网络远程唤醒 WOL Magic Packet

转自:https://www.cnblogs.com/dcb3688/p/4608063.html

Magic Packet

Magic Packet白皮书介绍:

  The basic technical details of Magic Packet Technologyare simple and easy to understand. There is also a sec-ond set of details, which will be implementation spe-cific. In other words, silicon- or gate-levelimplementations of Magic Packet Technology may dif-fer from AMD's approach and be completely interoper-able, as long as the basic feature set is maintained.

https://wenku.baidu.com/view/d5a3282e453610661ed9f487.html

 AMD公司出的网络唤醒协议,即发送远程唤醒数据包,Magic Packet虽然只是AMD公司所开发的一项技术,但是受到了几乎所有网卡制造商的支持,因此,大多数流行网卡都能与之很好地兼容。(2010年后生产的主板)

WOL原理

WOL(Wake on Lan),即局域网唤醒,从根本上来说是硬件设备提供的一项管理功能,该功能可以当电脑处于关机或休眠状态时,通过给网卡发送特定的数据包从而命令网卡向主板发送开机指令,进而实现上电开机.可见,网络唤醒需要硬件(主要是主板和网卡)的支持.

硬件设置

进入BIOS,将“Power Management Setup”中的“Wake Up On LAN”或“Resume by LAN”项设置为“Enable”或“On”,类似于这样,因为主板不一样,BIOS设置位置有可能有差异

比如我的主板设置是在:Setting-Advanced-Wake up event setup - Resume By PCI-E Device 设置为Enable.

有的人说还要设置boot的第一启动项为network,我试过不需要滴!

软件设置

BIOS设置好了,硬件已经满足条件了,然后需要OS级别的软件设置

Windows设置:

设备管理器-网卡设备-属性-高级, 在列表里能找到“Wakeup Capabilities(唤醒功能)”设置值为“MagicPacket”或”Both”.

Linux设置:

先通过 ifconfig 查看要wol的网卡.

这里需要说下,好多网友说没有eth0, 对! 我也没有这个网卡的信息,因为你用的肯定是Ubuntu的衍生版,在Ubuntu 16.04之后以太网卡名称由eth0,变成了enp3s0,还有systemd替换掉了initd来引导系统,参考: Linux网卡命名enp3s0说明

用ethtool命令 打印网卡信息

sudo ethtool enp3s0

打印结果:

....
....
Supports Wake-on: pumbg
    Wake-on: g
    Current message level: 0x00000033 (51)
                   drv probe ifdown ifup

Wake-on 参数:

d 表示禁用disable

g表示启用great

如果wake-on参数为d就要启用wol, 启用命令:

sudo ethtool -s enp3s0 wol g

必须要用sudo 管理员权限否则会提示: Cannot get current wake-on-lan settings: Operation not permitted

-s 参数是修改以太网设备设置

supports wake-on 中的参数

p Wake on phy activityu Wake on unicast messagesm Wake on multicast messagesb Wake on broadcast messagesa Wake on AR

获取MAC地址

Windows 直接在网络设备-属性里面, linux使用ifconfig 命令查看

例如linux:

enp3s0: flags=4163<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 192.168.1.213  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 192.168.1.255
        inet6 fe80::a680:65a4:a006:5bbc  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether d8:cb:8a:3f:32:d2  txqueuelen 1000  (以太网)
        RX packets 890331  bytes 1003253740 (1.0 GB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 555010  bytes 73345907 (73.3 MB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

网络唤醒

到这;已经有了BIOS的支持,有了OS wake-on的支持,又知道了MAC地址,说明被控制(唤醒)机已经Ready了.

局域网唤醒

现在我们需要局域网的电脑或者设备去访问,访问不是随随便便访问的,因为Magic Packet是一种协议规则,必须要用规则发送,关于规则可看下一个段落解析Magic Packet包

我们用GUI工具去访问,常用的WOL工具有

WakeOnLanGui

下载地址:https://www.depicus.com/wake-on-lan/wake-on-lan-gui

WakeMeOnLan

下载地址:http://wakemeonlan.findmysoft.com

参数IP地址,MAC地址,任意一个端口号,IP地址也可以直接填写255.255.255.255

Linux下我没有找到GUI工具,只有wakeonlan命令了

sudo apt install wakeonlan

唤醒目标主机:

wakeonlan d8:cb:8a:3f:32:d2

输出:

Sending magic packet to 255.255.255.255:9 with d8:cb:8a:3f:32:d2

局域网手机唤醒

在同一个局域网下,手机也可以唤醒目标主机

Android APP:

Wake On Lan

下载地址:https://dl.iplaysoft.com/files/3869.html

iphone APP:

RemoteBoot

下载地址:appstore自己搜.....

准备放大招了!!!!!

互联网远程唤醒

虽然 WOL (Wake on Lan) 网络唤醒原本的设计就是 LAN 局域网环境下使用的,但其实我们也是可以想办法让其在 WAN 广域网 (即互联网) 下使用——Wake On Wan。这样,在公司唤醒家里的电脑(在家唤醒公司电脑...........)

第一步:设置端口映射(虚拟服务器)

因为广域网不知道我们局域网内对应的主机是哪一个,所以只访问外网的IP不会把Magic Packet包发到局域网指定的电脑上.我们需要路由器端口映射的支持

登陆路由器找到 传输控制-NAT设置-虚拟服务器

路由器必须为顶级路由而非二级即二级以下

如果路由器LAN设置的是DHCP动态分配IP,有可能这次分配的局域网IP与重启之后局域网IP不统一(如果设备少于DHCP分配区间,IP会一直续租), 所以最好做一个静态地址分配或者IP与MAC绑定.

对于外网,如果IP是运营商固定IP可以直接使用公网IP,如果非固定IP(自动获取IP与PPPoE拨号)可以通过花生壳进行DDNS动态域名解析.使用动态域名替代公网IP.

第二步:查看公网IP

通过站长工具 http://ip.chinaz.com/ 查看对应公网IP

第三步:网络访问目标

OK! 此时,可以通过手机APP进行互联网的唤醒了,关闭WiFi,打开4G.好吧,不关WiFi也行.

当我们按BOOT时,就会通过公网IP端口映射到指定的主机,发送Magic Packet包唤醒电脑.

depicus 提供了在线远程唤醒 (现在貌似唤不起来了!!!)

https://www.depicus.com/wake-on-lan/woli

网站这样解释:

Wake on Lan Magic Packets can be sent over the Internet - why not try waking up one of your machines with our free Wake On Wan Service. Want a quick way to use this page ?

Bookmark https://www.depicus.com/wake-on-lan/woli?m=001143BDA600&i=82.110.108.30&s=255.255.255.255&p=4321 will get you straight there without the need to press those pesky send buttons.

换句话说,我们可以不用下载APP,只要保存一个书签,当需要的时候访问书签即可.

https://www.depicus.com/wake-on-lan/woli?m=d8cb8a3f32d2&i=58.37.39.82&s=255.255.255.255&p=4321

TeamViewer 自带Lan网络唤醒

在TeamViewer-其他-常规-网络设置中就有自带的Lan网络唤醒

填写公共地址IP或端口映射对应的NAT网址,手机端TeamViewer登陆对应的账户,当主机关机时我们就可以通过手机端TeamViewer唤醒电脑

解析Magic Packet包

我们已经知道,Magic Packet是一种协议规则,必须遵从规则发送,Magic Packet的包格式很简单,首先是六个FF,然后是重复十六次待唤醒电脑的MAC

FF FF FF FF FF FF d8 cb 8a 3f 32 d2 d8 cb 8a 3f 32 d2 ....... 

理论上可以在任意网络封包中打包Magic Packet,不过一般选择UDP或IPX

Python代码:

#!/usr/bin/env python
# -*- encoding: utf-8 -*-
"""
Small module for use with the wake on lan protocol.

"""
from __future__ import absolute_import
from __future__ import unicode_literals

import argparse
import socket
import struct
import re


BROADCAST_IP = '255.255.255.255'
DEFAULT_PORT = 9


def create_magic_packet(macaddress):
    """
    Create a magic packet.

    A magic packet is a packet that can be used with the for wake on lan
    protocol to wake up a computer. The packet is constructed from the
    mac address given as a parameter.

    Args:
        macaddress (str): the mac address that should be parsed into a
            magic packet.

    """
    if len(macaddress) == 12:
        pass
    elif len(macaddress) == 17:
        sep = macaddress[2]
        macaddress = macaddress.replace(sep, '')
    else:
        raise ValueError('Incorrect MAC address format')

    # Pad the synchronization stream
    data = b'FFFFFFFFFFFF' + (macaddress * 16).encode()
    send_data = b''

    # Split up the hex values in pack
    for i in range(0, len(data), 2):
        send_data += struct.pack(b'B', int(data[i: i + 2], 16))
    return send_data


def send_magic_packet(*macs, **kwargs):
    """
    Wake up computers having any of the given mac addresses.

    Wake on lan must be enabled on the host device.

    Args:
        macs (str): One or more macaddresses of machines to wake.

    Keyword Args:
        ip_address (str): the ip address of the host to send the magic packet
                     to (default "255.255.255.255")
        port (int): the port of the host to send the magic packet to
               (default 9)

    """
    packets = []
    ip = kwargs.pop('ip_address', BROADCAST_IP)

    port = kwargs.pop('port', DEFAULT_PORT)
    for k in kwargs:
        raise TypeError('send_magic_packet() got an unexpected keyword '
                        'argument {!r}'.format(k))



    for mac in macs:
        packet = create_magic_packet(mac)
        packets.append(packet)

    sock = socket.socket(socket.AF_INET, socket.SOCK_DGRAM)
    sock.setsockopt(socket.SOL_SOCKET, socket.SO_BROADCAST, 1)

    # 如果输入的是域名,将域名转换为IP
    ipv4_regex = re.compile(r'(?:25[0-5]|2[0-4]\d|[0-1]?\d?\d)(?:\.(?:25[0-5]|2[0-4]\d|[0-1]?\d?\d)){3}',re.IGNORECASE)
    if not ipv4_regex.match(ip):
        ip=socket.gethostbyname(ip)
    sock.connect((ip, port))
    for packet in packets:
        sock.send(packet)
    sock.close()
    print('sent to '+ip)


def main(argv=None):
    """
    Run wake on lan as a CLI application.

    """
    parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(
        description='Wake one or more computers using the wake on lan'
                    ' protocol.')
    parser.add_argument(
        'macs',
        metavar='mac address',
        nargs='+',
        help='The mac addresses or of the computers you are trying to wake.')
    parser.add_argument(
        '-i',
        metavar='ip',
        default=BROADCAST_IP,
        help='The ip address of the host to send the magic packet to.'
             ' (default {})'.format(BROADCAST_IP))
    parser.add_argument(
        '-p',
        metavar='port',
        type=int,
        default=DEFAULT_PORT,
        help='The port of the host to send the magic packet to (default 9)')
    args = parser.parse_args(argv)
    send_magic_packet(*args.macs, ip_address=args.i, port=args.p)


if __name__ == '__main__':  # pragma: nocover
    main()

terminal执行:

python3 WakeOnWan.py -i test.tpddns.cn -p 9  d8:cb:8a:3f:32:d2
python3 WakeOnWan.py -i 192.168.1.105 -p 9  d8:cb:8a:3f:32:d2

C++ 代码:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/socket.h>
#include <netinet/in.h>
#include <arpa/inet.h>
#include <netdb.h>

void fill_magic_buf(void *magic_buf, void *mac)
{
        int i;
        char *ptr;

        ptr = magic_buf;
        memset(ptr, 0xFF, 6);
        ptr += 6;

        for(i = 0; i < 16; ++i) {
                memcpy(ptr, mac, 6);
                ptr += 6;
        }
}

void usage(void)
{
        printf("usage...\n");
}

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
        int s;
        int packet_num = 10;
        char c;

        unsigned char mac[6] = {0x00, 0x1A, 0x92, 0xE5, 0x1B, 0xA7};
        char dstip[256] = "192.168.9.180";
        int port = 9;

        struct sockaddr_in address;
        char magic_buf[6 + 6 * 16] = {0};

        daemon(0,0);    /* run in background */

        while((c = getopt(argc, argv, "d:m:p:")) != -1) {
                switch(c) {
                case 'd':
                        strcpy(dstip, optarg);
                        break;
                case 'm':
                        sscanf(optarg, "%x:%x:%x:%x:%x:%x",
                                (unsigned int*)&mac[0], (unsigned int*)&mac[1],
                                (unsigned int*)&mac[2], (unsigned int*)&mac[3],
                                (unsigned int*)&mac[4], (unsigned int*)&mac[5]);
                        break;
                case 'p':
                        port = atoi(optarg);
                        break;
                default:
                        usage();
                        return -1;
                }
        }

        s = socket(AF_INET, SOCK_DGRAM, 0);

        if (s == -1) {
                perror("Opening socket");
                exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
        }

        memset(&address, 0, sizeof(struct sockaddr_in));
        address.sin_family = AF_INET;
        address.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr(dstip);
        address.sin_port = htons(port);

        fill_magic_buf(magic_buf, mac);

        /* ten packets. TODO: use ping to check whether the destination is on or else. */
        while (packet_num-- > 0) {
                if (sendto(s, magic_buf, sizeof(magic_buf), 0,
                     (struct sockaddr *)&address, sizeof(address)) < 0) {
                        printf("sendto\n");
                        exit(EXIT_FAILURE);
                }
                sleep(1);
        }

        exit(EXIT_SUCCESS);
}

注意事项

1: 如果电脑非正常关机(比如按Power键来强制关机)还是无法WOL的,只有正常关机后,网卡仍会处于活动状态可以接收网络数据

2:如果是外网IP访问,路由器做端口映射必须要是顶级接入的路由器,因为二级以下NAT只能在是内网映射

3:Linux设置wol的时候,重启后enp3s0的设置又恢复Wake-on: d 状态, 写个脚本让开机执行 (Ubuntu18.04已修复)

在~/.profile 文件中添加

.config/wol.sh

wol.sh

#!/bin/sh
echo "12345678" | sudo -S ethtool -s enp3s0 wol g

-S表示bash脚本免输密码,参考: bash脚本,自动输入sudo的密码

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