在Linux上手动安装教程Huginn抓取全文RSS和微信公众号

Huginn是一个神器,它是一个私人IFTTT,例如搭建任务采集触发平台,自动跟进实时提醒(用Email Slack Telegeram QQ 微信接受推送),全文 RSS 输出(把你关注的所有网页进行 RSS 全文输出),同时可以把各种app,软件,网络服务,网络设备等链接在一起做任务触发。

Huginn比起iFTTT,它更加强大,更加自动化,当然更加难以搞定。这是来自Huginn官网的一篇非常详细的关于Huginn手动安装教程,不要看这篇文章很长,但是老外写教程就是很认真,只要按照Huginn的官方教程成功在Debian/Ubuntu上安装Huginn的概率几乎就是100%。

网上也有一些Huginn安装的中文教程,但是Huginn的英文教程一直不断更新中,本篇文章就来记录一下Huginn手动在Debian/Ubuntu上安装的过程,参考的是Huginn最新的英文教程。由于英文原文非常长,所以只对关键地方作中文说明。

如果有不明白的可以在本文留言,更多的站长实用工具,还有:

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  3. 学习编程的神器 SoloLearn : 多终端免费学习编程软件 充分利用碎片时间

PS:2017年8月30日更新,Huginn操作教程可以参考:利用Huginn抓取任意网站RSS和微信公众号更新-打造一站式信息阅读平台

一、Huginn准备条件

操作系统要求:

Supported Unix distributions by this guide

  1. Ubuntu (16.04, 14.04 and 12.04)
  2. Debian (Jessie and Wheezy)

Ruby 版本

Huginn requires Ruby (MRI) 2.2 or 2.3. You will have to use the standard MRI implementation of Ruby. We love JRuby and Rubinius but Huginn needs several Gems that have native extensions.

Hardware requirements

CPU

  1. single core setups will work but depending on the amount of Huginn Agents and users it will run a bit slower since the application server and background jobs can not run simultaneously
  2. dual core setups are the recommended system/vps and will work well for a decent amount of Agents
  3. 3+ cores can be needed when running multiple DelayedJob workers

内存

You need at least 0.5GB of physical and 0.5GB of addressable memory (swap) to install and use Huginn with the default configuration! With less memory you need to manually adjust the Gemfile and Huginn can respond with internal server errors when accessing the web interface.

  1. 256MB RAM + 0.5GB of swap is the absolute minimum but we strongly advise against this amount of memory. See the Wiki page about running Huginn on systems with low memory
  2. 0.5GB RAM + 0.5GB swap will work relatively well with SSD drives, but can feel a bit slow due to swapping
  3. 1GB RAM + 1GB swap will work with two unicorn workers and the threaded background worker
  4. 2GB RAM is the recommended memory size, it will support 2 unicorn workers and both the threaded and the old separate workers
  5. for each 300MB of additional RAM you can run one extra DelayedJob worker

Unicorn Workers

For most instances we recommend using: CPU cores = unicorn workers.

If you have a 512MB machine we recommend to configure only one Unicorn worker and use the threaded background worker to prevent excessive swapping.

小结:Linux系统Debian/Ubuntu,内存最好是在1GB以上,CPU核心=unicorn workers,这个在后面的设置要用到。

二、Huginn安装过程

The Huginn installation consists of setting up the following components:

  1. Packages / Dependencies
  2. Ruby
  3. System Users
  4. Database
  5. Huginn
  6. Nginx

1.   安装包/依赖

sudo is not installed on Debian by default. Make sure your system is up-to-date and install it.

# run as root! apt-get update -y apt-get upgrade -y apt-get install sudo -y

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# run as root!apt-get update -yapt-get upgrade -yapt-get install sudo -y

Note: During this installation some files will need to be edited manually. If you are familiar with vim set it as default editor with the commands below. If you are not familiar with vim please skip this and keep using the default editor.

# Install vim and set as default editor sudo apt-get install -y vim sudo update-alternatives --set editor /usr/bin/vim.basic

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# Install vim and set as default editorsudo apt-get install -y vimsudo update-alternatives --set editor /usr/bin/vim.basic

Import node.js repository (can be skipped on Ubuntu and Debian Jessie):

curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_0.12 | sudo bash -

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curl -sL https://deb.nodesource.com/setup_0.12 | sudo bash -

Install the required packages (needed to compile Ruby and native extensions to Ruby gems):

sudo apt-get install -y runit build-essential git zlib1g-dev libyaml-dev libssl-dev libgdbm-dev libreadline-dev libncurses5-dev libffi-dev curl openssh-server checkinstall libxml2-dev libxslt-dev libcurl4-openssl-dev libicu-dev logrotate python-docutils pkg-config cmake nodejs graphviz

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sudo apt-get install -y runit build-essential git zlib1g-dev libyaml-dev libssl-dev libgdbm-dev libreadline-dev libncurses5-dev libffi-dev curl openssh-server checkinstall libxml2-dev libxslt-dev libcurl4-openssl-dev libicu-dev logrotate python-docutils pkg-config cmake nodejs graphviz

Debian Stretch

Since Debian Stretch, runit isn’t started anymore automatically, but this gets handled by the init system. Additionally, Ruby requires the OpenSSL 1.0 development packages instead of 1.1. For a default installation use these packages:

sudo apt-get install -y runit-systemd libssl1.0-dev

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sudo apt-get install -y runit-systemd libssl1.0-dev

2.   Ruby

The use of Ruby version managers such as RVM, rbenv or chruby with Huginn in production frequently leads to hard-to-diagnose problems. Version managers are not supported and we strongly advise everyone to follow the instructions below to use a system Ruby.

Remove the old Ruby versions if present:

sudo apt-get remove -y ruby1.8 ruby1.9

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sudo apt-get remove -y ruby1.8 ruby1.9

Download Ruby and compile it:

mkdir /tmp/ruby && cd /tmp/ruby curl -L --progress http://cache.ruby-lang.org/pub/ruby/2.3/ruby-2.3.4.tar.bz2 | tar xj cd ruby-2.3.4 ./configure --disable-install-rdoc make -j`nproc` sudo make install

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mkdir /tmp/ruby && cd /tmp/rubycurl -L --progress http://cache.ruby-lang.org/pub/ruby/2.3/ruby-2.3.4.tar.bz2 | tar xjcd ruby-2.3.4./configure --disable-install-rdocmake -j`nproc`sudo make install

Install the bundler and foreman gems:

sudo gem install rake bundler foreman --no-ri --no-rdoc

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sudo gem install rake bundler foreman --no-ri --no-rdoc

3.   系统用户

Create a user for Huginn:

sudo adduser --disabled-login --gecos 'Huginn' huginn

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sudo adduser --disabled-login --gecos 'Huginn' huginn

4.   数据库

Install the database packages

sudo apt-get install -y mysql-server mysql-client libmysqlclient-dev # Pick a MySQL root password (can be anything), type it and press enter, # retype the MySQL root password and press enter

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sudo apt-get install -y mysql-server mysql-client libmysqlclient-dev # Pick a MySQL root password (can be anything), type it and press enter,# retype the MySQL root password and press enter

For Debian Stretch, replace libmysqlclient-dev with default-libmysqlclient-dev. See the additional notes section for more information.

Check the installed MySQL version (remember if its >= 5.5.3 for the .env configuration done later):

mysql --version

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mysql --version

Secure your installation

sudo mysql_secure_installation

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sudo mysql_secure_installation

Login to MySQL

mysql -u root -p # Type the MySQL root password

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mysql -u root -p # Type the MySQL root password

Create a user for Huginn do not type the mysql>, this is part of the prompt. Change $password in the command below to a real password you pick

mysql> CREATE USER 'huginn'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '$password';

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mysql> CREATE USER 'huginn'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '$password';

Ensure you can use the InnoDB engine which is necessary to support long indexes

mysql> SET default_storage_engine=INNODB; # If this fails, check your MySQL config files (e.g. `/etc/mysql/*.cnf`, `/etc/mysql/conf.d/*`) # for the setting "innodb = off"

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mysql> SET default_storage_engine=INNODB; # If this fails, check your MySQL config files (e.g. `/etc/mysql/*.cnf`, `/etc/mysql/conf.d/*`)# for the setting "innodb = off"

Grant the Huginn user necessary permissions on the database

mysql> GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, DROP, INDEX, ALTER, LOCK TABLES ON `huginn_production`.* TO 'huginn'@'localhost';

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mysql> GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, CREATE, DROP, INDEX, ALTER, LOCK TABLES ON `huginn_production`.* TO 'huginn'@'localhost';

Quit the database session

mysql> \q

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mysql> \q

Try connecting to the new database with the new user

sudo -u huginn -H mysql -u huginn -p -D huginn_production # Type the password you replaced $password with earlier

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sudo -u huginn -H mysql -u huginn -p -D huginn_production # Type the password you replaced $password with earlier

You should now see ERROR 1049 (42000): Unknown database 'huginn_production' which is fine because we will create the database later.

You are done installing the database and can go back to the rest of the installation.

5.   Huginn

Clone the Source

# We'll install Huginn into the home directory of the user "huginn" cd /home/huginn # Clone Huginn repository sudo -u huginn -H git clone https://github.com/cantino/huginn.git -b master huginn # Go to Huginn installation folder cd /home/huginn/huginn # Copy the example Huginn config sudo -u huginn -H cp .env.example .env # Create the log/, tmp/pids/ and tmp/sockets/ directories sudo -u huginn mkdir -p log tmp/pids tmp/sockets # Make sure Huginn can write to the log/ and tmp/ directories sudo chown -R huginn log/ tmp/ sudo chmod -R u+rwX,go-w log/ tmp/ # Make sure permissions are set correctly sudo chmod -R u+rwX,go-w log/ sudo chmod -R u+rwX tmp/ sudo -u huginn -H chmod o-rwx .env # Copy the example Unicorn config sudo -u huginn -H cp config/unicorn.rb.example config/unicorn.rb

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# We'll install Huginn into the home directory of the user "huginn"cd /home/huginn # Clone Huginn repositorysudo -u huginn -H git clone https://github.com/cantino/huginn.git -b master huginn # Go to Huginn installation foldercd /home/huginn/huginn # Copy the example Huginn configsudo -u huginn -H cp .env.example .env # Create the log/, tmp/pids/ and tmp/sockets/ directoriessudo -u huginn mkdir -p log tmp/pids tmp/sockets # Make sure Huginn can write to the log/ and tmp/ directoriessudo chown -R huginn log/ tmp/sudo chmod -R u+rwX,go-w log/ tmp/ # Make sure permissions are set correctlysudo chmod -R u+rwX,go-w log/sudo chmod -R u+rwX tmp/sudo -u huginn -H chmod o-rwx .env # Copy the example Unicorn configsudo -u huginn -H cp config/unicorn.rb.example config/unicorn.rb

Configure it

# Update Huginn config file and follow the instructions sudo -u huginn -H editor .env

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# Update Huginn config file and follow the instructionssudo -u huginn -H editor .env

If you are using a local MySQL server the database configuration should look like this (use the password of the huginn MySQL user you created earlier):

DATABASE_ADAPTER=mysql2 DATABASE_RECONNECT=true DATABASE_NAME=huginn_production DATABASE_POOL=20 DATABASE_USERNAME=huginn DATABASE_PASSWORD='$password' #DATABASE_HOST=your-domain-here.com #DATABASE_PORT=3306 #DATABASE_SOCKET=/tmp/mysql.sock DATABASE_ENCODING=utf8 # MySQL only: If you are running a MySQL server >=5.5.3, you should # set DATABASE_ENCODING to utf8mb4 instead of utf8 so that the # database can hold 4-byte UTF-8 characters like emoji. #DATABASE_ENCODING=utf8mb4

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DATABASE_ADAPTER=mysql2DATABASE_RECONNECT=trueDATABASE_NAME=huginn_productionDATABASE_POOL=20DATABASE_USERNAME=huginnDATABASE_PASSWORD='$password'#DATABASE_HOST=your-domain-here.com#DATABASE_PORT=3306#DATABASE_SOCKET=/tmp/mysql.sock DATABASE_ENCODING=utf8# MySQL only: If you are running a MySQL server >=5.5.3, you should# set DATABASE_ENCODING to utf8mb4 instead of utf8 so that the# database can hold 4-byte UTF-8 characters like emoji.#DATABASE_ENCODING=utf8mb4

Important: Uncomment the RAILS_ENV setting to run Huginn in the production rails environment

RAILS_ENV=production

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RAILS_ENV=production

Change the Unicorn config if needed, the requirements.md has a section explaining the suggested amount of unicorn workers:

# Increase the amount of workers if you expect to have a high load instance. # 2 are enough for most use cases, if the server has less then 2GB of RAM # decrease the worker amount to 1 sudo -u huginn -H editor config/unicorn.rb

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# Increase the amount of workers if you expect to have a high load instance.# 2 are enough for most use cases, if the server has less then 2GB of RAM# decrease the worker amount to 1sudo -u huginn -H editor config/unicorn.rb

Important Note: Make sure to edit both .env and unicorn.rb to match your setup.

Note: If you want to use HTTPS, which is what we recommend, see Using HTTPS for the additional steps.

Note: For configuration changes after finishing the initial installation you have to re-export (see Install Init Script) the init script every time you change .env, unicorn.rb or your Procfile!

Install Gems

Note: As of bundler 1.5.2, you can invoke bundle install -jN (where N the number of your processor cores) and enjoy parallel gem installation with measurable difference in completion time (~60% faster). Check the number of your cores with nproc. For more information check this post. First make sure you have bundler >= 1.5.2 (run bundle -v) as it addresses some issues that were fixed in 1.5.2.

sudo -u huginn -H bundle install --deployment --without development test

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sudo -u huginn -H bundle install --deployment --without development test

Initialize Database

# Create the database sudo -u huginn -H bundle exec rake db:create RAILS_ENV=production # Migrate to the latest version sudo -u huginn -H bundle exec rake db:migrate RAILS_ENV=production # Create admin user and example agents using the default admin/password login sudo -u huginn -H bundle exec rake db:seed RAILS_ENV=production SEED_USERNAME=admin SEED_PASSWORD=password

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# Create the databasesudo -u huginn -H bundle exec rake db:create RAILS_ENV=production # Migrate to the latest versionsudo -u huginn -H bundle exec rake db:migrate RAILS_ENV=production # Create admin user and example agents using the default admin/password loginsudo -u huginn -H bundle exec rake db:seed RAILS_ENV=production SEED_USERNAME=admin SEED_PASSWORD=password

When done you see See the Huginn Wiki for more Agent examples! https://github.com/cantino/huginn/wiki

Note: This will create an initial user, you can change the username and password by supplying it in environmental variables SEED_USERNAME and SEED_PASSWORD as seen above. If you don’t change the password (and it is set to the default one) please wait with exposing Huginn to the public internet until the installation is done and you’ve logged into the server and changed your password.

Compile Assets

sudo -u huginn -H bundle exec rake assets:precompile RAILS_ENV=production

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sudo -u huginn -H bundle exec rake assets:precompile RAILS_ENV=production

Install Init Script

Huginn uses foreman to generate the init scripts based on a Procfile

Edit the Procfile and choose one of the suggested versions for production

sudo -u huginn -H editor Procfile

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sudo -u huginn -H editor Procfile

Comment out (disable) these two lines

web: bundle exec rails server -p ${PORT-3000} -b ${IP-0.0.0.0} jobs: bundle exec rails runner bin/threaded.rb

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web: bundle exec rails server -p ${PORT-3000} -b ${IP-0.0.0.0}jobs: bundle exec rails runner bin/threaded.rb

Enable (remove the comment) from these lines or those

# web: bundle exec unicorn -c config/unicorn.rb # jobs: bundle exec rails runner bin/threaded.rb

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# web: bundle exec unicorn -c config/unicorn.rb# jobs: bundle exec rails runner bin/threaded.rb

Export the init scripts:

sudo bundle exec rake production:export

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sudo bundle exec rake production:export

Note: You have to re-export the init script every time you change the configuration in .env or yourProcfile!

Setup Logrotate

sudo cp deployment/logrotate/huginn /etc/logrotate.d/huginn

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sudo cp deployment/logrotate/huginn /etc/logrotate.d/huginn

Ensure Your Huginn Instance Is Running

sudo bundle exec rake production:status

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sudo bundle exec rake production:status

6.   Nginx

Note: Nginx is the officially supported web server for Huginn. If you cannot or do not want to use Nginx as your web server, the wiki has a page on how to configure apache.

Installation

sudo apt-get install -y nginx

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sudo apt-get install -y nginx

Site Configuration

Copy the example site config:

sudo cp deployment/nginx/huginn /etc/nginx/sites-available/huginn sudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/huginn /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/huginn

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sudo cp deployment/nginx/huginn /etc/nginx/sites-available/huginnsudo ln -s /etc/nginx/sites-available/huginn /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/huginn

Make sure to edit the config file to match your setup, if you are running multiple nginx sites remove the default_serverargument from the listen directives:

# Change YOUR_SERVER_FQDN to the fully-qualified # domain name of your host serving Huginn. sudo editor /etc/nginx/sites-available/huginn

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# Change YOUR_SERVER_FQDN to the fully-qualified# domain name of your host serving Huginn.sudo editor /etc/nginx/sites-available/huginn

Remove the default nginx site, if huginn is the only enabled nginx site:

sudo rm /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default

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sudo rm /etc/nginx/sites-enabled/default

Note: If you want to use HTTPS, which is what we recommend, replace the huginn Nginx config withhuginn-ssl. See Using HTTPS for HTTPS configuration details.

Test Configuration

Validate your huginn or huginn-ssl Nginx config file with the following command:

sudo nginx -t

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sudo nginx -t

You should receive syntax is okay and test is successful messages. If you receive errors check yourhuginn or huginn-ssl Nginx config file for typos, etc. as indicated in the error message given.

Restart

sudo service nginx restart

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sudo service nginx restart

Done!

Initial Login

Visit YOUR_SERVER in your web browser for your first Huginn login. The setup has created a default admin account for you. You can use it to log in:

admin (or your SEED_USERNAME) password (or your SEED_PASSWORD)

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admin (or your SEED_USERNAME)password (or your SEED_PASSWORD)

Enjoy!

You can use cd /home/huginn/huginn && sudo bundle exec rake production:start and cd /home/huginn/huginn && sudo bundle exec rake production:stop to start and stop Huginn.

Be sure to read the section about how to update your Huginn installation as well! You can also useCapistrano to keep your installation up to date.

Note: We also recommend applying standard security practices to your server, including installing a firewall (ufw is good on Ubuntu and also available for Debian).

三、Huginn高级设置

Using HTTPS

To use Huginn with HTTPS:

  1. In .env:
    1. Set the FORCE_SSL option to true.
  2. Use the huginn-ssl Nginx example config instead of the huginn config:
    1. sudo cp deployment/nginx/huginn-ssl /etc/nginx/sites-available/huginn
    2. Update YOUR_SERVER_FQDN.
    3. Update ssl_certificate and ssl_certificate_key.
    4. Review the configuration file and consider applying other security and performance enhancing features.

Restart Nginx, export the init script and restart Huginn:

cd /home/huginn/huginn sudo service nginx restart sudo bundle exec rake production:export

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cd /home/huginn/huginnsudo service nginx restartsudo bundle exec rake production:export

Using a self-signed certificate is discouraged, but if you must use it follow the normal directions. Then generate the certificate:

sudo mkdir -p /etc/nginx/ssl/ cd /etc/nginx/ssl/ sudo openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -x509 -nodes -days 3560 -out huginn.crt -keyout huginn.key sudo chmod o-r huginn.key

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sudo mkdir -p /etc/nginx/ssl/cd /etc/nginx/ssl/sudo openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -x509 -nodes -days 3560 -out huginn.crt -keyout huginn.keysudo chmod o-r huginn.key

四、Huginn问题解决

If something went wrong during the installation please make sure you followed the instructions and did not miss a step.

When your Huginn instance still is not working first run the self check:

cd /home/huginn/huginn sudo bundle exec rake production:check

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cd /home/huginn/huginnsudo bundle exec rake production:check

We are sorry when you are still having issues, now please check the various log files for error messages:

Nginx error log /var/log/nginx/huginn_error.log

This file should be empty, it is the first place to look because nginx is the first application handling the request your are sending to Huginn.

常见的问题:

  1. connect() to unix:/home/huginn/huginn/tmp/sockets/unicorn.socket failed: The Unicorn application server is not running, ensure you uncommented one of the example configuration below the PRODUCTION label in your Profile and the unicorn config file (/home/huginn/huginn/config/unicorn.rb) exists.
  2. 138 open() "/home/huginn/huginn/public/..." failed (13: Permission denied): The/home/huginn/huginn/publicdirectory needs to be readable by the nginx user (which is per default www-data)

Unicorn log /home/huginn/huginn/log/unicorn.log

Should only contain HTTP request log entries like: 10.0.2.2 - - [18/Aug/2015:21:15:12 +0000] "GET / HTTP/1.0" 200 - 0.0110

If you see ruby exception backtraces or other error messages the problem could be one of the following:

  1. The configuration file /home/huginn/huginn/config/unicorn.rb does not exist
  2. Gem dependencies where not installed

Rails Application log /home/huginn/huginn/log/production.log

This file is pretty verbose, you want to look at it if you are getting the We're sorry, but something went wrong. error message when using Huginn. This is an example backtrace that can help you or other huginn developers locate the issue:

NoMethodError (undefined method `name' for nil:NilClass): app/controllers/jobs_controller.rb:6:in `index' config/initializers/silence_worker_status_logger.rb:5:in `call_with_silence_worker_status'

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NoMethodError (undefined method `name' for nil:NilClass):app/controllers/jobs_controller.rb:6:in `index'config/initializers/silence_worker_status_logger.rb:5:in `call_with_silence_worker_status'

Runit/Background Worker logs /home/huginn/huginn/log/*/current

Those files will contain error messages or backtraces if one of your agent is not performing as they should. The easiest way to debug an Agent is to watch all your log files for changes and trigger the agent to run via the Huginn web interface.

The log file location depends your Procfile configuration, this command will give you a list of the available logs:

ls -al /home/huginn/huginn/log/*/current

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ls -al /home/huginn/huginn/log/*/current

When you want to monitor the background processes you can easily watch all the files for changes:

tail -f /home/huginn/huginn/log/*/current

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tail -f /home/huginn/huginn/log/*/current

我遇到的问题:unicorn workers设置导致Huginn502错误。上面已经说过CPU cores = unicorn workers,所以我们在执行:sudo -u huginn -H editor config/unicorn.rb时一定要根据自己的VPS的CPU来修改对应的数值。

五、Huginn面板使用

打开你的域名或者IP地址,你就可以访问到Huginn登录页面了,如果你按照上面的方法操作的话,登录账号是:admin,密码是:password,你可以进入到Huginn修改。

这就是Huginn的操作界面了,对应的就是Agents、Scenarios、Events、Credentials、Services。(点击放大)

Agents就是你的派出去搜索情报的“小兵”了。

Events会记录“小兵”出去回来都带了什么东西。

scenarios是“小兵”组团称呼,一个团可以放好多协作的“小兵”。

scenarios方便之处就在于你可以直接导入别人已经写好的脚本,自己只要修改对应的参数就可以直接上线运行了。这里有一个公共脚本库:http://huginnio.herokuapp.com/scenarios,常用的知乎话题监控、 知乎编辑推荐、豆瓣高分科幻电影提醒、微信公众号等都可以在这里下载到。

文章出自: https://wzfou.com/huginn/

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