Python操作SQLAlchemy

SQLAlchemy是Python编程语言下的一款ORM框架,该框架建立在数据库API之上,使用关系对象映射进行数据库操作,简言之便是:将对象转换成SQL,然后使用数据API执行SQL并获取执行结果。

Dialect用于和数据API进行交流,根据配置文件的不同调用不同的数据库API,从而实现对数据库的操作,如:

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MySQL-Python mysql+mysqldb://<user>:<password>@<host>[:<port>]/<dbname> pymysql mysql+pymysql://<username>:<password>@<host>/<dbname>[?<options>] MySQL-Connector mysql+mysqlconnector://<user>:<password>@<host>[:<port>]/<dbname> cx_Oracle oracle+cx_oracle://user:pass@host:port/dbname[?key=value&key=value...] 更多详见:http://docs.sqlalchemy.org/en/latest/dialects/index.html

步骤一:

使用 Engine/ConnectionPooling/Dialect 进行数据库操作,Engine使用ConnectionPooling连接数据库,然后再通过Dialect执行SQL语句。

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#!/usr/bin/env python # -*- coding:utf-8 -*- from sqlalchemy import create_engine engine = create_engine("mysql+mysqldb://root:123@127.0.0.1:3306/s11", max_overflow=5) engine.execute( "INSERT INTO ts_test (a, b) VALUES ('2', 'v1')" ) engine.execute( "INSERT INTO ts_test (a, b) VALUES (%s, %s)", ((555, "v1"),(666, "v1"),) ) engine.execute( "INSERT INTO ts_test (a, b) VALUES (%(id)s, %(name)s)", id=999, name="v1" ) result = engine.execute('select * from ts_test') result.fetchall()

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

from sqlalchemy import create_engine


engine = create_engine("mysql+mysqldb://root:123@127.0.0.1:3306/s11", max_overflow=5)


# 事务操作
with engine.begin() as conn:
    conn.execute("insert into table (x, y, z) values (1, 2, 3)")
    conn.execute("my_special_procedure(5)")
    
    
conn = engine.connect()
# 事务操作 
with conn.begin():
       conn.execute("some statement", {'x':5, 'y':10})

注:查看数据库连接:show status like 'Threads%';

步骤二:

使用 Schema Type/SQL Expression Language/Engine/ConnectionPooling/Dialect 进行数据库操作。Engine使用Schema Type创建一个特定的结构对象,之后通过SQL Expression Language将该对象转换成SQL语句,然后通过 ConnectionPooling 连接数据库,再然后通过 Dialect 执行SQL,并获取结果。

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#!/usr/bin/env python # -*- coding:utf-8 -*- from sqlalchemy import create_engine, Table, Column, Integer, String, MetaData, ForeignKey metadata = MetaData() user = Table('user', metadata, Column('id', Integer, primary_key=True), Column('name', String(20)), ) color = Table('color', metadata, Column('id', Integer, primary_key=True), Column('name', String(20)), ) engine = create_engine("mysql+mysqldb://root:123@127.0.0.1:3306/s11", max_overflow=5) metadata.create_all(engine) # metadata.clear() # metadata.remove()

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- coding:utf-8 -*-

from sqlalchemy import create_engine, Table, Column, Integer, String, MetaData, ForeignKey

metadata = MetaData()

user = Table('user', metadata,
    Column('id', Integer, primary_key=True),
    Column('name', String(20)),
)

color = Table('color', metadata,
    Column('id', Integer, primary_key=True),
    Column('name', String(20)),
)
engine = create_engine("mysql+mysqldb://root:123@127.0.0.1:3306/s11", max_overflow=5)

conn = engine.connect()

# 创建SQL语句,INSERT INTO "user" (id, name) VALUES (:id, :name)
conn.execute(user.insert(),{'id':7,'name':'seven'})
conn.close()

# sql = user.insert().values(id=123, name='wu')
# conn.execute(sql)
# conn.close()

# sql = user.delete().where(user.c.id > 1)

# sql = user.update().values(fullname=user.c.name)
# sql = user.update().where(user.c.name == 'jack').values(name='ed')

# sql = select([user, ])
# sql = select([user.c.id, ])
# sql = select([user.c.name, color.c.name]).where(user.c.id==color.c.id)
# sql = select([user.c.name]).order_by(user.c.name)
# sql = select([user]).group_by(user.c.name)

# result = conn.execute(sql)
# print result.fetchall()
# conn.close()

更多内容详见:

http://www.jianshu.com/p/e6bba189fcbd

http://docs.sqlalchemy.org/en/latest/core/expression_api.html

注:SQLAlchemy无法修改表结构,如果需要可以使用SQLAlchemy开发者开源的另外一个软件Alembic来完成。

步骤三:

使用 ORM/Schema Type/SQL Expression Language/Engine/ConnectionPooling/Dialect 所有组件对数据进行操作。根据类创建对象,对象转换成SQL,执行SQL。

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#!/usr/bin/env python # -*- coding:utf-8 -*- from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base from sqlalchemy import Column, Integer, String from sqlalchemy.orm import sessionmaker from sqlalchemy import create_engine engine = create_engine("mysql+mysqldb://root:123@127.0.0.1:3306/s11", max_overflow=5) Base = declarative_base() class User(Base): __tablename__ = 'users' id = Column(Integer, primary_key=True) name = Column(String(50)) # 寻找Base的所有子类,按照子类的结构在数据库中生成对应的数据表信息 # Base.metadata.create_all(engine) Session = sessionmaker(bind=engine) session = Session() # ########## 增 ########## # u = User(id=2, name='sb') # session.add(u) # session.add_all([ # User(id=3, name='sb'), # User(id=4, name='sb') # ]) # session.commit() # ########## 删除 ########## # session.query(User).filter(User.id > 2).delete() # session.commit() # ########## 修改 ########## # session.query(User).filter(User.id > 2).update({'cluster_id' : 0}) # session.commit() # ########## 查 ########## # ret = session.query(User).filter_by(name='sb').first() # ret = session.query(User).filter_by(name='sb').all() # print ret # ret = session.query(User).filter(User.name.in_(['sb','bb'])).all() # print ret # ret = session.query(User.name.label('name_label')).all() # print ret,type(ret) # ret = session.query(User).order_by(User.id).all() # print ret # ret = session.query(User).order_by(User.id)[1:3] # print ret # session.commit()

更多功能参见文档,猛击这里下载PDF

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