MySQL用户管理、常用sql语句、数据库备份

13.4 MySQL用户管理

创建用户并授权

指定登录IP

[root@adailinux ~]# mysql -uroot -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.
mysql> grant all on *.* to 'user1'@'127.0.0.1' identified by '123456';
#创建user1用户并授予其所有权限“*.*”(通配符)
#第一个*表示db_name;第二个*表示tb_name
#同时指定其来源IP127.0.0.1(即,只可通过此IP登录)
#此处可以使用通配符%,代表所有IP(一般不使用)
#设定密码:identified by
mysql> quit
Bye

指定登录socket

[root@adailinux ~]# mysql -uroot -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.
mysql> grant all on *.* to 'user2'@'localhost' identified by '123456';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.01 sec)
mysql> quit
Bye

用户登录

使用IP登录

[root@adailinux ~]# mysql -uuser1 -p123456 -h127.0.0.1
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.
mysql> quit
Bye

使用socket登录

[root@adailinux ~]# mysql -uuser2 -p'123456'
Welcome to the MySQL monitor. 
mysql> exit
Bye

说明: 因为指定登录主机为localhost,所以该用户默认使用(监听)本地mysql.socket文件,不需要指定IP即可登录。

对具体权限进行授权

[root@adailinux ~]# mysql -uroot -p'123456'
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.
mysql> create database db1;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.04 sec)
mysql> grant SELECT,UPDATE,INSERT on db1.* to 'user2'@'192.168.8.132' identified by '123456';
#创建user2用户,并授予其针对db1库SELECT,UPDATE,INSERT权限

mysql> grant all on db1.* to 'user'@'%' identified by '123456';
#创建user3,并针对所有IP授予其db1库所有权限

权限相关命令

[root@adailinux ~]# mysql -uroot -p'123456'
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.
mysql> show grants;
#查看当前用户的权限

mysql> show grants for user2@192.168.8.132;
#查看指定用户的权限

更改权限

[root@adailinux ~]# mysql -uroot -p'123456'
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.
mysql> GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'user2'@'127.0.0.1' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*6BB4837EB743291105EE4568DDA7DC67ED2CA2AD9';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.03 sec)

mysql> GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE ON `db1`.* TO 'user2'@'127.0.0.1';
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)
mysql> show grants for user2@127.0.0.1;
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Grants for user2@127.0.0.1                                                                                   |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| GRANT USAGE ON *.* TO 'user2'@'127.0.0.1' IDENTIFIED BY PASSWORD '*6BB4837EB74329105EE4568DDA7DC67ED2CA2AD9' |
| GRANT SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE ON `db1`.* TO 'user2'@'127.0.0.1'                                               |
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> quit
Bye

注: 更改用户权限时,权限行的内容都要更改。

13.5 常用sql语句

[root@adailinux ~]# mysql -uroot -p'123456';
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.
mysql> use db1;
Database changed
#选择库

mysql> select count(*) from mysql.user;
+----------+
| count(*) |
+----------+
|       12 |
+----------+
1 row in set (0.04 sec)
#查看指定库的内容的行数

mysql> select * from mysql.db\G;
#查看库的所有内容

mysql> select db,user from mysql.db;
#查看库指定内容

mysql> select * from mysql.db where host like '192.168.%'\G;
#查看某些IP对应的库内容,like表示匹配

mysql> create table t1(`id` int(4),`name` char(40));
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.39 sec)
#在db1库下创建表t1

mysql> select * from db1.t1;
Empty set (0.03 sec)
#查看表中信息:空表

mysql> insert into db1.t1 values(1,'abc');
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.09 sec)
#向表中插入内容
mysql> select * from db1.t1;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|    1 | abc  |
+------+------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> update db1.t1 set name='aaa' where id=1;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.08 sec)
Rows matched: 1  Changed: 1  Warnings: 0

mysql> select * from db1.t1;
+------+------+
| id   | name |
+------+------+
|    1 | aaa  |
+------+------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)
#更改表中指定内容

mysql> delete from db1.t1 where id=1;
Query OK, 2 rows affected (0.10 sec)
#删除表中指定内容
mysql> select * from db1.t1;
Empty set (0.00 sec)

mysql> truncate db1.t1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.09 sec)
#清空一个表中内容

mysql> drop table t1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.04 sec)
#删除表
mysql> drop database db1;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.13 sec)
#删除库

mysql> use mysql;
mysql> delete from user where User='user1' and Host='127.0.0.1';
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.06 sec)
#删除用户,在删除用户前需要先指定表

13.6 MySQL数据库备份恢复

备份库

备份指定库:
[root@adailinux ~]# mysqldump -uroot -p123456 mysql > /tmp/mysqlbak.sql

备份所有库:
[root@adailinux ~]# mysqldump -uroot -p123456 -A > /tmp/mysql_all.sql

恢复库

[root@adailinux ~]# mysql -uroot -p123456 < /tmp/mysqlbak.sql

备份表

备份指定表:
[root@adailinux ~]# mysql -uroot -p123456 mysql user > /tmp/user.sql

只备份表结构:
[root@adailinux ~]# mysqldump -uroot -p123456 -d mysql > /tmp/mysql_tb.sql

恢复表

[root@adailinux ~]# mysql -uroot -p123456 mysql user < /tmp/user.sql

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