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搭建Ubuntu12.04交叉编译服务器

最近学着搭建一台Linux服务器作为交叉编译的主机之用,服务器端选择了Ubuntu12.04 LTS桌面版,客户端采用Windows XP平台,使用SSH工具软件putty登录到Linux主机,建立scrathbox2交叉编译环境工具链,模拟arm环境。

    主要步骤如下:

     一、使用U盘安装Ubuntu12.04 LTS桌面版本。

     使用UtralIOS软碟通为Ubuntu12.04桌面版制作U盘启动盘,再电脑上安装Ubuntu12.04。

      可以参考这两篇文章:u盘安装Ubuntu12.04Ubuntu 12.04硬盘安装与U盘安装(图文)

     最重要的莫过于分区了,这个要依据具体情况而定,由于是作为Linux主机之用,硬盘大小共500G,4G内存,所以我选择了三分区方案:

      磁盘分区         挂载目录          大小          文件系统

       sda1                   /                   50G              ext4

       sda5                  /swap            4G                ext4

       sda6                  /home           446G             ext4

     二、配置网络,apt-get代理安装软件,公司上网代理等。

      我按照类似于这片博文ubuntu12.04 server 配置网络修改网络配置文件/etc/network/interfaces 的方法没有成功,最后直接编辑网络,采用【System Settings】->【NetWork】界面的方式编辑网络配置,主要是输入IP地址、子网掩码、网关、DNS服务器地址等,可以参考百度文库的这篇文章:Ubuntu 11.04 下如何手动设置 IP

      除此之外,由于我们公司设置了代理,只能通过代理上网,需要在Proxy中设置代理网址。

      另外,关于设置apt-get代理安装相关软件,方法可以参照这篇文章:Ubuntu 12.04 apt-get/wget/gem 使用代理安装软

     三、配置NFS、TFTP

     (1)配置nfs

      首先安装nfs,使用如下命令:

      sudo apt-get install nfs-kernel-server

     主要是修改/etc/exports文件,可以参考这篇文章:ubuntu12.04的NFS配置

      我修改后的/etc/exports配置文件如下:

# /etc/exports: the access control list for filesystems which may be exported
#		to NFS clients.  See exports(5).
#
# Example for NFSv2 and NFSv3:
# /srv/homes       hostname1(rw,sync,no_subtree_check) hostname2(ro,sync,no_subtree_check)
#
# Example for NFSv4:
# /srv/nfs4        gss/krb5i(rw,sync,fsid=0,crossmnt,no_subtree_check)
# /srv/nfs4/homes  gss/krb5i(rw,sync,no_subtree_check)
#

#/                          *(ro,sync,no_subtree_check,no_root_squash)
/home                      *(rw,sync,no_subtree_check,no_root_squash)

 (2)配置tftp

    安装tftp客户端

    sudo  apt-get install tftpd

    然后修改/etc/inetd.conf配置文件。

    可以参考这篇文章:ubuntu 12.04搭建tftp服务器的安装、设置、调试

   主要是修改/etc/xinetd.d/tftp和/etc/inetd.conf这两个配置文件:

     A、/etc/xinetd.d/tftp

service tftp

         {

             disable         = no

             socket_type     = dgram

             protocol        = udp

             wait            = yes

             user            = root

             server          = /usr/sbin/in.tftpd

             server_args     = /
         source          = 11

             cps             = 100 2

             flags =IPv4

         }

     B 、/etc/inetd.conf

# /etc/inetd.conf:  see inetd(8) for further informations.
#
# Internet superserver configuration database
#
#
# Lines starting with "#:LABEL:" or "#<off>#" should not
# be changed unless you know what you are doing!
#
# If you want to disable an entry so it isn't touched during
# package updates just comment it out with a single '#' character.
#
# Packages should modify this file by using update-inetd(8)
#
# <service_name> <sock_type> <proto> <flags> <user> <server_path> <args>
#
#:INTERNAL: Internal services
#discard		stream	tcp	nowait	root	internal
#discard		dgram	udp	wait	root	internal
#daytime		stream	tcp	nowait	root	internal
#time		stream	tcp	nowait	root	internal

#:STANDARD: These are standard services.

#:BSD: Shell, login, exec and talk are BSD protocols.

#:MAIL: Mail, news and uucp services.

#:INFO: Info services

#:BOOT: TFTP service is provided primarily for booting.  Most sites
#       run this only on machines acting as "boot servers."
#tftp		dgram	udp4	wait	nobody /usr/sbin/tcpd /usr/sbin/in.tftpd --tftpd-timeout 300 --retry-timeout 5 --mcast-port 1758 --mcast-addr 239.239.239.0-255 --mcast-ttl 1 --maxthread 100 --verbose=5 /srv/tftp

#:RPC: RPC based services

#:HAM-RADIO: amateur-radio services

#:OTHER: Other services

#tftp        dgram   udp wait    nobody  /usr/sbin/tcpd  /usr/sbin/in.tftpd /home
tftp        dgram   udp wait    nobody  /usr/sbin/tcpd  /usr/sbin/in.tftpd /

     四、给部门的各个员工在/home目录下分配账户

     主要使用adduser命令,会提示为每个账号分配密码。

五、配置Samba服务

     为第四步的普通用户创建Samba服务,使其可以在windows下共享自己在Ubuntu12.04下/home目录的普通用户目录。

     安装samba,命令如下:

     samba的安装

  sudo apt-get install samba     sudo apt-get install smbfs

   修改/etc/samba/smb.conf 配置文件。

    可以参照这篇博文:实战Ubuntu 12.04 配置Samba共享服务

     我的/etc/samba/smb.conf配置文件如下:

#
# Sample configuration file for the Samba suite for Debian GNU/Linux.
#
#
# This is the main Samba configuration file. You should read the
# smb.conf(5) manual page in order to understand the options listed
# here. Samba has a huge number of configurable options most of which 
# are not shown in this example
#
# Some options that are often worth tuning have been included as
# commented-out examples in this file.
#  - When such options are commented with ";", the proposed setting
#    differs from the default Samba behaviour
#  - When commented with "#", the proposed setting is the default
#    behaviour of Samba but the option is considered important
#    enough to be mentioned here
#
# NOTE: Whenever you modify this file you should run the command
# "testparm" to check that you have not made any basic syntactic 
# errors. 
# A well-established practice is to name the original file
# "smb.conf.master" and create the "real" config file with
# testparm -s smb.conf.master >smb.conf
# This minimizes the size of the really used smb.conf file
# which, according to the Samba Team, impacts performance
# However, use this with caution if your smb.conf file contains nested
# "include" statements. See Debian bug #483187 for a case
# where using a master file is not a good idea.
#

#======================= Global Settings =======================

[global]

## Browsing/Identification ###

# Change this to the workgroup/NT-domain name your Samba server will part of
	workgroup = CSDN_WorkGroup

# server string is the equivalent of the NT Description field
	server string = MyServer

# Windows Internet Name Serving Support Section:
# WINS Support - Tells the NMBD component of Samba to enable its WINS Server
#   wins support = no

# WINS Server - Tells the NMBD components of Samba to be a WINS Client
# Note: Samba can be either a WINS Server, or a WINS Client, but NOT both
;   wins server = w.x.y.z

# This will prevent nmbd to search for NetBIOS names through DNS.
	dns proxy = no

# What naming service and in what order should we use to resolve host names
# to IP addresses
;   name resolve order = lmhosts host wins bcast

#### Networking ####

# The specific set of interfaces / networks to bind to
# This can be either the interface name or an IP address/netmask;
# interface names are normally preferred
;   interfaces = 127.0.0.0/8 eth0

# Only bind to the named interfaces and/or networks; you must use the
# 'interfaces' option above to use this.
# It is recommended that you enable this feature if your Samba machine is
# not protected by a firewall or is a firewall itself.  However, this
# option cannot handle dynamic or non-broadcast interfaces correctly.
;   bind interfaces only = yes



#### Debugging/Accounting ####

# This tells Samba to use a separate log file for each machine
# that connects
	log file = /var/log/samba/log.%m

# Cap the size of the individual log files (in KiB).
	max log size = 1000

# If you want Samba to only log through syslog then set the following
# parameter to 'yes'.
#   syslog only = no

# We want Samba to log a minimum amount of information to syslog. Everything
# should go to /var/log/samba/log.{smbd,nmbd} instead. If you want to log
# through syslog you should set the following parameter to something higher.
	syslog = 0

# Do something sensible when Samba crashes: mail the admin a backtrace
	panic action = /usr/share/samba/panic-action %d


####### Authentication #######

# "security = user" is always a good idea. This will require a Unix account
# in this server for every user accessing the server. See
# /usr/share/doc/samba-doc/htmldocs/Samba3-HOWTO/ServerType.html
# in the samba-doc package for details.
	security = user

# You may wish to use password encryption.  See the section on
# 'encrypt passwords' in the smb.conf(5) manpage before enabling.
;	encrypt passwords = yes

# If you are using encrypted passwords, Samba will need to know what
# password database type you are using.  
;	passdb backend = tdbsam

	obey pam restrictions = yes

# This boolean parameter controls whether Samba attempts to sync the Unix
# password with the SMB password when the encrypted SMB password in the
# passdb is changed.
	unix password sync = yes

# For Unix password sync to work on a Debian GNU/Linux system, the following
# parameters must be set (thanks to Ian Kahan <<kahan@informatik.tu-muenchen.de> for
# sending the correct chat script for the passwd program in Debian Sarge).
	passwd program = /usr/bin/passwd %u
	passwd chat = *Enter\snew\s*\spassword:* %n\n *Retype\snew\s*\spassword:* %n\n *password\supdated\ssuccessfully* .

# This boolean controls whether PAM will be used for password changes
# when requested by an SMB client instead of the program listed in
# 'passwd program'. The default is 'no'.
	pam password change = yes

# This option controls how unsuccessful authentication attempts are mapped
# to anonymous connections
	map to guest = bad user

########## Domains ###########

# Is this machine able to authenticate users. Both PDC and BDC
# must have this setting enabled. If you are the BDC you must
# change the 'domain master' setting to no
#
;   domain logons = yes
#
# The following setting only takes effect if 'domain logons' is set
# It specifies the location of the user's profile directory
# from the client point of view)
# The following required a [profiles] share to be setup on the
# samba server (see below)
;   logon path = \\%N\profiles\%U
# Another common choice is storing the profile in the user's home directory
# (this is Samba's default)
#   logon path = \\%N\%U\profile

# The following setting only takes effect if 'domain logons' is set
# It specifies the location of a user's home directory (from the client
# point of view)
;   logon drive = H:
#   logon home = \\%N\%U

# The following setting only takes effect if 'domain logons' is set
# It specifies the script to run during logon. The script must be stored
# in the [netlogon] share
# NOTE: Must be store in 'DOS' file format convention
;   logon script = logon.cmd

# This allows Unix users to be created on the domain controller via the SAMR
# RPC pipe.  The example command creates a user account with a disabled Unix
# password; please adapt to your needs
; add user script = /usr/sbin/adduser --quiet --disabled-password --gecos "" %u

# This allows machine accounts to be created on the domain controller via the 
# SAMR RPC pipe.  
# The following assumes a "machines" group exists on the system
; add machine script  = /usr/sbin/useradd -g machines -c "%u machine account" -d /var/lib/samba -s /bin/false %u

# This allows Unix groups to be created on the domain controller via the SAMR
# RPC pipe.  
; add group script = /usr/sbin/addgroup --force-badname %g

########## Printing ##########

# If you want to automatically load your printer list rather
# than setting them up individually then you'll need this
#   load printers = yes

# lpr(ng) printing. You may wish to override the location of the
# printcap file
;   printing = bsd
;   printcap name = /etc/printcap

# CUPS printing.  See also the cupsaddsmb(8) manpage in the
# cupsys-client package.
;	printing = cups
;   printcap name = cups

############ Misc ############

# Using the following line enables you to customise your configuration
# on a per machine basis. The %m gets replaced with the netbios name
# of the machine that is connecting
;   include = /home/samba/etc/smb.conf.%m

# Most people will find that this option gives better performance.
# See smb.conf(5) and /usr/share/doc/samba-doc/htmldocs/Samba3-HOWTO/speed.html
# for details
# You may want to add the following on a Linux system:
#         SO_RCVBUF=8192 SO_SNDBUF=8192
#   socket options = TCP_NODELAY

# The following parameter is useful only if you have the linpopup package
# installed. The samba maintainer and the linpopup maintainer are
# working to ease installation and configuration of linpopup and samba.
;   message command = /bin/sh -c '/usr/bin/linpopup "%f" "%m" %s; rm %s' &

# Domain Master specifies Samba to be the Domain Master Browser. If this
# machine will be configured as a BDC (a secondary logon server), you
# must set this to 'no'; otherwise, the default behavior is recommended.
#   domain master = auto

# Some defaults for winbind (make sure you're not using the ranges
# for something else.)
;   idmap uid = 10000-20000
;   idmap gid = 10000-20000
;   template shell = /bin/bash

# The following was the default behaviour in sarge,
# but samba upstream reverted the default because it might induce
# performance issues in large organizations.
# See Debian bug #368251 for some of the consequences of *not*
# having this setting and smb.conf(5) for details.
;   winbind enum groups = yes
;   winbind enum users = yes

# Setup usershare options to enable non-root users to share folders
# with the net usershare command.

# Maximum number of usershare. 0 (default) means that usershare is disabled.
;	usershare max shares = 100

# Allow users who've been granted usershare privileges to create
# public shares, not just authenticated ones
	usershare allow guests = yes
	username map = /etc/samba/smbusers
;	guest ok = no
;	guest account = nobody

#======================= Share Definitions =======================

# Un-comment the following (and tweak the other settings below to suit)
# to enable the default home directory shares. This will share each 
# user's home director as \\server\username
[homes]
comment = Home Directories
browseable = no

# By default, the home directories are exported read-only. Change the
# next parameter to 'no' if you want to be able to write to them.
;	read only = yes
read only = no

# File creation mask is set to 0700 for security reasons. If you want to
# create files with group=rw permissions, set next parameter to 0775.
;   create mask = 0700
create mask = 0775

# Directory creation mask is set to 0700 for security reasons. If you want to
# create dirs. with group=rw permissions, set next parameter to 0775.
;   directory mask = 0700
directory mask = 0775

# By default, \\server\username shares can be connected to by anyone
# with access to the samba server. Un-comment the following parameter
# to make sure that only "username" can connect to \\server\username
# The following parameter makes sure that only "username" can connect
#
# This might need tweaking when using external authentication schemes
;   valid users = %S

# Un-comment the following and create the netlogon directory for Domain Logons
# (you need to configure Samba to act as a domain controller too.)
;[netlogon]
;   comment = Network Logon Service
;   path = /home/samba/netlogon
;   guest ok = yes
;   read only = yes

# Un-comment the following and create the profiles directory to store
# users profiles (see the "logon path" option above)
# (you need to configure Samba to act as a domain controller too.)
# The path below should be writable by all users so that their
# profile directory may be created the first time they log on
;[profiles]
;   comment = Users profiles
;   path = /home/samba/profiles
;   guest ok = no
;   browseable = no
;   create mask = 0600
;   directory mask = 0700

;[printers]
;   comment = All Printers
;   browseable = no
;   path = /var/spool/samba
;   printable = yes
;   guest ok = no
;   read only = yes
;   create mask = 0700

# Windows clients look for this share name as a source of downloadable
# printer drivers
;[print$]
;   comment = Printer Drivers
;   path = /var/lib/samba/printers
;   browseable = yes
;   read only = yes
;   guest ok = no
# Uncomment to allow remote administration of Windows print drivers.
# You may need to replace 'lpadmin' with the name of the group your
# admin users are members of.
# Please note that you also need to set appropriate Unix permissions
# to the drivers directory for these users to have write rights in it
;   write list = root, @lpadmin

# A sample share for sharing your CD-ROM with others.
;[cdrom]
;   comment = Samba server's CD-ROM
;   read only = yes
;   locking = no
;   path = /cdrom
;   guest ok = yes

# The next two parameters show how to auto-mount a CD-ROM when the
#	cdrom share is accesed. For this to work /etc/fstab must contain
#	an entry like this:
#
#       /dev/scd0   /cdrom  iso9660 defaults,noauto,ro,user   0 0
#
# The CD-ROM gets unmounted automatically after the connection to the
#
# If you don't want to use auto-mounting/unmounting make sure the CD
#	is mounted on /cdrom
#
;   preexec = /bin/mount /cdrom
;   postexec = /bin/umount /cdrom

 主要是在原来的/etc/samba/smb.conf配置文件基础上将一些默认注释的开关打开。但前提是安装好samba服务,即需要安装samba 和smbfs。

     六、安装开发相关的软件

     软件列表如下:

     1、vim

     2、subversion   

     svn客户端版本控制工具软件,安装之后可以使用svn等命令check out,或者update项目,对项目的源代码进行版本控制管理

     3、pulseaudio

     4、tftpd

      5、tftp

      6、nfs-kernel-server

      7、openbsd-inetd

      8、samba

      9、openssh-server

      可以使用sudo apt-get installvim命令安装vim编辑器,其他软件安装方法雷同。

     注意:如果使用公司代理的话注意得修改/etc/apt/apt.conf配置文件,否则不能顺利安装软件。

     七、构建scrathbox2交叉编译工具链,包括qemu,arm-gcc,rpm,kernel等。

     像这些东西最好写成Shell自动脚本,包括scrathbox环境的初始化,针对特定开发板的根文件系统rootfs制作,rpm软件打包、libtool工具等等。

     总结

     觉得搭建交叉编译服务器的难点在于:

      1、应该根据实际需求知道该安装那些软件和服务,比如通用的tftp服务、nfs服务、samba服务等等。

      2、知道针对以上服务如何修改配置文件,这个也是难点,需要有经验的人加以指导或者上网找相关的资料。

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