今天的汽车越来越电子化。在《IEEE Spectrum》杂志上刊登了一篇文章：“这辆车是靠代码运行的”，作者 Robert N. Charette（罗伯特·查莱特）写道，到2009年，汽车通常都是由100多个微处理器、50个电子控制单元、5英里的线路和1亿行代码组成的（文章地址：http://spectrum.ieee.org/transportation/systems/this-car-runs-on-code）。丰田公司的工程师们开玩笑说，他们给汽车安装轮子的唯一原因就是防止电脑刮地面。随着计算机系统和车辆的整合程度越来越高，安全检查变得越来越重要和复杂。
In 2014, Open Garages—a group of people interested in sharing and collaborating on vehicle security—released the first Car Hacker’s Manual as course material for car hacking classes. The original book was designed to fit in a vehicle’s glove box and to cover the basics of car hacking in a one- or two-day class on auto security. Little did we know how much interest there would be in that that first book: we had over 300,000 downloads in the first week. In fact, the book’s popularity shut down our Internet service provider (twice!) and made them a bit unhappy with us. (It’s okay, they forgave us, which is good because I love my small ISP. Hi SpeedSpan.net!)
The feedback from readers was mostly fantastic; most of the criticism had to do with the fact that the manual was too short and didn’t go into enough detail. This book aims to address those complaints. The Car Hacker’s Handbook goes into a lot more detail about car hacking and even covers some things that aren’t directly related to security, like performance tuning and useful tools for understanding and working with vehicles.
Why Car Hacking Is Good for All of Us
If you’re holding this book, you may already know why you’d want to hack cars. But just in case, here’s a handy list detailing the benefits of car hacking:
Understanding How Your Vehicle Works
The automotive industry has churned out some amazing vehicles, with complicated electronics and computer systems, but it has released little information about what makes those systems work. Once you understand how a vehicle’s network works and how it communicates within its own system and outside of it, you’ll be better able to diagnose and troubleshoot problems.
Working on Your Vehicle’s Electrical Systems
As vehicles have evolved, they’ve become less mechanical and more electronic. Unfortunately, automotive electronics systems are typically closed off to all but the dealership mechanics. While dealerships have access to more information than you as an individual can typically get, the auto manufacturers themselves outsource parts and require proprietary tools to diagnose problems. Learning how your vehicle’s electronics work can help you bypass this barrier.
Modifying Your Vehicle
Understanding how vehicles communicate can lead to better modifications, like improved fuel consumption and use of third-party replacement parts. Once you understand the communication system, you can seamlessly integrate other systems into your vehicle, like an additional display to show performance or a third-party component that integrates just as well as the factory default.
Discovering Undocumented Features
Sometimes vehicles are equipped with features that are undocumented or simply disabled. Discovering undocumented or disabled features and utilizing them lets you use your vehicle to its fullest potential. For example, the vehicle may have an undocumented “valet mode” that allows you to put your car in a restricted mode before handing over the keys to a valet.
Validating the Security of Your Vehicle
As of this writing, vehicle safety guidelines don’t address malicious electronic threats. While vehicles are susceptible to the same malware as your desktop, automakers aren’t required to audit the security of a vehicle’s electronics. This situation is simply unacceptable: we drive our families and friends around in these vehicles, and every one of us needs to know that our vehicles are as safe as can be. If you learn how to hack your car, you’ll know where your vehicle is vulnerable so that you can take precautions and be a better advocate for higher safety standards.
Helping the Auto Industry
The auto industry can benefit from the knowledge contained in this book as well. This book presents guidelines for identifying threats as well as modern techniques to circumvent current protections. In addition to helping you design your security practice, this book offers guidance to researchers in how to communicate their findings.
Today’s vehicles are more electronic than ever. In a report in IEEE Spectrum titled “This Car Runs on Code,” author Robert N. Charette notes that as of 2009 vehicles have typically been built with over 100 microprocessors, 50 electronic control units, 5 miles of wiring, and 100 million lines of code (http://spectrum.ieee.org/transportation/systems/this-car-runs-on-code). Engineers at Toyota joke that the only reason they put wheels on a vehicle is to keep the computer from scraping the ground. As computer systems become more integral to vehicles, performing security reviews becomes more important and complex.
Car hacking should not be taken casually. Playing with your vehicle’s network, wireless connections, onboard computers, or other electronics can damage or disable it. Be very careful when experimenting with any of the techniques in this book and keep safety as an overriding concern. As you might imagine, neither the author nor the publisher of this book will be held accountable for any damage to your vehicle.