栅格数据格式转换

查看GDAL支持的栅格数据格式

我们可以在终端中使用gdal --formats命令查看安装的GDAL库支持的栅格数据格式

Supported Formats:
  VRT -raster- (rw+v): Virtual Raster
  DERIVED -raster- (ro): Derived datasets using VRT pixel functions
  GTiff -raster- (rw+vs): GeoTIFF
  NITF -raster- (rw+vs): National Imagery Transmission Format
  RPFTOC -raster- (rovs): Raster Product Format TOC format
  ECRGTOC -raster- (rovs): ECRG TOC format
  HFA -raster- (rw+v): Erdas Imagine Images (.img)
  SAR_CEOS -raster- (rov): CEOS SAR Image
  CEOS -raster- (rov): CEOS Image
  JAXAPALSAR -raster- (rov): JAXA PALSAR Product Reader (Level 1.1/1.5)
  GFF -raster- (rov): Ground-based SAR Applications Testbed File Format (.gff)
  ELAS -raster- (rw+v): ELAS
  AIG -raster- (rov): Arc/Info Binary Grid
  AAIGrid -raster- (rwv): Arc/Info ASCII Grid
  GRASSASCIIGrid -raster- (rov): GRASS ASCII Grid
  SDTS -raster- (rov): SDTS Raster
  DTED -raster- (rwv): DTED Elevation Raster
  PNG -raster- (rwv): Portable Network Graphics
  JPEG -raster- (rwv): JPEG JFIF
  MEM -raster- (rw+): In Memory Raster
  JDEM -raster- (rov): Japanese DEM (.mem)
  GIF -raster- (rwv): Graphics Interchange Format (.gif)
  BIGGIF -raster- (rov): Graphics Interchange Format (.gif)
  ESAT -raster- (rov): Envisat Image Format
  BSB -raster- (rov): Maptech BSB Nautical Charts
  XPM -raster- (rwv): X11 PixMap Format
  BMP -raster- (rw+v): MS Windows Device Independent Bitmap
  DIMAP -raster- (rov): SPOT DIMAP
  AirSAR -raster- (rov): AirSAR Polarimetric Image
  RS2 -raster- (ros): RadarSat 2 XML Product
  SAFE -raster- (rov): Sentinel-1 SAR SAFE Product
  PCIDSK -raster,vector- (rw+v): PCIDSK Database File
  PCRaster -raster- (rw+): PCRaster Raster File
  ILWIS -raster- (rw+v): ILWIS Raster Map
  SGI -raster- (rw+): SGI Image File Format 1.0
  SRTMHGT -raster- (rwv): SRTMHGT File Format
  Leveller -raster- (rw+): Leveller heightfield
  Terragen -raster- (rw+): Terragen heightfield
  GMT -raster- (rw): GMT NetCDF Grid Format
  netCDF -raster,vector- (rw+s): Network Common Data Format
  HDF4 -raster- (ros): Hierarchical Data Format Release 4
  HDF4Image -raster- (rw+): HDF4 Dataset
  ISIS3 -raster- (rw+v): USGS Astrogeology ISIS cube (Version 3)
  ISIS2 -raster- (rw+v): USGS Astrogeology ISIS cube (Version 2)
  PDS -raster- (rov): NASA Planetary Data System
  VICAR -raster- (rov): MIPL VICAR file
  TIL -raster- (rov): EarthWatch .TIL
  ERS -raster- (rw+v): ERMapper .ers Labelled
  JP2OpenJPEG -raster,vector- (rwv): JPEG-2000 driver based on OpenJPEG library
  L1B -raster- (rovs): NOAA Polar Orbiter Level 1b Data Set
  FIT -raster- (rwv): FIT Image
  GRIB -raster- (rov): GRIdded Binary (.grb)
  RMF -raster- (rw+v): Raster Matrix Format
  WCS -raster- (rovs): OGC Web Coverage Service
  WMS -raster- (rwvs): OGC Web Map Service
  MSGN -raster- (ro): EUMETSAT Archive native (.nat)
  RST -raster- (rw+v): Idrisi Raster A.1
  INGR -raster- (rw+v): Intergraph Raster
  GSAG -raster- (rwv): Golden Software ASCII Grid (.grd)
  GSBG -raster- (rw+v): Golden Software Binary Grid (.grd)
  GS7BG -raster- (rw+v): Golden Software 7 Binary Grid (.grd)
  COSAR -raster- (rov): COSAR Annotated Binary Matrix (TerraSAR-X)
  TSX -raster- (rov): TerraSAR-X Product
  COASP -raster- (ro): DRDC COASP SAR Processor Raster
  R -raster- (rwv): R Object Data Store
  MAP -raster- (rov): OziExplorer .MAP
  KMLSUPEROVERLAY -raster- (rwv): Kml Super Overlay
  PDF -raster,vector- (rw+vs): Geospatial PDF
  Rasterlite -raster- (rws): Rasterlite
  MBTiles -raster- (rw+v): MBTiles
  PLMOSAIC -raster- (ro): Planet Labs Mosaics API
  CALS -raster- (rw): CALS (Type 1)
  WMTS -raster- (rwv): OGC Web Mab Tile Service
  SENTINEL2 -raster- (rovs): Sentinel 2
  MRF -raster- (rw+v): Meta Raster Format
  PNM -raster- (rw+v): Portable Pixmap Format (netpbm)
  DOQ1 -raster- (rov): USGS DOQ (Old Style)
  DOQ2 -raster- (rov): USGS DOQ (New Style)
  GenBin -raster- (rov): Generic Binary (.hdr Labelled)
  PAux -raster- (rw+): PCI .aux Labelled
  MFF -raster- (rw+v): Vexcel MFF Raster
  MFF2 -raster- (rw+): Vexcel MFF2 (HKV) Raster
  FujiBAS -raster- (ro): Fuji BAS Scanner Image
  GSC -raster- (rov): GSC Geogrid
  FAST -raster- (rov): EOSAT FAST Format
  BT -raster- (rw+v): VTP .bt (Binary Terrain) 1.3 Format
  LAN -raster- (rw+v): Erdas .LAN/.GIS
  CPG -raster- (ro): Convair PolGASP
  IDA -raster- (rw+v): Image Data and Analysis
  NDF -raster- (rov): NLAPS Data Format
  EIR -raster- (rov): Erdas Imagine Raw
  DIPEx -raster- (rov): DIPEx
  LCP -raster- (rwv): FARSITE v.4 Landscape File (.lcp)
  GTX -raster- (rw+v): NOAA Vertical Datum .GTX
  LOSLAS -raster- (rov): NADCON .los/.las Datum Grid Shift
  NTv2 -raster- (rw+vs): NTv2 Datum Grid Shift
  CTable2 -raster- (rw+v): CTable2 Datum Grid Shift
  ACE2 -raster- (rov): ACE2
  SNODAS -raster- (rov): Snow Data Assimilation System
  KRO -raster- (rw+v): KOLOR Raw
  ROI_PAC -raster- (rw+v): ROI_PAC raster
  RRASTER -raster- (rov): R Raster
  ENVI -raster- (rw+v): ENVI .hdr Labelled
  EHdr -raster- (rw+v): ESRI .hdr Labelled
  ISCE -raster- (rw+v): ISCE raster
  ARG -raster- (rwv): Azavea Raster Grid format
  RIK -raster- (rov): Swedish Grid RIK (.rik)
  USGSDEM -raster- (rwv): USGS Optional ASCII DEM (and CDED)
  GXF -raster- (ro): GeoSoft Grid Exchange Format
  DODS -raster- (ro): DAP 3.x servers
  KEA -raster- (rw+): KEA Image Format (.kea)
  BAG -raster- (ro): Bathymetry Attributed Grid
  HDF5 -raster- (ros): Hierarchical Data Format Release 5
  HDF5Image -raster- (ro): HDF5 Dataset
  NWT_GRD -raster- (rw+v): Northwood Numeric Grid Format .grd/.tab
  NWT_GRC -raster- (rov): Northwood Classified Grid Format .grc/.tab
  ADRG -raster- (rw+vs): ARC Digitized Raster Graphics
  SRP -raster- (rovs): Standard Raster Product (ASRP/USRP)
  BLX -raster- (rwv): Magellan topo (.blx)
  PostGISRaster -raster- (rws): PostGIS Raster driver
  SAGA -raster- (rw+v): SAGA GIS Binary Grid (.sdat)
  XYZ -raster- (rwv): ASCII Gridded XYZ
  HF2 -raster- (rwv): HF2/HFZ heightfield raster
  OZI -raster- (rov): OziExplorer Image File
  CTG -raster- (rov): USGS LULC Composite Theme Grid
  E00GRID -raster- (rov): Arc/Info Export E00 GRID
  ZMap -raster- (rwv): ZMap Plus Grid
  NGSGEOID -raster- (rov): NOAA NGS Geoid Height Grids
  IRIS -raster- (rov): IRIS data (.PPI, .CAPPi etc)
  PRF -raster- (rov): Racurs PHOTOMOD PRF
  GPKG -raster,vector- (rw+vs): GeoPackage
  CAD -raster,vector- (rovs): AutoCAD Driver
  PLSCENES -raster,vector- (ro): Planet Labs Scenes API
  HTTP -raster,vector- (ro): HTTP Fetching Wrapper

使用命令行工具进行栅格格式转换

GDAL库不但提供了C/C++编程语言的API接口,还提供了很多实用的命令行工具,帮助我们完成一些日常的数据处理工作。

我们以将GeoTIFF格式转为IMAGE格式为例,说明如何使用命令行工具进行栅格格式转换:

gdal_translate -of HFA example.tif example.img

其中,of选项指示了输出数据格式,HFA代表的是Erdas Imagine Images ,example.tif是输入数据路径,example.img是输出数据路径

详细参数参考:gdal_translate

使用Python代码进行栅格格式转换

下面介绍两种进行转换的方式:

  1. GDAL 2.1版本之后提供了,从代码中调用命令行的API接口,所以我们可以在Python代码中直接调用Translate()函数进行转换 from osgeo import gdal ds = gdal.Open('example.tif') ds = gdal.Translate('example.img', ds, format='HFA') ds = None Translate()函数的第一个参数是输出数据路径,第二参数是输入数据路径或者输入数据的Dataset对象,后面都是可选参数,具体Translate()函数的参数可以参见:GDAL/OGR Python API
  2. 使用CreateCopy()方法进行数据的复制及格式转换 from osgeo import gdal # 打开数据文件 src_ds = gdal.Open('example.tif') # 获得数据驱动对象 driver = gdal.GetDriverByName('HFA') # 进行数据格式转换 dst_ds = driver.CreateCopy('example.img', src_ds) # 关闭数据集对象 dst_ds = None src_ds = None

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