聊聊Java 9的Compact Strings

本文主要研究一下Java 9的Compact Strings

Compressed Strings(Java 6)

Java 6引入了Compressed Strings,对于one byte per character使用byte[],对于two bytes per character继续使用char[];之前可以使用-XX:+UseCompressedStrings来开启,不过在java7被废弃了,然后在java8被移除

Compact Strings(Java 9)

Java 9引入了Compact Strings来取代Java 6的Compressed Strings,它的实现更过彻底,完全使用byte[]来替代char[],同时新引入了一个字段coder来标识是LATIN1还是UTF16

String

java.base/java/lang/String.java

public final class String
    implements java.io.Serializable, Comparable<String>, CharSequence,
               Constable, ConstantDesc {
​
    /**
     * The value is used for character storage.
     *
     * @implNote This field is trusted by the VM, and is a subject to
     * constant folding if String instance is constant. Overwriting this
     * field after construction will cause problems.
     *
     * Additionally, it is marked with {@link Stable} to trust the contents
     * of the array. No other facility in JDK provides this functionality (yet).
     * {@link Stable} is safe here, because value is never null.
     */
    @Stable
    private final byte[] value;
​
    /**
     * The identifier of the encoding used to encode the bytes in
     * {@code value}. The supported values in this implementation are
     *
     * LATIN1
     * UTF16
     *
     * @implNote This field is trusted by the VM, and is a subject to
     * constant folding if String instance is constant. Overwriting this
     * field after construction will cause problems.
     */
    private final byte coder;
​
    /** Cache the hash code for the string */
    private int hash; // Default to 0
​
    /** use serialVersionUID from JDK 1.0.2 for interoperability */
    private static final long serialVersionUID = -6849794470754667710L;
​
    /**
     * If String compaction is disabled, the bytes in {@code value} are
     * always encoded in UTF16.
     *
     * For methods with several possible implementation paths, when String
     * compaction is disabled, only one code path is taken.
     *
     * The instance field value is generally opaque to optimizing JIT
     * compilers. Therefore, in performance-sensitive place, an explicit
     * check of the static boolean {@code COMPACT_STRINGS} is done first
     * before checking the {@code coder} field since the static boolean
     * {@code COMPACT_STRINGS} would be constant folded away by an
     * optimizing JIT compiler. The idioms for these cases are as follows.
     *
     * For code such as:
     *
     *    if (coder == LATIN1) { ... }
     *
     * can be written more optimally as
     *
     *    if (coder() == LATIN1) { ... }
     *
     * or:
     *
     *    if (COMPACT_STRINGS && coder == LATIN1) { ... }
     *
     * An optimizing JIT compiler can fold the above conditional as:
     *
     *    COMPACT_STRINGS == true  => if (coder == LATIN1) { ... }
     *    COMPACT_STRINGS == false => if (false)           { ... }
     *
     * @implNote
     * The actual value for this field is injected by JVM. The static
     * initialization block is used to set the value here to communicate
     * that this static final field is not statically foldable, and to
     * avoid any possible circular dependency during vm initialization.
     */
    static final boolean COMPACT_STRINGS;
​
    static {
        COMPACT_STRINGS = true;
    }
​
    /**
     * Class String is special cased within the Serialization Stream Protocol.
     *
     * A String instance is written into an ObjectOutputStream according to
     * <a href="{@docRoot}/../specs/serialization/protocol.html#stream-elements">
     * Object Serialization Specification, Section 6.2, "Stream Elements"</a>
     */
    private static final ObjectStreamField[] serialPersistentFields =
        new ObjectStreamField[0];
​
    /**
     * Initializes a newly created {@code String} object so that it represents
     * an empty character sequence.  Note that use of this constructor is
     * unnecessary since Strings are immutable.
     */
    public String() {
        this.value = "".value;
        this.coder = "".coder;
    }
​
    //......
​
    public char charAt(int index) {
        if (isLatin1()) {
            return StringLatin1.charAt(value, index);
        } else {
            return StringUTF16.charAt(value, index);
        }
    }
​
    public boolean equals(Object anObject) {
        if (this == anObject) {
            return true;
        }
        if (anObject instanceof String) {
            String aString = (String)anObject;
            if (coder() == aString.coder()) {
                return isLatin1() ? StringLatin1.equals(value, aString.value)
                                  : StringUTF16.equals(value, aString.value);
            }
        }
        return false;
    }
​
    public int compareTo(String anotherString) {
        byte v1[] = value;
        byte v2[] = anotherString.value;
        if (coder() == anotherString.coder()) {
            return isLatin1() ? StringLatin1.compareTo(v1, v2)
                              : StringUTF16.compareTo(v1, v2);
        }
        return isLatin1() ? StringLatin1.compareToUTF16(v1, v2)
                          : StringUTF16.compareToLatin1(v1, v2);
     }
​
    public int hashCode() {
        int h = hash;
        if (h == 0 && value.length > 0) {
            hash = h = isLatin1() ? StringLatin1.hashCode(value)
                                  : StringUTF16.hashCode(value);
        }
        return h;
    }
​
    public int indexOf(int ch, int fromIndex) {
        return isLatin1() ? StringLatin1.indexOf(value, ch, fromIndex)
                          : StringUTF16.indexOf(value, ch, fromIndex);
    }
​
    public String substring(int beginIndex) {
        if (beginIndex < 0) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(beginIndex);
        }
        int subLen = length() - beginIndex;
        if (subLen < 0) {
            throw new StringIndexOutOfBoundsException(subLen);
        }
        if (beginIndex == 0) {
            return this;
        }
        return isLatin1() ? StringLatin1.newString(value, beginIndex, subLen)
                          : StringUTF16.newString(value, beginIndex, subLen);
    }
​
    //......
​
    byte coder() {
        return COMPACT_STRINGS ? coder : UTF16;
    }
​
    byte[] value() {
        return value;
    }
​
    private boolean isLatin1() {
        return COMPACT_STRINGS && coder == LATIN1;
    }
​
    @Native static final byte LATIN1 = 0;
    @Native static final byte UTF16  = 1;
​
    //......
}
  • COMPACT_STRINGS默认为true,即该特性默认是开启的
  • coder方法判断COMPACT_STRINGS为true的话,则返回coder值,否则返回UTF16;isLatin1方法判断COMPACT_STRINGS为true且coder为LATIN1则返回true
  • 诸如charAt、equals、hashCode、indexOf、substring等等一系列方法都依赖isLatin1方法来区分对待是StringLatin1还是StringUTF16

StringConcatFactory

实例

public class Java9StringDemo {
​
    public static void main(String[] args){
        String stringLiteral = "tom";
        String stringObject = stringLiteral + "cat";
    }
}
  • 这段代码stringObject由变量stringLiteral及cat拼接而来

javap

javac src/main/java/com/example/javac/Java9StringDemo.java
javap -v src/main/java/com/example/javac/Java9StringDemo.class
​
  Last modified 2019年4月7日; size 770 bytes
  MD5 checksum fecfca9c829402c358c4d5cb948004ff
  Compiled from "Java9StringDemo.java"
public class com.example.javac.Java9StringDemo
  minor version: 0
  major version: 56
  flags: (0x0021) ACC_PUBLIC, ACC_SUPER
  this_class: #4                          // com/example/javac/Java9StringDemo
  super_class: #5                         // java/lang/Object
  interfaces: 0, fields: 0, methods: 2, attributes: 3
Constant pool:
   #1 = Methodref          #5.#14         // java/lang/Object."<init>":()V
   #2 = String             #15            // tom
   #3 = InvokeDynamic      #0:#19         // #0:makeConcatWithConstants:(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/String;
   #4 = Class              #20            // com/example/javac/Java9StringDemo
   #5 = Class              #21            // java/lang/Object
   #6 = Utf8               <init>
   #7 = Utf8               ()V
   #8 = Utf8               Code
   #9 = Utf8               LineNumberTable
  #10 = Utf8               main
  #11 = Utf8               ([Ljava/lang/String;)V
  #12 = Utf8               SourceFile
  #13 = Utf8               Java9StringDemo.java
  #14 = NameAndType        #6:#7          // "<init>":()V
  #15 = Utf8               tom
  #16 = Utf8               BootstrapMethods
  #17 = MethodHandle       6:#22          // REF_invokeStatic java/lang/invoke/StringConcatFactory.makeConcatWithConstants:(Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodHandles$Lookup;Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;Ljava/lang/String;[Ljava/lang/Object;)Ljava/lang/invoke/CallSite;
  #18 = String             #23            // \u0001cat
  #19 = NameAndType        #24:#25        // makeConcatWithConstants:(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/String;
  #20 = Utf8               com/example/javac/Java9StringDemo
  #21 = Utf8               java/lang/Object
  #22 = Methodref          #26.#27        // java/lang/invoke/StringConcatFactory.makeConcatWithConstants:(Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodHandles$Lookup;Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;Ljava/lang/String;[Ljava/lang/Object;)Ljava/lang/invoke/CallSite;
  #23 = Utf8               \u0001cat
  #24 = Utf8               makeConcatWithConstants
  #25 = Utf8               (Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/String;
  #26 = Class              #28            // java/lang/invoke/StringConcatFactory
  #27 = NameAndType        #24:#32        // makeConcatWithConstants:(Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodHandles$Lookup;Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;Ljava/lang/String;[Ljava/lang/Object;)Ljava/lang/invoke/CallSite;
  #28 = Utf8               java/lang/invoke/StringConcatFactory
  #29 = Class              #34            // java/lang/invoke/MethodHandles$Lookup
  #30 = Utf8               Lookup
  #31 = Utf8               InnerClasses
  #32 = Utf8               (Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodHandles$Lookup;Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;Ljava/lang/String;[Ljava/lang/Object;)Ljava/lang/invoke/CallSite;
  #33 = Class              #35            // java/lang/invoke/MethodHandles
  #34 = Utf8               java/lang/invoke/MethodHandles$Lookup
  #35 = Utf8               java/lang/invoke/MethodHandles
{
  public com.example.javac.Java9StringDemo();
    descriptor: ()V
    flags: (0x0001) ACC_PUBLIC
    Code:
      stack=1, locals=1, args_size=1
         0: aload_0
         1: invokespecial #1                  // Method java/lang/Object."<init>":()V
         4: return
      LineNumberTable:
        line 8: 0
​
  public static void main(java.lang.String[]);
    descriptor: ([Ljava/lang/String;)V
    flags: (0x0009) ACC_PUBLIC, ACC_STATIC
    Code:
      stack=1, locals=3, args_size=1
         0: ldc           #2                  // String tom
         2: astore_1
         3: aload_1
         4: invokedynamic #3,  0              // InvokeDynamic #0:makeConcatWithConstants:(Ljava/lang/String;)Ljava/lang/String;
         9: astore_2
        10: return
      LineNumberTable:
        line 11: 0
        line 12: 3
        line 13: 10
}
SourceFile: "Java9StringDemo.java"
InnerClasses:
  public static final #30= #29 of #33;    // Lookup=class java/lang/invoke/MethodHandles$Lookup of class java/lang/invoke/MethodHandles
BootstrapMethods:
  0: #17 REF_invokeStatic java/lang/invoke/StringConcatFactory.makeConcatWithConstants:(Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodHandles$Lookup;Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/invoke/MethodType;Ljava/lang/String;[Ljava/lang/Object;)Ljava/lang/invoke/CallSite;
    Method arguments:
      #18 \u0001cat
  • javap之后可以看到通过Java 9利用InvokeDynamic调用了StringConcatFactory.makeConcatWithConstants方法进行字符串拼接优化;而Java 8则是通过转换为StringBuilder来进行优化

StringConcatFactory.makeConcatWithConstants

java.base/java/lang/invoke/StringConcatFactory.java

public final class StringConcatFactory {
    //......
​
    /**
     * Concatenation strategy to use. See {@link Strategy} for possible options.
     * This option is controllable with -Djava.lang.invoke.stringConcat JDK option.
     */
    private static Strategy STRATEGY;
​
    /**
     * Default strategy to use for concatenation.
     */
    private static final Strategy DEFAULT_STRATEGY = Strategy.MH_INLINE_SIZED_EXACT;
​
    private enum Strategy {
        /**
         * Bytecode generator, calling into {@link java.lang.StringBuilder}.
         */
        BC_SB,
​
        /**
         * Bytecode generator, calling into {@link java.lang.StringBuilder};
         * but trying to estimate the required storage.
         */
        BC_SB_SIZED,
​
        /**
         * Bytecode generator, calling into {@link java.lang.StringBuilder};
         * but computing the required storage exactly.
         */
        BC_SB_SIZED_EXACT,
​
        /**
         * MethodHandle-based generator, that in the end calls into {@link java.lang.StringBuilder}.
         * This strategy also tries to estimate the required storage.
         */
        MH_SB_SIZED,
​
        /**
         * MethodHandle-based generator, that in the end calls into {@link java.lang.StringBuilder}.
         * This strategy also estimate the required storage exactly.
         */
        MH_SB_SIZED_EXACT,
​
        /**
         * MethodHandle-based generator, that constructs its own byte[] array from
         * the arguments. It computes the required storage exactly.
         */
        MH_INLINE_SIZED_EXACT
    }
​
    static {
        // In case we need to double-back onto the StringConcatFactory during this
        // static initialization, make sure we have the reasonable defaults to complete
        // the static initialization properly. After that, actual users would use
        // the proper values we have read from the properties.
        STRATEGY = DEFAULT_STRATEGY;
        // CACHE_ENABLE = false; // implied
        // CACHE = null;         // implied
        // DEBUG = false;        // implied
        // DUMPER = null;        // implied
​
        Properties props = GetPropertyAction.privilegedGetProperties();
        final String strategy =
                props.getProperty("java.lang.invoke.stringConcat");
        CACHE_ENABLE = Boolean.parseBoolean(
                props.getProperty("java.lang.invoke.stringConcat.cache"));
        DEBUG = Boolean.parseBoolean(
                props.getProperty("java.lang.invoke.stringConcat.debug"));
        final String dumpPath =
                props.getProperty("java.lang.invoke.stringConcat.dumpClasses");
​
        STRATEGY = (strategy == null) ? DEFAULT_STRATEGY : Strategy.valueOf(strategy);
        CACHE = CACHE_ENABLE ? new ConcurrentHashMap<>() : null;
        DUMPER = (dumpPath == null) ? null : ProxyClassesDumper.getInstance(dumpPath);
    }
​
    public static CallSite makeConcatWithConstants(MethodHandles.Lookup lookup,
                                                   String name,
                                                   MethodType concatType,
                                                   String recipe,
                                                   Object... constants) throws StringConcatException {
        if (DEBUG) {
            System.out.println("StringConcatFactory " + STRATEGY + " is here for " + concatType + ", {" + recipe + "}, " + Arrays.toString(constants));
        }
​
        return doStringConcat(lookup, name, concatType, false, recipe, constants);
    }
​
    private static CallSite doStringConcat(MethodHandles.Lookup lookup,
                                           String name,
                                           MethodType concatType,
                                           boolean generateRecipe,
                                           String recipe,
                                           Object... constants) throws StringConcatException {
        Objects.requireNonNull(lookup, "Lookup is null");
        Objects.requireNonNull(name, "Name is null");
        Objects.requireNonNull(concatType, "Concat type is null");
        Objects.requireNonNull(constants, "Constants are null");
​
        for (Object o : constants) {
            Objects.requireNonNull(o, "Cannot accept null constants");
        }
​
        if ((lookup.lookupModes() & MethodHandles.Lookup.PRIVATE) == 0) {
            throw new StringConcatException("Invalid caller: " +
                    lookup.lookupClass().getName());
        }
​
        int cCount = 0;
        int oCount = 0;
        if (generateRecipe) {
            // Mock the recipe to reuse the concat generator code
            char[] value = new char[concatType.parameterCount()];
            Arrays.fill(value, TAG_ARG);
            recipe = new String(value);
            oCount = concatType.parameterCount();
        } else {
            Objects.requireNonNull(recipe, "Recipe is null");
​
            for (int i = 0; i < recipe.length(); i++) {
                char c = recipe.charAt(i);
                if (c == TAG_CONST) cCount++;
                if (c == TAG_ARG)   oCount++;
            }
        }
​
        if (oCount != concatType.parameterCount()) {
            throw new StringConcatException(
                    "Mismatched number of concat arguments: recipe wants " +
                            oCount +
                            " arguments, but signature provides " +
                            concatType.parameterCount());
        }
​
        if (cCount != constants.length) {
            throw new StringConcatException(
                    "Mismatched number of concat constants: recipe wants " +
                            cCount +
                            " constants, but only " +
                            constants.length +
                            " are passed");
        }
​
        if (!concatType.returnType().isAssignableFrom(String.class)) {
            throw new StringConcatException(
                    "The return type should be compatible with String, but it is " +
                            concatType.returnType());
        }
​
        if (concatType.parameterSlotCount() > MAX_INDY_CONCAT_ARG_SLOTS) {
            throw new StringConcatException("Too many concat argument slots: " +
                    concatType.parameterSlotCount() +
                    ", can only accept " +
                    MAX_INDY_CONCAT_ARG_SLOTS);
        }
​
        String className = getClassName(lookup.lookupClass());
        MethodType mt = adaptType(concatType);
        Recipe rec = new Recipe(recipe, constants);
​
        MethodHandle mh;
        if (CACHE_ENABLE) {
            Key key = new Key(className, mt, rec);
            mh = CACHE.get(key);
            if (mh == null) {
                mh = generate(lookup, className, mt, rec);
                CACHE.put(key, mh);
            }
        } else {
            mh = generate(lookup, className, mt, rec);
        }
        return new ConstantCallSite(mh.asType(concatType));
    }
​
    private static MethodHandle generate(Lookup lookup, String className, MethodType mt, Recipe recipe) throws StringConcatException {
        try {
            switch (STRATEGY) {
                case BC_SB:
                    return BytecodeStringBuilderStrategy.generate(lookup, className, mt, recipe, Mode.DEFAULT);
                case BC_SB_SIZED:
                    return BytecodeStringBuilderStrategy.generate(lookup, className, mt, recipe, Mode.SIZED);
                case BC_SB_SIZED_EXACT:
                    return BytecodeStringBuilderStrategy.generate(lookup, className, mt, recipe, Mode.SIZED_EXACT);
                case MH_SB_SIZED:
                    return MethodHandleStringBuilderStrategy.generate(mt, recipe, Mode.SIZED);
                case MH_SB_SIZED_EXACT:
                    return MethodHandleStringBuilderStrategy.generate(mt, recipe, Mode.SIZED_EXACT);
                case MH_INLINE_SIZED_EXACT:
                    return MethodHandleInlineCopyStrategy.generate(mt, recipe);
                default:
                    throw new StringConcatException("Concatenation strategy " + STRATEGY + " is not implemented");
            }
        } catch (Error | StringConcatException e) {
            // Pass through any error or existing StringConcatException
            throw e;
        } catch (Throwable t) {
            throw new StringConcatException("Generator failed", t);
        }
    }
​
    //......
}
  • makeConcatWithConstants方法内部调用了doStringConcat,而doStringConcat方法则调用了generate方法来生成MethodHandle;generate根据不同的STRATEGY来生成MethodHandle,这些STRATEGY有BC_SB、BC_SB_SIZED、BC_SB_SIZED_EXACT、MH_SB_SIZED、MH_SB_SIZED_EXACT、MH_INLINE_SIZED_EXACT,默认是MH_INLINE_SIZED_EXACT(可以通过-Djava.lang.invoke.stringConcat来改变默认的策略)

小结

  • Java 9引入了Compact Strings来取代Java 6的Compressed Strings,它的实现更过彻底,完全使用byte[]来替代char[],同时新引入了一个字段coder来标识是LATIN1还是UTF16
  • isLatin1方法判断COMPACT_STRINGS为true且coder为LATIN1则返回true;诸如charAt、equals、hashCode、indexOf、substring等等一系列方法都依赖isLatin1方法来区分对待是StringLatin1还是StringUTF16
  • Java 9利用InvokeDynamic调用了StringConcatFactory.makeConcatWithConstants方法进行字符串拼接优化,相比于Java 8通过转换为StringBuilder来进行优化,Java 9提供了多种STRATEGY可供选择,这些STRATEGY有BC_SB(等价于Java 8的优化方式)、BC_SB_SIZED、BC_SB_SIZED_EXACT、MH_SB_SIZED、MH_SB_SIZED_EXACT、MH_INLINE_SIZED_EXACT,默认是MH_INLINE_SIZED_EXACT(可以通过-Djava.lang.invoke.stringConcat来改变默认的策略)

doc

原创声明,本文系作者授权云+社区发表,未经许可,不得转载。

如有侵权,请联系 yunjia_community@tencent.com 删除。

发表于

我来说两句

0 条评论
登录 后参与评论

扫码关注云+社区

领取腾讯云代金券