Linux内存管理 (10)缺页中断处理【转】

转自:https://www.cnblogs.com/arnoldlu/p/8335475.html

专题:Linux内存管理专题

关键词:数据异常、缺页中断、匿名页面、文件映射页面、写时复制页面、swap页面。

malloc()和mmap()等内存分配函数,在分配时只是建立了进程虚拟地址空间,并没有分配虚拟内存对应的物理内存。

当进程访问这些没有建立映射关系的虚拟内存时,处理器自动触发一个缺页异常。

缺页异常是Linux内存管理中最复杂和重要的一部分,需要考虑很多相关细节,包括匿名页面、KSM页面、page cache页面、写时复制、私有映射和共享映射等。

首先ARMv7-A缺页异常介绍了从数据异常产生到,具体处理函数的流程;

do_page_fault是缺页中断处理的核心函数,后面几章都围绕它展开;

匿名页面缺页中断文件映射缺页中断写时复制分别针对不同情况进行了处理。

此处欠一张缺页中断流程图。

1. ARMv7-A缺页异常

当有中断到来时,硬件会做一些处理;对于软件来说,要做的事情是从中断向量表开始。

__vectors_start是中断异常处理的起点,具体到缺页异常路径是:

__vectors_start-->vector_dabt-->__dabt_usr/__dabt_svc-->dabt_helper-->v7_early_abort-->do_DataAbort-->fsr_info-->do_translation_fault/do_page_fault/do_sect_fault。

重点是do_page_fault。

    .section .vectors, "ax", %progbits
__vectors_start:
    W(b)    vector_rst
    W(b)    vector_und
    W(ldr)    pc, __vectors_start + 0x1000
    W(b)    vector_pabt
    W(b)    vector_dabt--------------------------数据异常向量
    W(b)    vector_addrexcptn
    W(b)    vector_irq
    W(b)    vector_fiq

data abort只能出现在user mode和svc mode两种模式下,其他模式下无效。

两者都通过dabt_helper进行处理。

/*
 * Data abort dispatcher
 * Enter in ABT mode, spsr = USR CPSR, lr = USR PC
 */
    vector_stub    dabt, ABT_MODE, 8

    .long    __dabt_usr            @  0  (USR_26 / USR_32)
    .long    __dabt_invalid            @  1  (FIQ_26 / FIQ_32)
    .long    __dabt_invalid            @  2  (IRQ_26 / IRQ_32)
    .long    __dabt_svc            @  3  (SVC_26 / SVC_32)
...

__dabt_usr:
    usr_entry
    kuser_cmpxchg_check
    mov    r2, sp
    dabt_helper
    b    ret_from_exception
 UNWIND(.fnend        )
ENDPROC(__dabt_usr)


__dabt_svc:
    svc_entry
    mov    r2, sp
    dabt_helper
 THUMB(    ldr    r5, [sp, #S_PSR]    )    @ potentially updated CPSR
    svc_exit r5                @ return from exception
 UNWIND(.fnend        )
ENDPROC(__dabt_svc)



    .macro    dabt_helper

    @
    @ Call the processor-specific abort handler:
    @
    @  r2 - pt_regs
    @  r4 - aborted context pc
    @  r5 - aborted context psr
    @
    @ The abort handler must return the aborted address in r0, and
    @ the fault status register in r1.  r9 must be preserved.
    @
#ifdef MULTI_DABORT
    ldr    ip, .LCprocfns
    mov    lr, pc
    ldr    pc, [ip, #PROCESSOR_DABT_FUNC]
#else
    bl    CPU_DABORT_HANDLER--------------------------------指向v7_early_abort
#endif
    .endm

FSR和FAR是从CP15寄存器中读取的参数:

用于系统存储管理的协处理器CP15 MCR{cond} coproc,opcode1,Rd,CRn,CRm,opcode2 MRC {cond} coproc,opcode1,Rd,CRn,CRm,opcode2 coproc 指令操作的协处理器名.标准名为pn,n,为0~15 opcode1 协处理器的特定操作码. 对于CP15寄存器来说,opcode1永远为0,不为0时,操作结果不可预知 CRd 作为目标寄存器的协处理器寄存器. CRn 存放第1个操作数的协处理器寄存器. CRm 存放第2个操作数的协处理器寄存器. (用来区分同一个编号的不同物理寄存器,当不需要提供附加信息时,指定为C0) opcode2 可选的协处理器特定操作码. (用来区分同一个编号的不同物理寄存器,当不需要提供附加信息时,指定为0) Register(寄存器) Read Write C0 ID Code (1) Unpredictable C0 Catch type(1) Unpredictable C1 Control Control C2 Translation table base Translation table base C3 Domain access control Domain access control C4 Unpredictable Unpredictable C5 Fault status(2) Fault status (2) C6 Fault address Fault address C7 Unpredictable Cache operations C8 Unpredictable TLB operations C9 Cache lockdown(2) Cache lockdown (2) C10 TLB lock down(2) TLB lock down(2) C11 Unpredictable Unpredictable C12 Unpredictable Unpredictable C13 Process ID Process ID C14 Unpredictable Unpredictable C15 Test configuration Test configuration

从上面的解释可知,取CP15的c6和c5放入r0和r1,分别表示FAR和FSR。

ENTRY(v7_early_abort)
    mrc    p15, 0, r1, c5, c0, 0        @ get FSR
    mrc    p15, 0, r0, c6, c0, 0        @ get FAR
...
    b    do_DataAbort
ENDPROC(v7_early_abort)

从v7_early_abort可知,addr是从CP15的c6获取,fsr是从CP15的c5获取;regs在__dabt_usr/__dabt_svc中从sp获取。

/*
 * Dispatch a data abort to the relevant handler.
 */
asmlinkage void __exception
do_DataAbort(unsigned long addr, unsigned int fsr, struct pt_regs *regs)
{
    const struct fsr_info *inf = fsr_info + fsr_fs(fsr);----------------根据fsr从fsr_info中找到对应的处理函数。
    struct siginfo info;

    if (!inf->fn(addr, fsr & ~FSR_LNX_PF, regs))------------------------根据fsr进行处理
        return;

    pr_alert("Unhandled fault: %s (0x%03x) at 0x%08lx\n",---------------下面都是无法处理的异常
        inf->name, fsr, addr);
    show_pte(current->mm, addr);

    info.si_signo = inf->sig;
    info.si_errno = 0;
    info.si_code  = inf->code;
    info.si_addr  = (void __user *)addr;
    arm_notify_die("", regs, &info, fsr, 0);
}

fsr_fs将fsr转换到fsr_info下表,从而获取对应的错误类型处理函数。

static inline int fsr_fs(unsigned int fsr)
{
    return (fsr & FSR_FS3_0) | (fsr & FSR_FS4) >> 6;------------取fsr低4位;再与fsr第11位,然后右移6位,最后再与低4位或。
}

fsr_info数组中对不同FSR类型规定了不同处理手段:

static struct fsr_info fsr_info[] = {
    /*
     * The following are the standard ARMv3 and ARMv4 aborts.  ARMv5
     * defines these to be "precise" aborts.
     */...
    { do_translation_fault,    SIGSEGV, SEGV_MAPERR,    "section translation fault"       },-----段转换错误,即找不到二级页表
    { do_bad,        SIGBUS,     0,        "external abort on linefetch"       },
    { do_page_fault,    SIGSEGV, SEGV_MAPERR,    "page translation fault"       },---------------页表错误,没有对应的物理地址
    { do_bad,        SIGBUS,     0,        "external abort on non-linefetch"  },
    { do_bad,        SIGSEGV, SEGV_ACCERR,    "section domain fault"           },
    { do_bad,        SIGBUS,     0,        "external abort on non-linefetch"  },
    { do_bad,        SIGSEGV, SEGV_ACCERR,    "page domain fault"           },
    { do_bad,        SIGBUS,     0,        "external abort on translation"       },
    { do_sect_fault,    SIGSEGV, SEGV_ACCERR,    "section permission fault"       },-------------段权限错误,二级页表权限错误
    { do_bad,        SIGBUS,     0,        "external abort on translation"       },
    { do_page_fault,    SIGSEGV, SEGV_ACCERR,    "page permission fault"           },------------页权限错误
...
}

2. do_page_fault

do_page_fault是缺页中断的核心函数,主要工作交给__do_page_fault处理,然后进行一些异常处理__do_kernel_fault和__do_user_fault。

__do_page_fault查找合适的vma,然后主要工作交给handle_mm_fault;handle_mm_fault的核心又是handle_pte_fault。

handle_pte_fault中根据也是否存在分为两类:do_fault(文件映射缺页中断)、do_anonymous_page(匿名页面缺页中断)、do_swap_page()和do_wp_page(写时复制)。

static int __kprobes
do_page_fault(unsigned long addr, unsigned int fsr, struct pt_regs *regs)
{
    struct task_struct *tsk;
    struct mm_struct *mm;
    int fault, sig, code;
    unsigned int flags = FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY | FAULT_FLAG_KILLABLE;

    if (notify_page_fault(regs, fsr))
        return 0;

    tsk = current;-------------------------------------------获取当前进程的task_struct
    mm  = tsk->mm;-------------------------------------------获取进程内存管理结构体mm_struct

    /* Enable interrupts if they were enabled in the parent context. */
    if (interrupts_enabled(regs))
        local_irq_enable();

    /*
     * If we're in an interrupt or have no user
     * context, we must not take the fault..
     */
    if (in_atomic() || !mm)----------------------------------in_atomic判断当前状态是否处于中断上下文或者禁止抢占,如果是跳转到no_context;如果当前进程没有mm,说明是一个内核线程,跳转到no_context。
        goto no_context;

    if (user_mode(regs))
        flags |= FAULT_FLAG_USER;
    if (fsr & FSR_WRITE)
        flags |= FAULT_FLAG_WRITE;

    /*
     * As per x86, we may deadlock here.  However, since the kernel only
     * validly references user space from well defined areas of the code,
     * we can bug out early if this is from code which shouldn't.
     */
    if (!down_read_trylock(&mm->mmap_sem)) {
        if (!user_mode(regs) && !search_exception_tables(regs->ARM_pc))----------发生在内核空间,且没有在exception tables查询到该地址,跳转到no_context。
            goto no_context;
retry:
        down_read(&mm->mmap_sem);---------------------------用户空间则睡眠等待锁持有者释放锁。
    } else {
        /*
         * The above down_read_trylock() might have succeeded in
         * which case, we'll have missed the might_sleep() from
         * down_read()
         */
        might_sleep();
#ifdef CONFIG_DEBUG_VM
        if (!user_mode(regs) &&
            !search_exception_tables(regs->ARM_pc))
            goto no_context;
#endif
    }

    fault = __do_page_fault(mm, addr, fsr, flags, tsk);

    /* If we need to retry but a fatal signal is pending, handle the
     * signal first. We do not need to release the mmap_sem because
     * it would already be released in __lock_page_or_retry in
     * mm/filemap.c. */
    if ((fault & VM_FAULT_RETRY) && fatal_signal_pending(current))
        return 0;

    /*
     * Major/minor page fault accounting is only done on the
     * initial attempt. If we go through a retry, it is extremely
     * likely that the page will be found in page cache at that point.
     */

    perf_sw_event(PERF_COUNT_SW_PAGE_FAULTS, 1, regs, addr);
    if (!(fault & VM_FAULT_ERROR) && flags & FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY) {
        if (fault & VM_FAULT_MAJOR) {
            tsk->maj_flt++;
            perf_sw_event(PERF_COUNT_SW_PAGE_FAULTS_MAJ, 1,
                    regs, addr);
        } else {
            tsk->min_flt++;
            perf_sw_event(PERF_COUNT_SW_PAGE_FAULTS_MIN, 1,
                    regs, addr);
        }
        if (fault & VM_FAULT_RETRY) {
            /* Clear FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY to avoid any risk
            * of starvation. */
            flags &= ~FAULT_FLAG_ALLOW_RETRY;
            flags |= FAULT_FLAG_TRIED;
            goto retry;
        }
    }

    up_read(&mm->mmap_sem);

    /*
     * Handle the "normal" case first - VM_FAULT_MAJOR / VM_FAULT_MINOR
     */
    if (likely(!(fault & (VM_FAULT_ERROR | VM_FAULT_BADMAP | VM_FAULT_BADACCESS))))----没有错误,说明缺页中断处理完成。
        return 0;

    /*
     * If we are in kernel mode at this point, we
     * have no context to handle this fault with.
     */
    if (!user_mode(regs))-----------------------------------判断CPSR寄存器的低4位,CPSR的低5位表示当前所处的模式。如果低4位位0,则处于用户态。见下面CPSRM4~M0细节。
        goto no_context;------------------------------------进行内核空间错误处理

    if (fault & VM_FAULT_OOM) {
        /*
         * We ran out of memory, call the OOM killer, and return to
         * userspace (which will retry the fault, or kill us if we
         * got oom-killed)
         */
        pagefault_out_of_memory();--------------------------进行OOM处理,然后返回。
        return 0;
    }

    if (fault & VM_FAULT_SIGBUS) {
        /*
         * We had some memory, but were unable to
         * successfully fix up this page fault.
         */
        sig = SIGBUS;
        code = BUS_ADRERR;
    } else {
        /*
         * Something tried to access memory that
         * isn't in our memory map..
         */
        sig = SIGSEGV;
        code = fault == VM_FAULT_BADACCESS ?
            SEGV_ACCERR : SEGV_MAPERR;
    }

    __do_user_fault(tsk, addr, fsr, sig, code, regs);------用户模式下错误处理,通过给用户进程发信号:SIGBUS/SIGSEGV。
    return 0;

no_context:
    __do_kernel_fault(mm, addr, fsr, regs);----------------错误发生在内核模式,如果内核无法处理,此处产生oops错误。
    return 0;
}

CPSR是当前程序状态寄存器的意思,格式如下:

其中M[4:0]的解释如下,可以看出user_mode判断的低4位,都为0即为用户模式。

M[4:0]内容

处理器模式

ARM模式可访问的寄存器

THUMB模式可访问的寄存器

0b10000

用户模式

PC,CPSR,R0~R14

PC,CPSR,R0~R7,LR,SP

0b10001

FIQ模式

PC,CPSR,SPSR_fiq,R14_fiq~R8_fiq,R0~R7

PC,CPSR,SPSR_fiq,LR_fiq,SP_fiq,R0~R7

0b10010

IRQ模式

PC,CPSR,SPSR_irq,R14_irq~R13_irq,R0~R12

PC,CPSR,SPSR_irq,LR_irq,SP_irq,R0~R7

0b10011

管理模式

PC,CPSR,SPSR_svc,R14_svc~R13_svc,R0~R12

PC,CPSR,SPSR_svc,LR_svc,SP_svc,R0~R7

0b10111

中止模式

PC,CPSR,SPSR_abt,R14_abt~R13_abt,R0~R12

PC,CPSR,SPSR_abt,LR_abt,SP_abt,R0~R7

0b11011

未定义模式

PC,CPSR,SPSR_und,R14_und~R13_und,R0~R12

PC,CPSR,SPSR_und,LR_und,SP_und,R0~R7

0b11111

系统模式

PC,CPSR,R0~R14

PC,CPSR,LR,SP,R0~R7

__do_page_fault返回VM_FAULT_XXX类型的错误。

/*
 * Different kinds of faults, as returned by handle_mm_fault().
 * Used to decide whether a process gets delivered SIGBUS or
 * just gets major/minor fault counters bumped up.
 */

#define VM_FAULT_MINOR    0 /* For backwards compat. Remove me quickly. */

#define VM_FAULT_OOM    0x0001
#define VM_FAULT_SIGBUS    0x0002
#define VM_FAULT_MAJOR    0x0004
#define VM_FAULT_WRITE    0x0008    /* Special case for get_user_pages */
#define VM_FAULT_HWPOISON 0x0010    /* Hit poisoned small page */
#define VM_FAULT_HWPOISON_LARGE 0x0020  /* Hit poisoned large page. Index encoded in upper bits */
#define VM_FAULT_SIGSEGV 0x0040

#define VM_FAULT_NOPAGE    0x0100    /* ->fault installed the pte, not return page */
#define VM_FAULT_LOCKED    0x0200    /* ->fault locked the returned page */
#define VM_FAULT_RETRY    0x0400    /* ->fault blocked, must retry */
#define VM_FAULT_FALLBACK 0x0800    /* huge page fault failed, fall back to small */

#define VM_FAULT_HWPOISON_LARGE_MASK 0xf000 /* encodes hpage index for large hwpoison */

#define VM_FAULT_ERROR    (VM_FAULT_OOM | VM_FAULT_SIGBUS | VM_FAULT_SIGSEGV | \
             VM_FAULT_HWPOISON | VM_FAULT_HWPOISON_LARGE | \
             VM_FAULT_FALLBACK)

#define VM_FAULT_BADMAP 0x010000
#define VM_FAULT_BADACCESS    0x020000

do_page_fault调用__do_page_fault,__do_page_fault首先根据addr查找VMA,然后交给handle_mm_fault进行处理。

handle_mm_fault调用__handle_mm_fault,__handle_mm_fault进行从PGD-->PUD-->PMD-->PTE的处理。对于二级映射来说,最主要的PTE的处理交给handle_pte_fault。

static int __kprobes
__do_page_fault(struct mm_struct *mm, unsigned long addr, unsigned int fsr,
        unsigned int flags, struct task_struct *tsk)
{
    struct vm_area_struct *vma;
    int fault;

    vma = find_vma(mm, addr);--------------通过addr在查找vma,如果找不到则返回VM_FAULT_BADMAP错误。
    fault = VM_FAULT_BADMAP;
    if (unlikely(!vma))
        goto out;--------------------------返回VM_FAULT_BADMAP错误类型
    if (unlikely(vma->vm_start > addr))
        goto check_stack;

    /*
     * Ok, we have a good vm_area for this
     * memory access, so we can handle it.
     */
good_area:
    if (access_error(fsr, vma)) {---------判断当前vma是否可写或者可执行,如果否则返回VM_FAULT_BADACCESS错误。
        fault = VM_FAULT_BADACCESS;
        goto out;
    }

    return handle_mm_fault(mm, vma, addr & PAGE_MASK, flags);

check_stack:
    /* Don't allow expansion below FIRST_USER_ADDRESS */
    if (vma->vm_flags & VM_GROWSDOWN &&
        addr >= FIRST_USER_ADDRESS && !expand_stack(vma, addr))
        goto good_area;
out:
    return fault;
}


/*
 * By the time we get here, we already hold the mm semaphore
 *
 * The mmap_sem may have been released depending on flags and our
 * return value.  See filemap_fault() and __lock_page_or_retry().
 */
int handle_mm_fault(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
            unsigned long address, unsigned int flags)
{
    int ret;

    __set_current_state(TASK_RUNNING);

    count_vm_event(PGFAULT);
    mem_cgroup_count_vm_event(mm, PGFAULT);

    /* do counter updates before entering really critical section. */
    check_sync_rss_stat(current);

    /*
     * Enable the memcg OOM handling for faults triggered in user
     * space.  Kernel faults are handled more gracefully.
     */
    if (flags & FAULT_FLAG_USER)
        mem_cgroup_oom_enable();

    ret = __handle_mm_fault(mm, vma, address, flags);

    if (flags & FAULT_FLAG_USER) {
        mem_cgroup_oom_disable();
                /*
                 * The task may have entered a memcg OOM situation but
                 * if the allocation error was handled gracefully (no
                 * VM_FAULT_OOM), there is no need to kill anything.
                 * Just clean up the OOM state peacefully.
                 */
                if (task_in_memcg_oom(current) && !(ret & VM_FAULT_OOM))
                        mem_cgroup_oom_synchronize(false);
    }

    return ret;
}

/*
 * By the time we get here, we already hold the mm semaphore
 *
 * The mmap_sem may have been released depending on flags and our
 * return value.  See filemap_fault() and __lock_page_or_retry().
 */
static int __handle_mm_fault(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
                 unsigned long address, unsigned int flags)
{
    pgd_t *pgd;
    pud_t *pud;
    pmd_t *pmd;
    pte_t *pte;

    if (unlikely(is_vm_hugetlb_page(vma)))
        return hugetlb_fault(mm, vma, address, flags);

    pgd = pgd_offset(mm, address);------------------------------------获取当前address在当前进程页表项PGD页面目录项。
    pud = pud_alloc(mm, pgd, address);--------------------------------获取当前address在当前进程对应PUD页表目录项。
    if (!pud)
        return VM_FAULT_OOM;
    pmd = pmd_alloc(mm, pud, address);--------------------------------找到当前地址的PMD页表目录项
    if (!pmd)
        return VM_FAULT_OOM;
    if (pmd_none(*pmd) && transparent_hugepage_enabled(vma)) {
        int ret = VM_FAULT_FALLBACK;
        if (!vma->vm_ops)
            ret = do_huge_pmd_anonymous_page(mm, vma, address,
                    pmd, flags);
        if (!(ret & VM_FAULT_FALLBACK))
            return ret;
    } else {
        pmd_t orig_pmd = *pmd;
        int ret;

        barrier();
        if (pmd_trans_huge(orig_pmd)) {
            unsigned int dirty = flags & FAULT_FLAG_WRITE;

            /*
             * If the pmd is splitting, return and retry the
             * the fault.  Alternative: wait until the split
             * is done, and goto retry.
             */
            if (pmd_trans_splitting(orig_pmd))
                return 0;

            if (pmd_protnone(orig_pmd))
                return do_huge_pmd_numa_page(mm, vma, address,
                                 orig_pmd, pmd);

            if (dirty && !pmd_write(orig_pmd)) {
                ret = do_huge_pmd_wp_page(mm, vma, address, pmd,
                              orig_pmd);
                if (!(ret & VM_FAULT_FALLBACK))
                    return ret;
            } else {
                huge_pmd_set_accessed(mm, vma, address, pmd,
                              orig_pmd, dirty);
                return 0;
            }
        }
    }

    /*
     * Use __pte_alloc instead of pte_alloc_map, because we can't
     * run pte_offset_map on the pmd, if an huge pmd could
     * materialize from under us from a different thread.
     */
    if (unlikely(pmd_none(*pmd)) &&
        unlikely(__pte_alloc(mm, vma, pmd, address)))
        return VM_FAULT_OOM;
    /* if an huge pmd materialized from under us just retry later */
    if (unlikely(pmd_trans_huge(*pmd)))
        return 0;
    /*
     * A regular pmd is established and it can't morph into a huge pmd
     * from under us anymore at this point because we hold the mmap_sem
     * read mode and khugepaged takes it in write mode. So now it's
     * safe to run pte_offset_map().
     */
    pte = pte_offset_map(pmd, address);-------------------------------根据address从pmd中获取pte指针

    return handle_pte_fault(mm, vma, address, pte, pmd, flags);
}

handle_pte_fault对各种缺页异常进行了区分,然后进行处理。

有几个关键点是区分一场类型的要点:

各种场景

缺页中断类型

处理函数

页不在内存中

pte内容为空

有vm_ops

文件映射缺页中断

do_fault

没有vm_ops

匿名页面缺页中断

do_anonymous_page

pte内容存在

页被交换到swap分区

do_swap_page

页在内存中

写时复制

do_wp_page

下面就来看一下流程:

/*
 * These routines also need to handle stuff like marking pages dirty
 * and/or accessed for architectures that don't do it in hardware (most
 * RISC architectures).  The early dirtying is also good on the i386.
 *
 * There is also a hook called "update_mmu_cache()" that architectures
 * with external mmu caches can use to update those (ie the Sparc or
 * PowerPC hashed page tables that act as extended TLBs).
 *
 * We enter with non-exclusive mmap_sem (to exclude vma changes,
 * but allow concurrent faults), and pte mapped but not yet locked.
 * We return with pte unmapped and unlocked.
 *
 * The mmap_sem may have been released depending on flags and our
 * return value.  See filemap_fault() and __lock_page_or_retry().
 */
static int handle_pte_fault(struct mm_struct *mm,
             struct vm_area_struct *vma, unsigned long address,
             pte_t *pte, pmd_t *pmd, unsigned int flags)
{
    pte_t entry;
    spinlock_t *ptl;

    /*
     * some architectures can have larger ptes than wordsize,
     * e.g.ppc44x-defconfig has CONFIG_PTE_64BIT=y and CONFIG_32BIT=y,
     * so READ_ONCE or ACCESS_ONCE cannot guarantee atomic accesses.
     * The code below just needs a consistent view for the ifs and
     * we later double check anyway with the ptl lock held. So here
     * a barrier will do.
     */
    entry = *pte;
    barrier();
    if (!pte_present(entry)) {------------------------------------------pte页表项中的L_PTE_PRESENT位没有置位,说明pte对应的物理页面不存在
        if (pte_none(entry)) {------------------------------------------pte页表项内容为空,同时pte对应物理页面也不存在
            if (vma->vm_ops) {
                if (likely(vma->vm_ops->fault))
                    return do_fault(mm, vma, address, pte,--------------vm_ops操作函数fault存在,则是文件映射页面异常中断
                            pmd, flags, entry);
            }
            return do_anonymous_page(mm, vma, address,------------------反之,vm_ops操作函数fault不存在,则是匿名页面异常中断
                         pte, pmd, flags);
        }
        return do_swap_page(mm, vma, address,---------------------------pte对应的物理页面不存在,但是pte页表项不为空,说明该页被交换到swap分区了
                    pte, pmd, flags, entry);
    }
======================================下面都是物理页面存在的情况===========================================
    if (pte_protnone(entry))
        return do_numa_page(mm, vma, address, entry, pte, pmd);

    ptl = pte_lockptr(mm, pmd);
    spin_lock(ptl);
    if (unlikely(!pte_same(*pte, entry)))
        goto unlock;
    if (flags & FAULT_FLAG_WRITE) {
        if (!pte_write(entry))------------------------------------------对只读属性的页面产生写异常,触发写时复制缺页中断
            return do_wp_page(mm, vma, address,
                    pte, pmd, ptl, entry);
        entry = pte_mkdirty(entry);
    }
    entry = pte_mkyoung(entry);
    if (ptep_set_access_flags(vma, address, pte, entry, flags & FAULT_FLAG_WRITE)) {
        update_mmu_cache(vma, address, pte);-----------------------------pte内容发生变化,需要把新的内容写入pte页表项中,并且刷新TLB和cache。
    } else {
        /*
         * This is needed only for protection faults but the arch code
         * is not yet telling us if this is a protection fault or not.
         * This still avoids useless tlb flushes for .text page faults
         * with threads.
         */
        if (flags & FAULT_FLAG_WRITE)
            flush_tlb_fix_spurious_fault(vma, address);
    }
unlock:
    pte_unmap_unlock(pte, ptl);
    return 0;
}

至此已经对缺页中断主分支进行了分析,下面几章节着重介绍三种类型的缺页中断:匿名页面、文件页面和写时复制。

3. 匿名页面缺页中断

匿名页面是相对于文件映射页面的,Linux中将所有没有关联到文件映射的页面成为匿名页面。其核心处理函数为do_anonymous_page()。

缺一张流程图

/*
 * We enter with non-exclusive mmap_sem (to exclude vma changes,
 * but allow concurrent faults), and pte mapped but not yet locked.
 * We return with mmap_sem still held, but pte unmapped and unlocked.
 */
static int do_anonymous_page(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
        unsigned long address, pte_t *page_table, pmd_t *pmd,
        unsigned int flags)
{
    struct mem_cgroup *memcg;
    struct page *page;
    spinlock_t *ptl;
    pte_t entry;

    pte_unmap(page_table);

    /* Check if we need to add a guard page to the stack */
    if (check_stack_guard_page(vma, address) < 0)
        return VM_FAULT_SIGSEGV;

    /* Use the zero-page for reads */
    if (!(flags & FAULT_FLAG_WRITE) && !mm_forbids_zeropage(mm)) {--------------如果是分配只读属性的页面,使用一个zeroed的全局页面empty_zero_page
        entry = pte_mkspecial(pfn_pte(my_zero_pfn(address),
                        vma->vm_page_prot));
        page_table = pte_offset_map_lock(mm, pmd, address, &ptl);
        if (!pte_none(*page_table))
            goto unlock;
        goto setpte;------------------------------------------------------------跳转到setpte设置硬件pte表项,把新的PTE entry设置到硬件页表中
    }

    /* Allocate our own private page. */
    if (unlikely(anon_vma_prepare(vma)))
        goto oom;
    page = alloc_zeroed_user_highpage_movable(vma, address);-------------------如果页面是可写的,分配掩码是__GFP_MOVABLE|__GFP_WAIT|__GFP_IO|__GFP_FS|__GFP_HARDWALL|__GFP_HIGHMEM。最终调用alloc_pages,优先使用高端内存。
    if (!page)
        goto oom;
    /*
     * The memory barrier inside __SetPageUptodate makes sure that
     * preceeding stores to the page contents become visible before
     * the set_pte_at() write.
     */
    __SetPageUptodate(page);

    if (mem_cgroup_try_charge(page, mm, GFP_KERNEL, &memcg))
        goto oom_free_page;

    entry = mk_pte(page, vma->vm_page_prot);
    if (vma->vm_flags & VM_WRITE)
        entry = pte_mkwrite(pte_mkdirty(entry));-------------------------------生成一个新的PTE Entry

    page_table = pte_offset_map_lock(mm, pmd, address, &ptl);
    if (!pte_none(*page_table))
        goto release;

    inc_mm_counter_fast(mm, MM_ANONPAGES);------------------------------------增加系统中匿名页面统计计数,计数类型是MM_ANONPAGES
    page_add_new_anon_rmap(page, vma, address);-------------------------------将匿名页面添加到RMAP系统中
    mem_cgroup_commit_charge(page, memcg, false);
    lru_cache_add_active_or_unevictable(page, vma);---------------------------将匿名页面添加到LRU链表中
setpte:
    set_pte_at(mm, address, page_table, entry);-------------------------------将entry设置到PTE硬件中

    /* No need to invalidate - it was non-present before */
    update_mmu_cache(vma, address, page_table);
unlock:
    pte_unmap_unlock(page_table, ptl);
    return 0;
release:
    mem_cgroup_cancel_charge(page, memcg);
    page_cache_release(page);
    goto unlock;
oom_free_page:
    page_cache_release(page);
oom:
    return VM_FAULT_OOM;
}

4. 文件映射缺页中断

文件映射缺页中断又分为三种:

  • flags中不包含FAULT_FLAG_WRITE,说明是只读异常,调用do_read_fault()
  • VMA的vm_flags没有定义VM_SHARED,说明这是一个私有文件映射,发生了写时复制COW,调用do_cow_fault()
  • 其余情况则说明是共享文件映射缺页异常,调用do_shared_fault()
/*
 * We enter with non-exclusive mmap_sem (to exclude vma changes,
 * but allow concurrent faults).
 * The mmap_sem may have been released depending on flags and our
 * return value.  See filemap_fault() and __lock_page_or_retry().
 */
static int do_fault(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
        unsigned long address, pte_t *page_table, pmd_t *pmd,
        unsigned int flags, pte_t orig_pte)
{
    pgoff_t pgoff = (((address & PAGE_MASK)
            - vma->vm_start) >> PAGE_SHIFT) + vma->vm_pgoff;

    pte_unmap(page_table);
    if (!(flags & FAULT_FLAG_WRITE))
        return do_read_fault(mm, vma, address, pmd, pgoff, flags,-------------------------只读异常
                orig_pte);
    if (!(vma->vm_flags & VM_SHARED))
        return do_cow_fault(mm, vma, address, pmd, pgoff, flags,--------------------------写时复制异常
                orig_pte);
    return do_shared_fault(mm, vma, address, pmd, pgoff, flags, orig_pte);----------------共享映射异常
}

4.1 只读文件映射缺页异常

handle_read_fault()处理只读异常FAULT_FLAG_WRITE类型的缺页异常。

static int do_read_fault(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
        unsigned long address, pmd_t *pmd,
        pgoff_t pgoff, unsigned int flags, pte_t orig_pte)
{
    struct page *fault_page;
    spinlock_t *ptl;
    pte_t *pte;
    int ret = 0;

    /*
     * Let's call ->map_pages() first and use ->fault() as fallback
     * if page by the offset is not ready to be mapped (cold cache or
     * something).
     */
    if (vma->vm_ops->map_pages && fault_around_bytes >> PAGE_SHIFT > 1) {------static unsigned long fault_around_bytes __read_mostly =rounddown_pow_of_two(65536);

4.2 私有文件写时复制COW异常

handle_cow_fault()0处理私有映射且发生写时复制COW的情况。

static int do_cow_fault(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
        unsigned long address, pmd_t *pmd,
        pgoff_t pgoff, unsigned int flags, pte_t orig_pte)
{
    struct page *fault_page, *new_page;
    struct mem_cgroup *memcg;
    spinlock_t *ptl;
    pte_t *pte;
    int ret;

    if (unlikely(anon_vma_prepare(vma)))
        return VM_FAULT_OOM;

    new_page = alloc_page_vma(GFP_HIGHUSER_MOVABLE, vma, address);----------------优先从高端内存分配可移动页面
    if (!new_page)
        return VM_FAULT_OOM;

    if (mem_cgroup_try_charge(new_page, mm, GFP_KERNEL, &memcg)) {
        page_cache_release(new_page);
        return VM_FAULT_OOM;
    }

    ret = __do_fault(vma, address, pgoff, flags, new_page, &fault_page);----------利用vma->vm_ops->fault()读取文件内容到fault_page中。
    if (unlikely(ret & (VM_FAULT_ERROR | VM_FAULT_NOPAGE | VM_FAULT_RETRY)))
        goto uncharge_out;

    if (fault_page)
        copy_user_highpage(new_page, fault_page, address, vma);-------------------将fault_page页面内容复制到新分配页面new_page中。
    __SetPageUptodate(new_page);

    pte = pte_offset_map_lock(mm, pmd, address, &ptl);
    if (unlikely(!pte_same(*pte, orig_pte))) {------------------------------------如果pte和orig_pte不一致,说明中间有人修改了pte,那么释放fault_page和new_page页面并退出。
        pte_unmap_unlock(pte, ptl);
        if (fault_page) {
            unlock_page(fault_page);
            page_cache_release(fault_page);
        } else {
            /*
             * The fault handler has no page to lock, so it holds
             * i_mmap_lock for read to protect against truncate.
             */
            i_mmap_unlock_read(vma->vm_file->f_mapping);
        }
        goto uncharge_out;
    }
    do_set_pte(vma, address, new_page, pte, true, true);-------------------------将PTE Entry设置到PTE硬件页表项pte中。
    mem_cgroup_commit_charge(new_page, memcg, false);
    lru_cache_add_active_or_unevictable(new_page, vma);--------------------------将新分配的new_page加入到LRU链表中。
    pte_unmap_unlock(pte, ptl);
    if (fault_page) {
        unlock_page(fault_page);
        page_cache_release(fault_page);-------------------------------------------释放fault_page页面
    } else {
        /*
         * The fault handler has no page to lock, so it holds
         * i_mmap_lock for read to protect against truncate.
         */
        i_mmap_unlock_read(vma->vm_file->f_mapping);
    }
    return ret;
uncharge_out:
    mem_cgroup_cancel_charge(new_page, memcg);
    page_cache_release(new_page);
    return ret;
}

4.3 共享文件缺页异常

do_shared_fault()处理共享文件映射中发生缺页异常的情况。

static int do_shared_fault(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
        unsigned long address, pmd_t *pmd,
        pgoff_t pgoff, unsigned int flags, pte_t orig_pte)
{
    struct page *fault_page;
    struct address_space *mapping;
    spinlock_t *ptl;
    pte_t *pte;
    int dirtied = 0;
    int ret, tmp;

    ret = __do_fault(vma, address, pgoff, flags, NULL, &fault_page);-----------------读取文件到fault_page中
    if (unlikely(ret & (VM_FAULT_ERROR | VM_FAULT_NOPAGE | VM_FAULT_RETRY)))
        return ret;

    /*
     * Check if the backing address space wants to know that the page is
     * about to become writable
     */
    if (vma->vm_ops->page_mkwrite) {
        unlock_page(fault_page);
        tmp = do_page_mkwrite(vma, fault_page, address);-----------------------------通知进程地址空间,fault_page将变成可写的,那么进程可能需要等待这个page的内容回写成功。
        if (unlikely(!tmp ||
                (tmp & (VM_FAULT_ERROR | VM_FAULT_NOPAGE)))) {
            page_cache_release(fault_page);
            return tmp;
        }
    }

    pte = pte_offset_map_lock(mm, pmd, address, &ptl);
    if (unlikely(!pte_same(*pte, orig_pte))) {---------------------------------------判断该异常地址对应的硬件页表项pte内容与之前的orig_pte是否一致。不一致,就需要释放fault_page。
        pte_unmap_unlock(pte, ptl);
        unlock_page(fault_page);
        page_cache_release(fault_page);
        return ret;
    }
    do_set_pte(vma, address, fault_page, pte, true, false);--------------------------利用fault_page新生成一个PTE Entry并设置到页表项pte中
    pte_unmap_unlock(pte, ptl);

    if (set_page_dirty(fault_page))--------------------------------------------------设置页面为脏
        dirtied = 1;
    /*
     * Take a local copy of the address_space - page.mapping may be zeroed
     * by truncate after unlock_page().   The address_space itself remains
     * pinned by vma->vm_file's reference.  We rely on unlock_page()'s
     * release semantics to prevent the compiler from undoing this copying.
     */
    mapping = fault_page->mapping;
    unlock_page(fault_page);
    if ((dirtied || vma->vm_ops->page_mkwrite) && mapping) {
        /*
         * Some device drivers do not set page.mapping but still
         * dirty their pages
         */
        balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited(mapping);------------------------------------每设置一页为dirty,检查是否需要回写;如需要则回写一部分页面
    }

    if (!vma->vm_ops->page_mkwrite)
        file_update_time(vma->vm_file);

    return ret;
}

5. 写时复制

do_wp_page()函数处理那些用户试图修改pte页表没有可写属性的页面,它新分配一个页面并且复制旧页面内容到新的页面中。

欠一张图

/*
 * This routine handles present pages, when users try to write
 * to a shared page. It is done by copying the page to a new address
 * and decrementing the shared-page counter for the old page.
 */
static int do_wp_page(struct mm_struct *mm, struct vm_area_struct *vma,
        unsigned long address, pte_t *page_table, pmd_t *pmd,
        spinlock_t *ptl, pte_t orig_pte)
    __releases(ptl)
{
    struct page *old_page, *new_page = NULL;
    pte_t entry;
    int ret = 0;
    int page_mkwrite = 0;
    bool dirty_shared = false;
    unsigned long mmun_start = 0;    /* For mmu_notifiers */
    unsigned long mmun_end = 0;    /* For mmu_notifiers */
    struct mem_cgroup *memcg;

    old_page = vm_normal_page(vma, address, orig_pte);--------------------------查找缺页异常地址address对应页面的struct page数据结构,返回normal mapping页面。
    if (!old_page) {------------------------------------------------------------如果返回old_page为NULL,说明这时一个special mapping页面。
        /*
         * VM_MIXEDMAP !pfn_valid() case, or VM_SOFTDIRTY clear on a
         * VM_PFNMAP VMA.
         *
         * We should not cow pages in a shared writeable mapping.
         * Just mark the pages writable as we can't do any dirty
         * accounting on raw pfn maps.
         */
        if ((vma->vm_flags & (VM_WRITE|VM_SHARED)) ==
                     (VM_WRITE|VM_SHARED))
            goto reuse;
        goto gotten;
    }

    /*
     * Take out anonymous pages first, anonymous shared vmas are
     * not dirty accountable.
     */
    if (PageAnon(old_page) && !PageKsm(old_page)) {-----------------------------针对匿名非KSM页面之外的情况进行进行处理,
        if (!trylock_page(old_page)) {
            page_cache_get(old_page);
            pte_unmap_unlock(page_table, ptl);
            lock_page(old_page);
            page_table = pte_offset_map_lock(mm, pmd, address,
                             &ptl);
            if (!pte_same(*page_table, orig_pte)) {
                unlock_page(old_page);
                goto unlock;
            }
            page_cache_release(old_page);
        }
        if (reuse_swap_page(old_page)) {
            /*
             * The page is all ours.  Move it to our anon_vma so
             * the rmap code will not search our parent or siblings.
             * Protected against the rmap code by the page lock.
             */
            page_move_anon_rmap(old_page, vma, address);
            unlock_page(old_page);
            goto reuse;
        }
        unlock_page(old_page);
    } else if (unlikely((vma->vm_flags & (VM_WRITE|VM_SHARED)) ==---------------处理匿名非KSM页面之外的情况
                    (VM_WRITE|VM_SHARED))) {
        page_cache_get(old_page);
        /*
         * Only catch write-faults on shared writable pages,
         * read-only shared pages can get COWed by
         * get_user_pages(.write=1, .force=1).
         */
        if (vma->vm_ops && vma->vm_ops->page_mkwrite) {
            int tmp;

            pte_unmap_unlock(page_table, ptl);
            tmp = do_page_mkwrite(vma, old_page, address);
            if (unlikely(!tmp || (tmp &
                    (VM_FAULT_ERROR | VM_FAULT_NOPAGE)))) {
                page_cache_release(old_page);
                return tmp;
            }
            /*
             * Since we dropped the lock we need to revalidate
             * the PTE as someone else may have changed it.  If
             * they did, we just return, as we can count on the
             * MMU to tell us if they didn't also make it writable.
             */
            page_table = pte_offset_map_lock(mm, pmd, address,
                             &ptl);
            if (!pte_same(*page_table, orig_pte)) {
                unlock_page(old_page);
                goto unlock;
            }
            page_mkwrite = 1;
        }

        dirty_shared = true;

reuse:
        /*
         * Clear the pages cpupid information as the existing
         * information potentially belongs to a now completely
         * unrelated process.
         */
        if (old_page)
            page_cpupid_xchg_last(old_page, (1 << LAST_CPUPID_SHIFT) - 1);

        flush_cache_page(vma, address, pte_pfn(orig_pte));
        entry = pte_mkyoung(orig_pte);
        entry = maybe_mkwrite(pte_mkdirty(entry), vma);
        if (ptep_set_access_flags(vma, address, page_table, entry,1))
            update_mmu_cache(vma, address, page_table);
        pte_unmap_unlock(page_table, ptl);
        ret |= VM_FAULT_WRITE;

        if (dirty_shared) {
            struct address_space *mapping;
            int dirtied;

            if (!page_mkwrite)
                lock_page(old_page);

            dirtied = set_page_dirty(old_page);
            VM_BUG_ON_PAGE(PageAnon(old_page), old_page);
            mapping = old_page->mapping;
            unlock_page(old_page);
            page_cache_release(old_page);

            if ((dirtied || page_mkwrite) && mapping) {
                /*
                 * Some device drivers do not set page.mapping
                 * but still dirty their pages
                 */
                balance_dirty_pages_ratelimited(mapping);
            }

            if (!page_mkwrite)
                file_update_time(vma->vm_file);
        }

        return ret;
    }

    /*
     * Ok, we need to copy. Oh, well..
     */
    page_cache_get(old_page);
gotten:------------------------------------------------------------------------表示需要新建一个页面,也就是写时复制。
    pte_unmap_unlock(page_table, ptl);

    if (unlikely(anon_vma_prepare(vma)))
        goto oom;

    if (is_zero_pfn(pte_pfn(orig_pte))) {
        new_page = alloc_zeroed_user_highpage_movable(vma, address);----------分配高端、可移动、零页面
        if (!new_page)
            goto oom;
    } else {
        new_page = alloc_page_vma(GFP_HIGHUSER_MOVABLE, vma, address);--------分配高端、可移动页面
        if (!new_page)
            goto oom;
        cow_user_page(new_page, old_page, address, vma);
    }
    __SetPageUptodate(new_page);

    if (mem_cgroup_try_charge(new_page, mm, GFP_KERNEL, &memcg))
        goto oom_free_new;

    mmun_start  = address & PAGE_MASK;
    mmun_end    = mmun_start + PAGE_SIZE;
    mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_start(mm, mmun_start, mmun_end);

    /*
     * Re-check the pte - we dropped the lock
     */
    page_table = pte_offset_map_lock(mm, pmd, address, &ptl);
    if (likely(pte_same(*page_table, orig_pte))) {
        if (old_page) {
            if (!PageAnon(old_page)) {
                dec_mm_counter_fast(mm, MM_FILEPAGES);
                inc_mm_counter_fast(mm, MM_ANONPAGES);
            }
        } else
            inc_mm_counter_fast(mm, MM_ANONPAGES);
        flush_cache_page(vma, address, pte_pfn(orig_pte));
        entry = mk_pte(new_page, vma->vm_page_prot);---------------------------利用new_page和vma生成PTE Entry
        entry = maybe_mkwrite(pte_mkdirty(entry), vma);
        /*
         * Clear the pte entry and flush it first, before updating the
         * pte with the new entry. This will avoid a race condition
         * seen in the presence of one thread doing SMC and another
         * thread doing COW.
         */
        ptep_clear_flush_notify(vma, address, page_table);
        page_add_new_anon_rmap(new_page, vma, address);------------------------把new_page添加到RMAP反向映射机制,设置页面计数_mapcount为0。
        mem_cgroup_commit_charge(new_page, memcg, false);
        lru_cache_add_active_or_unevictable(new_page, vma);--------------------把new_page添加到活跃的LRU链表中
        /*
         * We call the notify macro here because, when using secondary
         * mmu page tables (such as kvm shadow page tables), we want the
         * new page to be mapped directly into the secondary page table.
         */
        set_pte_at_notify(mm, address, page_table, entry);
        update_mmu_cache(vma, address, page_table);
        if (old_page) {
            /*
             * Only after switching the pte to the new page may
             * we remove the mapcount here. Otherwise another
             * process may come and find the rmap count decremented
             * before the pte is switched to the new page, and
             * "reuse" the old page writing into it while our pte
             * here still points into it and can be read by other
             * threads.
             *
             * The critical issue is to order this
             * page_remove_rmap with the ptp_clear_flush above.
             * Those stores are ordered by (if nothing else,)
             * the barrier present in the atomic_add_negative
             * in page_remove_rmap.
             *
             * Then the TLB flush in ptep_clear_flush ensures that
             * no process can access the old page before the
             * decremented mapcount is visible. And the old page
             * cannot be reused until after the decremented
             * mapcount is visible. So transitively, TLBs to
             * old page will be flushed before it can be reused.
             */
            page_remove_rmap(old_page);--------------------------------------_mapcount计数减1
        }

        /* Free the old page.. */
        new_page = old_page;
        ret |= VM_FAULT_WRITE;
    } else
        mem_cgroup_cancel_charge(new_page, memcg);

    if (new_page)
        page_cache_release(new_page);----------------------------------------释放new_page,这里new_page==old_page。
unlock:
    pte_unmap_unlock(page_table, ptl);
    if (mmun_end > mmun_start)
        mmu_notifier_invalidate_range_end(mm, mmun_start, mmun_end);
    if (old_page) {
        /*
         * Don't let another task, with possibly unlocked vma,
         * keep the mlocked page.
         */
        if ((ret & VM_FAULT_WRITE) && (vma->vm_flags & VM_LOCKED)) {
            lock_page(old_page);    /* LRU manipulation */
            munlock_vma_page(old_page);
            unlock_page(old_page);
        }
        page_cache_release(old_page);
    }
    return ret;
oom_free_new:
    page_cache_release(new_page);
oom:
    if (old_page)
        page_cache_release(old_page);
    return VM_FAULT_OOM;
}

联系方式:arnoldlu@qq.com

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