated channel: ORA_DISK_1

channel ORA_DISK_1: sid=141 devtype=DISK

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset

input datafile fno=00001 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf

input datafile fno=00003 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf

input datafile fno=00005 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/example01.dbf

input datafile fno=00006 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/tbs1_1.dbf

input datafile fno=00007 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/tbs1_2.dbf

input datafile fno=00002 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf

input datafile fno=00004 name=/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 23-MAY-10

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 23-MAY-10

piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ORCL/backupset/

2010_05_23/o1_mf_nnndf_TAG20100523T132647_5zkh4sk2_.bkp tag=TAG20100523T132647 comment=NONE

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:05:25

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting full datafile backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: specifying datafile(s) in backupset

including current control file in backupset

including current SPFILE in backupset

channel ORA_DISK_1: starting piece 1 at 23-MAY-10

channel ORA_DISK_1: finished piece 1 at 23-MAY-10

piece handle=/u01/app/oracle/flash_recovery_area/ORCL/backupset/

2010_05_23/o1_mf_ncsnf_TAG20100523T132647_5zkhh5st_.bkp tag=TAG20100523T132647 comment=NONE

channel ORA_DISK_1: backup set complete, elapsed time: 00:00:14

Finished backup at 23-MAY-10

RMAN> show all;

RMAN configuration parameters are:

CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO REDUNDANCY 1; # default

CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATION OFF; # default

CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO DISK; # default

CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP OFF; # default

CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO '%F'; # default

CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK PARALLELISM 1 BACKUP TYPE TO BACKUPSET; # default

CONFIGURE DATAFILE BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1; # default

CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1; # default

CONFIGURE MAXSETSIZE TO UNLIMITED; # default

CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION FOR DATABASE OFF; # default

CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM 'AES128'; # default

CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG DELETION POLICY TO NONE; # default

CONFIGURE SNAPSHOT CONTROLFILE NAME TO '/u01/app/oracle/10g/dbs/snapcf_orcl.f'; # default

RMAN> configure controlfile autobackup on; --将控制文件自动备份功能置为on;

new RMAN configuration parameters:

CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP ON;

new RMAN configuration parameters are successfully stored

控制文件的恢复管理

控制文件版本不一致的问题

用较新版本的控制文件覆盖旧版本的控制文件

直接修改参数control_file

丢失问题

归档模式下

当归档日志全的时候,先做全备,然后使用备份的控制文件恢复即可

当归档日志不全的时候,先做全备,然后建立新的控制文件即可

非归档模式下

先做全备,然后建立新的控制文件即可

新建控制文件语句

数据库处于mount及open状态

执行alter database backup controlfile to trace as '<dir>';得到建立语句

注意[no]archievelog [no]resetlogs 两个参数的区别

版本不一致演示

SQL> startup

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 251658240 bytes

Fixed Size 1218796 bytes

Variable Size 88082196 bytes

Database Buffers 159383552 bytes

Redo Buffers 2973696 bytes

ORA-00214: control file '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl' version

1051 inconsistent with file '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control02.ctl'

version 1049

--处理办法,用版本号高的控制文件覆盖版本号低的控制文件

SQL> host cp /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control02.ctl;

SQL> host cp /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control03.ctl;

SQL> alter database mount;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database open;

Database altered.

--控制文件部分丢失的演示,原本有两个控制文件,丢失一个

--处理办法:

1.将存在的控制文件复制到目的路径并更改控制文件名字为正确的控制文件名称

2.修改控控文件参数将丢失的控制文件去掉(一般不建议使用)

SQL> alter system set control_files = ' /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/c ontrol01.ctl',

2 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control02.ctl' scope = spfile;

System altered.

SQL> shutdown immediate;

Database closed.

Database dismounted.

ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL> startup

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 251658240 bytes

Fixed Size 1218796 bytes

Variable Size 75499284 bytes

Database Buffers 171966464 bytes

Redo Buffers 2973696 bytes

ORA-00205: error in identifying control file, check alert log for more info

[oracle@robinson ~]$ tail -n 100 /u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/bdump/alert_orcl.log

..........................

Tue Jun 8 19:03:42 2010

starting up 1 shared server(s) ...

MMON started with pid=11, OS id=4557

CJQ0 started with pid=10, OS id=4555

Tue Jun 8 19:03:44 2010

ALTER DATABASE MOUNT

Tue Jun 8 19:03:44 2010

ORA-00202: control file: '/u01/app/oracle/10g/dbs/ /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/c ontrol01.ctl'

ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status

Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory

Additional information: 3

Tue Jun 8 19:03:47 2010

ORA-205 signalled during: ALTER DATABASE MOUNT...

--从警告日志中得知,文件名为c ontrol01.ctl的文件不存在,故将其改为正确的文件名

SQL> alter system set control_files='/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl',

2 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control02.ctl' scope = spfile;

System altered.

SQL> startup force

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 251658240 bytes

Fixed Size 1218796 bytes

Variable Size 83887892 bytes

Database Buffers 163577856 bytes

Redo Buffers 2973696 bytes

Database mounted.

Database opened.

非归档模式下,当所有的控制文件都丢失,只能重建控制文件来解决

Total System Global Area 251658240 bytes

Fixed Size 1218796 bytes

Variable Size 79693588 bytes

Database Buffers 167772160 bytes

Redo Buffers 2973696 bytes

ORA-00205: error in identifying control file, check alert log for more info

[oracle@robinson ~]$tail -n 100 /u01/app/oracle/admin/orcl/bdump/alert_orcl.log

ALTER DATABASE MOUNT

Thu Jul 15 12:13:15 2010

ORA-00202: control file: '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl'

ORA-27037: unable to obtain file status

Linux Error: 2: No such file or directory

--重建控制文件主要有三个需要考虑的是

--搞清各个日志文件的大小及位置

--搞清各个数据文件的位置

--设置正确的字符集

SQL> CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "orcl" NOARCHIVELOG NORESTLOGS

2 MAXLOGFILES 16

3 MAXLOGMEMBER 3

4 MAXDATAFILES 20

5 MAXINSTANCES 8

6 MAXLOGHISTORY 3

7 LOGFILE

8 GROUP 1(

9 'u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo1.log',

10 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo01.log'

11 ) SIZE 50M,

12 GROUP 2(

13 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo2.log',

14 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo02.log'

15 ) SIZE 50M,

16 GROUP 3(

17 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo3.log',

18 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo03.log'

19 ) SIZE 100M

20 DATAFILE

21 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/tbs1_2.dbf',

22 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/tbs1_1.dbf',

23 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/example01.dbf',

24 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf',

25 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf',

26 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf',

27 '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf'

28 CHARACTER SET WE8ISO8859P1;

CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "orcl" NOARCHIVELOG NORESTLOGS

*

ERROR at line 1:

ORA-01967: invalid option for CREATE CONTROLFILE

SQL> save /u01/app/oracle/oradata/rectl.sql;

Created file /u01/app/oracle/oradata/rectl.sql

SQL> ho vim /u01/app/oracle/oradata/rectl.sql

SQL> @/u01/app/oracle/oradata/rectl.sql

Control file created.

--下面给出正确执行后的语句内容

SQL> host cat /u01/app/oracle/oradata/rectl.sql

CREATE CONTROLFILE REUSE DATABASE "orcl" NOARCHIVELOG NORESETLOGS

MAXLOGFILES 16

MAXLOGMEMBERS 3

MAXDATAFILES 20

MAXINSTANCES 8

MAXLOGHISTORY 3

LOGFILE

GROUP 1(

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo01.log'

) SIZE 50M,

GROUP 2(

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo2.log',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo02.log'

) SIZE 50M,

GROUP 3(

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo3.log',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/redo03.log'

) SIZE 100M

DATAFILE

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/tbs1_2.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/tbs1_1.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/example01.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/users01.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/sysaux01.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/system01.dbf',

'/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/undotbs01.dbf'

CHARACTER SET WE8ISO8859P1

/

--将数据库切换到open 状态

SQL> alter database open;

Database altered.

SQL> select * from dual;

D

-

X

--查看已经新产生了控制文件

SQL> host ls $ORACLE_BASE/oradata/orcl/control* -l --可以看到新增了控制文件control01.ctl和control02.ctl

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 6012928 Jul 15 12:58 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl

-rw------- 1 oracle oinstall 7389184 Jul 15 12:04 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl.bak

-rw-r----- 1 oracle oinstall 6012928 Jul 15 12:58 /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control02.ctl

归档模式下控制文件全部丢失的处理

--首先将数据库切换到归档模式

SQL> shutdown immediate;

Database closed.

Database dismounted.

ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL> startup mount;

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 251658240 bytes

Fixed Size 1218796 bytes

Variable Size 79693588 bytes

Database Buffers 167772160 bytes

Redo Buffers 2973696 bytes

Database mounted.

SQL> alter database archivelog;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database open ;

Database altered.

--查看归档的状态

SQL> archive log list;

Database log mode Archive Mode

Automatic archival Enabled

Archive destination USE_DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST

Oldest online log sequence 1

Next log sequence to archive 3

Current log sequence 3

--备份控制文件

SQL> alter database backup controlfile to '/u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/rectl.bak';

Database altered.

SQL> create table tb_temp(id int,col1 varchar2(20));

Table created.

SQL> insert into tb_temp select 1,'Robinson' from dual;

1 row created.

SQL> commit;

Commit complete.

SQL> alter system switch logfile; --切换日志

System altered.

SQL> archive log list; --日志切换后sequence由变成

Database log mode Archive Mode

Automatic archival Enabled

Archive destination USE_DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST

Oldest online log sequence 2

Next log sequence to archive 4

Current log sequence 4

--模拟控制文件全部丢失

SQL> startup

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 251658240 bytes

Fixed Size 1218796 bytes

Variable Size 79693588 bytes

Database Buffers 167772160 bytes

Redo Buffers 2973696 bytes

ORA-00205: error in identifying control file, check alert log for more info

SQL> show parameter control

NAME TYPE VALUE

------------------------------------ ----------- ------------------------------

control_file_record_keep_time integer 7

control_files string /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/c

ontrol01.ctl, /u01/app/oracle/

oradata/orcl/control02.ctl

--查看物理控制文件是否存在

SQL> ho ls /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/contr*

ls: /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/contr*: No such file or directory

--建议先对数据库作备份再将备份的控制文件复制到参数文件中指定的位置

SQL> ho cp /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/rectl.bak /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control01.ctl

SQL> ho cp /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/rectl.bak /u01/app/oracle/oradata/orcl/control02.ctl

SQL> alter database mount;

Database altered.

SQL> alter database open;

alter database open

*

ERROR at line 1:

ORA-01589: must use RESETLOGS or NORESETLOGS option for database open

SQL> shutdown immediate;

ORA-01109: database not open

Database dismounted.

ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL> startup mount;

ORACLE instance started.

Total System Global Area 251658240 bytes

Fixed Size 1218796 bytes

Variable Size 79693588 bytes

Database Buffers 167772160 bytes

Redo Buffers 2973696 bytes

Database mounted.

SQL> alter database open resetlogs;

Database altered.

SQL> select * from dual;

D

-

X

SQL> select * from tb_temp; --表成功被恢复

ID COL1

---------- --------------------

1 Robinson

SQL> drop table tb_temp purge;

Table dropped.

SQL> archive log list; --日志的sequence号被置为

Database log mode Archive Mode

Automatic archival Enabled

Archive destination USE_DB_RECOVERY_FILE_DEST

Oldest online log sequence 1

Next log sequence to archive 1

Current log sequence 1

关于从RMAN备份中恢复控制文件,请关注后续Oracle备份与恢复的文章

四、更多

Oracle 参数文件

SQL基础-->层次化查询(START BY ... CONNECT BY PRIOR)

Oracle 用户、对象权限、系统权限

Oracle 角色、配置文件

SQL 基础--> 集合运算(UNION 与UNION ALL)

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