Powershell管理IIS小结

现在微软积极地拥抱Linux平台,并推出了net core以实现跨平台技术,服务器也提供无UI的版本,以减少服务器的开销,从而提高服务器的处理能力。这系列的举动都说明微软的服务器端的改革以及来了。传统的windows平台主要还是以UI界面为中心,管理着IIS的配置。但是现在这条路已经行不通了,很多云平台也提供了无UI版本的windows服务器,因为无UI的版本更加便宜,所以这几乎成为我们的首选。是时候要掌握用命令行管理IIS了。在网上找了半天没有很好的教程,那就自己写一份吧,以后就不用再整理相关知识了,直接看这篇文章应该就可以了。

首先IIS里面管理的对象大概有:Application pool,Web site,Application,Virtual directory等等。我们就以这几个对象为核心进行分析。一般我们最常用的操作有:查看、新建、停止、运行、重启、编辑属性、重命名、移除等。所以我们就大概实现这些操作,应该可以完成我们日常的维护。命令行管理IIS的方式现在比较流行的是Powershell,还另外一种方式,我这里就不讨论了。今天我主要还是分享使用Powershell来管理IIS。

准备环境:安装powershell

powershell
Import-Module WebAdministration

1. Powershell对app pool管理

1.1 查看:

Get-ChildItem –Path IIS:\AppPools
Get-ItemProperty –Path IIS:\AppPools\MyAppPool | select *
Get-WebAppPoolState MyAppPool
try{
    $list = @()
    foreach ($webAppPool in get-childitem IIS:\AppPools\)
    {
        $name = "IIS:\AppPools\" + $webapp.name
        $item = @{}
        $IISPoolPath = "IIS:\AppPools\" + $webAppPool.name
        $item.WebAppPoolName = $webAppPool.name
        $item.IISPoolPath = $IISPoolPath
        $item.Version = (Get-ItemProperty $name managedRuntimeVersion).Value
        $item.State = (Get-WebAppPoolState -Name $webAppPool.name).Value
        $item.UserIdentityType = $webAppPool.processModel.identityType
        $item.Username = $webAppPool.processModel.userName
        $item.Password = $webAppPool.processModel.password

        $obj = New-Object PSObject -Property $item
        $list += $obj
    }

    $list | Format-Table -a -Property "WebAppPoolName", "IISPoolPath", "Version", "State", "UserIdentityType", "Username", "Password"

}catch
{
    $ExceptionMessage = "Error in Line: " + $_.Exception.Line + ". " + $_.Exception.GetType().FullName + ": " + $_.Exception.Message + " Stacktrace: " + $_.Exception.StackTrace
    $ExceptionMessage
}

1.2 新建:

New-Item –Path IIS:\AppPools\MyAppPool

1.3 停止:

Stop-WebAppPool -Name MyAppPool

1.4 运行:

Start-WebAppPool -Name MyAppPool

1.5 重启:

ReStart-WebAppPool -Name MyAppPool

1.6 编辑属性:

Get-ItemProperty –Path IIS:\AppPools\MyAppPool | select *
Set-ItemProperty -Path IIS:\AppPools\MyAppPool -Name managedRuntimeVersion -Value v4.0

1.7 重命名:

Set-ItemProperty -Path IIS:\AppPools\MyAppPool -Name name -Value MyAppPool2
Set-ItemProperty -Path IIS:\AppPools\MyAppPool2 -Name name -Value MyAppPool

1.8 移除:

Remove-WebAppPool -Name MyAppPool

2. Powershell对web sites管理

2.1 查看:

get-childitem -path IIS:
Get-IISSite
Get-IISSite MyWebApp
Get-Website
Get-Website MyWebApp
Get-Website –Name MyWebApp
get-Item IIS:\Sites\MyWebApp
Get-ItemProperty –Path IIS:\Sites\MyWebApp | select *
try{
    $allWebSites = Get-Website
    $websitelist=@()
    foreach($website in $allWebSites){
        $websitepath="IIS:\sites\"+$website.Name
        $siteItem = @{}
        $siteItem.SiteName = $website.Name
        $siteItem.AppPool = (Get-ItemProperty $websitepath | select *).applicationPool
        $siteItem.ElementTagName = (Get-ItemProperty $websitepath | select *).ElementTagName
        $obj = New-Object PSObject -Property $siteItem
        $websitelist += $obj
    }
    $websitelist | Format-Table -a -Property "SiteName", "AppPool", "ElementTagName"
}catch
{
    $ExceptionMessage = "Error in Line: " + $_.Exception.Line + ". " + $_.Exception.GetType().FullName + ": " + $_.Exception.Message + " Stacktrace: " + $_.Exception.StackTrace
    $ExceptionMessage
}

2.2 新建:

New-Website –Name MyWebApp –PhysicalPath D:\apidd

2.3 停止:

Stop-Website –Name MyWebApp

2.4 运行:

Start-Website –Name MyWebApp

2.5 重启:

Stop-Website –Name MyWebApp
Start-Website –Name MyWebApp

2.6 绑定:

Get-Website -Name MyWebApp
Get-WebBinding -Name MyWebApp
(Get-Website -Name MyWebApp).bindings.Collection
Set-WebBinding -Name 'MyWebApp' -BindingInformation "*:80:" -PropertyName Port -Value 81
New-WebBinding -Name MyWebApp -Protocol http -Port 82
//SSL bindings ??不确定
get-childItem IIS:SslBindings
$cert = Get-ChildItem cert:\localmachine\my
$bindingInfo = "IIS:\SSLBindings\*!445"
$cert | Set-Item -Path $bindingInfo

2.7 编辑属性:

Get-ItemProperty –Path IIS:\Sites\MyWebApp | select *
Set-ItemProperty -Path IIS:\Sites\MyWebApp -Name enabledProtocols -Value http

2.8 重命名:

Rename-Item 'IIS:\Sites\MyWebApp' 'MyWebApp2'

2.9 移除:

Remove-WebSite -Name MyWebApp2

3. Powershell对applications管理

3.1 查看:

Get-WebApplication
Get-WebApplication -Site MyWebApp
Get-WebApplication -Site MyWebApp| select *
Get-WebApplication -Name testApp
Get-WebApplication -Name testApp| select *
Get-WebConfigurationProperty -Filter "//sites/site[@name='MyWebApp']/application" -Name *
Get-WebConfigurationProperty -Filter "//sites/site[@name='MyWebApp']/application" -Name path
Get-WebConfigurationProperty -Filter "//sites/site[@name='MyWebApp']/application" -Name path | select value

3.2 新建:

New-WebApplication -Name testApp -Site 'MyWebApp' -PhysicalPath D:\apidd -ApplicationPool DefaultAppPool

3.3 编辑:

Set-WebConfigurationProperty -Filter "//sites/site[@name='MyWebApp']/application[@path='/testApp']/virtualDirectory" -Name "physicalPath" -Value "D:\apidd2"

3.4 重命名:

Set-WebConfigurationProperty -Filter "//sites/site[@name='MyWebApp']/application[@path='/testApp']" -Name "path" -Value "/testApp2"

3.5移除:

Remove-WebApplication -Name testApp2 -Site "MyWebApp"

4. Powershell对Virtual Directory管理

4.1 查看:

Get-WebVirtualDirectory -site 'MyWebApp'
Get-WebVirtualDirectory -site 'MyWebApp' -Application 'MyApp'
Get-WebConfigurationProperty -Filter "//sites/site[@name='MyWebApp']/application[@path='/']/virtualDirectory" -Name *
Get-WebConfigurationProperty -Filter "//sites/site[@name='MyWebApp']/application[@path='/']/virtualDirectory[@path='/']" -Name *
Get-WebConfigurationProperty -Filter "//sites/site[@name='MyWebApp']/application[@path='/']/virtualDirectory[@path='/']" -Name physicalPath | select value

4.2 新建:

New-WebVirtualDirectory -Site "MyWebApp" -Name "ContosoVDir" -PhysicalPath "D:\apidd2"
New-WebVirtualDirectory -Site "MyWebApp" -Application 'MyApp' -Name "ContosoVDir" -PhysicalPath "D:\apidd2"

4.3 编辑:

Set-WebConfigurationProperty -Filter "//sites/site[@name='MyWebApp']/application[@path='/']/virtualDirectory[@path='/']" -Name physicalPath -Value "D:\apidd2"

4.4 删除:

Remove-WebVirtualDirectory -Site "MyWebApp" -Application "/" -Name "ContosoVDir"
Remove-WebVirtualDirectory -Site "MyWebApp" -Application "MyApp" -Name "ContosoVDir"

5. Powershell对IIS的一些其他管理

5.1 查看PS的版本

$PSVersionTable.psversion.Major

5.2 判断当前用户是不是管理员

function IsRunAsAdministrator {
    $wid=[System.Security.Principal.WindowsIdentity]::GetCurrent()
    $prp=new-object System.Security.Principal.WindowsPrincipal($wid)
    $adm=[System.Security.Principal.WindowsBuiltInRole]::Administrator
    $isAdmin=$prp.IsInRole($adm)
    return $isAdmin
}

5.3 把ASP.NET注册在IIS里

function RegisterAspNet (){
    C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework\v4.0.30319\aspnet_regiis /ir /enable
    C:\Windows\Microsoft.NET\Framework64\v4.0.30319\aspnet_regiis /ir /enable
}

5.4 设置IIS里面的MIME

function SetCustomMIME (){
    Add-Webconfigurationproperty //staticContent -name collection -value @{fileExtension='.otf'; mimeType='application/octet-stream'}
}

5.5 设置Response header,参考下面的链接

https://gallery.technet.microsoft.com/scriptcenter/PowerShell-Add-custom-HTTP-786d9dd2

6. 本文参考的网上资料

https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/powershell/module/webadminstration/?view=winserver2012-ps

最后提一句Get-WebConfigurationProperty和Set-WebConfigurationProperty是非常强大的命令,需要配合IIS的配置文件进行使用。IIS的配置文件:

C:\Windows\System32\inetsrv\Config\applicationHost.config

谢谢观看!

本文分享自微信公众号 - 明丰随笔(liumingfengwx2)

原文出处及转载信息见文内详细说明,如有侵权,请联系 yunjia_community@tencent.com 删除。

原始发表时间:2019-04-28

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