专栏首页浊酒清味Science《科学》| 澳大利亚新感染艾滋病人数继续稳步下降

Science《科学》| 澳大利亚新感染艾滋病人数继续稳步下降

Australia continues to see steady drop in new HIV infections

Australia continues to be at the forefront of reversing the increase in HIV infections, with a study released today showing that the number of new diagnoses in 2018 dropped 13% year-on-year, to 835 cases. The pace of the decline more than doubled from the previous year, according to the Kirby Institute for Infection and Immunity in Society at the University of New South Wales in Sydney. New infections are at the lowest level in 18 years and the decline is seen across the country, says Rebecca Guy, a Kirby Institute epidemiologist.

澳大利亚继续走在扭转艾滋病毒感染增加趋势的前列。今天公布的一项研究显示,2018年新诊断病例数量同比下降13%,至835例。悉尼新南威尔士大学柯比社会感染和免疫研究所(Kirby Institute for Infection and Immunity in Society at The University of New South Wales in Sydney)的数据显示,这种下降的速度比前一年增加了一倍多。Kirby研究所流行病学家丽贝卡•盖伊(Rebecca Guy)表示,新增感染病例处于18年来的最低水平,全国范围内都在下降。

forefront['fɔːfrʌnt] 美 ['fɔːrfrʌnt] n. 最前列;最前线

Women have always been at the forefront of the Green movement.

妇女总是在环境保护运动的最前列。

diagnose['daɪəɡnəʊz][ˌdaɪəɡ'noʊs] v.判断;诊断(疾病)

What more will you want to know to diagnose this problem?

要弄清这个问题,你还需要知道些什么?

The decline in new infections is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM), particularly those born in Australia. But that good news is tempered by a modest drop in heterosexually acquired infections, from 238 to 189, and stubbornly persistent levels of new infections in Indigenous peoples, particularly those in remote areas. “Australia is tracking toward elimination of the transmission of HIV,” Guy says, though she and others emphasize there is still much work to be done.

新感染病例的下降主要集中在与男性发生性关系的男性中,尤其是那些出生在澳大利亚的男性。但是,由于异性恋获得性感染人数从238人小幅下降至189人,以及土著居民,特别是偏远地区的土著居民中新感染人数顽固地持续上升,这一好消息的影响有所减弱。盖伊说:“澳大利亚正在努力消除艾滋病毒的传播。”不过她和其他人强调,还有很多工作要做。

tempered['tempəd]['tempəd] adj. 调和的;减弱的

A pale gleam of tempered sunlight fell through the leaves. 威力减弱的暗淡阳光从树叶间洒下来。

heterosexually[ˌhetərə'sekʃuəl][ˌhetərə'sekʃuəl] adj. 异性恋的

Some children are adopted by heterosexual couples, and a lot of those families love each other. 一些孩子被异性恋者领养,其中许多家庭成员彼此关怀。

transmission 英 [træns'mɪʃn][træns'mɪʃn] n. 传输;传播

Animals may serve as a vehicle for viral transmission. 动物可能成为病毒传播的媒介。

The downward trend in new infections among MSM has been gathering steam for several years, thanks to aggressive promotion of condom use, widely available testing, and successful efforts to get those infected quickly started on antiretroviral drugs, which drive down viral loads, making the host unlikely to pass HIV on to partners.

男同性间新感染艾滋病的下降趋势近几年来持续高涨,得益于对安全套使用的积极推,广泛的可获得的检测,以及成功的努力让这些感染者可以很快开始使用抗逆转录病毒药物,使得病毒载量降低,让宿主不太可能将艾滋病毒传递同伴。

gather steam v. 积累蒸汽;高涨

Withdrawing federal insurance is part of a broader exit strategy from the government's emergency supports for the economy, expected to gather steam this year. 从政府对经济的紧急支持中撤回联邦保险,是比较广泛的退出策略的一部份,今年经济预计会高涨。

This arsenal of tools got a big boost in April 2018, when the federal government added pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), a daily pill that protects HIV-negative people from infection, to the Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme that subsidizes the medicines. This cut the cost of PrEP from AU$10,000 per year to just AU$480 per year, according to the government-funded healthdirect website. Those qualifying for greater subsidies pay even less.

2018年4月,联邦政府将每日服用的预防艾滋病病毒(hiv)药物pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) 添加到补贴药物的药物福利计划中,这一工具库得到了大幅提升。根据政府资助的healthdirect网站,这将PrEP的成本从每年1万澳元降至每年480澳元。那些有资格获得更多补贴的人甚至支付更少费用。

subsidize['sʌbsɪdaɪz]['sʌbsɪdaɪz] vt. 给与补助金或奖助金;贿赂

The government has refused to subsidize the car industry . 政府已拒绝给汽车工业补贴。

The number of individuals taking advantage of subsidized PrEP soared from just 1980 in April 2018 to 18,530 that December. The Kirby Institute figures that 41% of at-risk Australian men were on PrEP in 2017, says Andrew Grulich, a Kirby Institute medical epidemiologist. Coverage needs to be up to 75% “if we want to keep moving toward HIV elimination,” Grulich says. PrEP uptake is lagging among MSM not born in Australia. “Gay and bisexual men from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds really need to be a target for further PrEP rollout,” he says.

享受PrEP补贴的人数从1980年4月的1980人飙升至2018年12月的18530人。柯比研究所(Kirby Institute)医学流行病学家安德鲁•格鲁里奇(Andrew Grulich)表示,柯比研究所的数据显示,2017年,41%的高危澳大利亚男性在做预防治疗。格鲁里奇说,“如果我们想继续朝着消灭艾滋病毒的目标迈进”,覆盖率需要达到75%。在非澳大利亚出生的男同性恋者中,PrEP的使用率较低。他说:“来自不同文化和语言背景的同性恋和双性恋男性确实需要成为进一步宣传的目标。”

soar[sɔː(r)][sɔːr] vi. 翱翔;高飞;猛增;

Food prices soar during the cold weather. 这个寒冷的冬季食品价格猛涨。

coverage 英 ['kʌvərɪdʒ] 美 ['kʌvərɪdʒ] n. 新闻报道;覆盖范围;承保范围

The television coverage of the event was rather sparse. 电视上对这件事报道很少。

lag 英 [læɡ] 美 [læɡ] v. 落后;减退;缓慢进行 n. 落后;时间间隔

The children always lag behind when we go for a walk. 我们出去散步时,孩子们总是落在后面。

It will be particularly challenging to drive down infections in Indigenous groups that suffer high infection rates among those who inject drugs. And diagnoses are typically made at a later stage of infection. This “very different picture” of HIV infection requires “targeted to make sure that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people are not left behind,” says James Ward, an infectious disease specialist at the South Australian Health and Medical Research Institute in Adelaide.

降低土著群体的感染率尤其具有挑战性,这些群体在注射药物的人群中感染率很高。诊断通常是在感染的晚期。位于阿德莱德的南澳大利亚健康和医学研究所的传染病专家James Ward说,这种HIV感染的“非常不同的情况”需要“有针对性的干预措施,以确保土著居民和托雷斯海峡岛民不会被落下。”

indigenous [ɪn'dɪdʒənəs] [ɪn'dɪdʒənəs] adj. 土生土长的;本地的;天生的

Indians were the indigenous inhabitants of America. 印第安人是美洲的土著居民。

inject 英 [ɪn'dʒekt] 美 [ɪn'dʒekt] v. 注射;注入;引入;插入

The nurse injected penicillin into her arm. 护士给她的胳膊注射了青霉素。

specialist 英 ['speʃəlɪst] 美 ['speʃəlɪst] n. 专家;专科医生;专食性动物

We profit from the work of the specialist. 我们从专家的工作中得到益处。

Still, “the decline we're seeing nationwide in Australia is being seen in very few other places in the world,” Grulich says. The combination of preventions—condom promotion, treatment as prevention, and PrEP—all “act together to decrease HIV infections,” he says. He is convinced that the critical component in the progress is Australia's universal health care system, which provides “free or easily affordable access to testing, to treatment, and to PrEP.”

尽管如此,格鲁里奇说:“我们在澳大利亚全国范围内看到的下降,在世界上很少有其他地方能看到。”他说,预防措施的结合——推广避孕套、将治疗作为预防措施,以及把预防措施放在首位——“共同行动以减少艾滋病毒感染”。他确信,取得进展的关键因素是澳大利亚的全民医疗保健系统,该系统提供“免费或容易负担得起的检测、治疗和准备工作”。

本文分享自微信公众号 - 浊酒清味(gh_39aead19f756)

原文出处及转载信息见文内详细说明,如有侵权,请联系 yunjia_community@tencent.com 删除。

原始发表时间:2019-07-06

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