推荐一款轻量级 HTTP/HTTPS 代理 TinyProxy

众所周知,我们常用的 Nginx / Apache 都可以很方便的用来做为正向或反向代理服务器使用。但是它们都并不支持 HTTPS 的正向代理。

Nginx 做为正向代理不支持 HTTPS 的原因是因为 Nginx 没有实现 HTTP 1.1 Connect 方法。隧道的含义大约就是帮助无法完成 TLS 握手的代理服务器透传可以完成 TLS 握手的客户端请求,而不再解析流量中的内容。

关于 Connect 和隧道技术,可详见以下文章:

•RFC 2817 (http://t.cn/EaoC0qf)

•什么是 HTTP 隧道,怎么理解 HTTP 隧道呢? (http://t.cn/EaoCveH)

今天我们来介绍一款同时支持 HTTP/HTTPS 的轻量级代理软件 TinyProxyTinyProxy 支持以下功能特性:

•支持匿名模式。•支持 HTTPS,可以通过 CONNECT 请求来转发 HTTPS 连接。•远程监视:可远程查看日志和访问信息。•负载监视:可配置成当负载达到某个程度时,拒绝新的代理请求。•访问控制:可设置特定的 IP 地址或者 IP 段才可访问。•安全:不需要 root 权限。•轻量化:只需要极小的系统资源。•支持基于 URL 的过滤。•支持透明代理。•支持多级代理。

安装 TinyProxy

1. 通过软件包安装

TinyProxy 目前已支持大多数发行版通过软件包安装,下面介绍下比较常用的几个平台的安装方式。

•CentOS / RHEL

# 需要 EPEL 仓库
$ yum install -y tinyproxy

• Ubuntu / Debian

$ sudo apt-get -y install tinyproxy

如果你使用的是其它平台,更多的安装方式可直接参考官方文档:https://tinyproxy.github.io/

2. 通过源码安装

如果你使用的平台,官方还不支持通过软件包安装。你也可以通过源码进行编译安装。

$ git clone https://github.com/tinyproxy/tinyproxy.git
$ cd tinyproxy
$ ./autogen.sh
$ ./configure
$ make
$ make install

配置 TinyProxy

TinyProxy 默认配置文件路径为 /etc/tinyproxy/tinyproxy.conf。如果你要自定义配置文件位置,可以在启动 TinyProxy 时 通过 -c 参数来指定。

$ cat /etc/tinyproxy/tinyproxy.conf

##
## tinyproxy.conf -- tinyproxy daemon configuration file
##
## This example tinyproxy.conf file contains example settings
## with explanations in comments. For decriptions of all
## parameters, see the tinproxy.conf(5) manual page.
##

#
# User/Group: This allows you to set the user and group that will be
# used for tinyproxy after the initial binding to the port has been done
# as the root user. Either the user or group name or the UID or GID
# number may be used.
#
User nobody
Group nobody

#
# Port: Specify the port which tinyproxy will listen on.  Please note
# that should you choose to run on a port lower than 1024 you will need
# to start tinyproxy using root.
#
Port 8888

#
# Listen: If you have multiple interfaces this allows you to bind to
# only one. If this is commented out, tinyproxy will bind to all
# interfaces present.
#
# Listen 192.168.0.1

#
# Bind: This allows you to specify which interface will be used for
# outgoing connections.  This is useful for multi-home'd machines where
# you want all traffic to appear outgoing from one particular interface.
#
#Bind 192.168.0.1

#
# BindSame: If enabled, tinyproxy will bind the outgoing connection to the
# ip address of the incoming connection.
#
#BindSame yes

#
# Timeout: The maximum number of seconds of inactivity a connection is
# allowed to have before it is closed by tinyproxy.
#
Timeout 600

#
# ErrorFile: Defines the HTML file to send when a given HTTP error
# occurs.  You will probably need to customize the location to your
# particular install.  The usual locations to check are:
#   /usr/local/share/tinyproxy
#   /usr/share/tinyproxy
#   /etc/tinyproxy
#
#ErrorFile 404 "/usr/share/tinyproxy/404.html"
#ErrorFile 400 "/usr/share/tinyproxy/400.html"
#ErrorFile 503 "/usr/share/tinyproxy/503.html"
#ErrorFile 403 "/usr/share/tinyproxy/403.html"
#ErrorFile 408 "/usr/share/tinyproxy/408.html"

#
# DefaultErrorFile: The HTML file that gets sent if there is no
# HTML file defined with an ErrorFile keyword for the HTTP error
# that has occured.
#
DefaultErrorFile "/usr/share/tinyproxy/default.html"

#
# StatHost: This configures the host name or IP address that is treated
# as the stat host: Whenever a request for this host is received,
# Tinyproxy will return an internal statistics page instead of
# forwarding the request to that host.  The default value of StatHost is
# tinyproxy.stats.
#
#StatHost "tinyproxy.stats"
#

#
# StatFile: The HTML file that gets sent when a request is made
# for the stathost.  If this file doesn't exist a basic page is
# hardcoded in tinyproxy.
#
StatFile "/usr/share/tinyproxy/stats.html"

#
# LogFile: Allows you to specify the location where information should
# be logged to.  If you would prefer to log to syslog, then disable this
# and enable the Syslog directive.  These directives are mutually
# exclusive. If neither Syslog nor LogFile are specified, output goes
# to stdout.
#
LogFile "/var/log/tinyproxy/tinyproxy.log"

#
# Syslog: Tell tinyproxy to use syslog instead of a logfile.  This
# option must not be enabled if the Logfile directive is being used.
# These two directives are mutually exclusive.
#
#Syslog On

#
# LogLevel: Warning
#
# Set the logging level. Allowed settings are:
#    Critical    (least verbose)
#    Error
#    Warning
#    Notice
#    Connect        (to log connections without Info's noise)
#    Info        (most verbose)
#
# The LogLevel logs from the set level and above. For example, if the
# LogLevel was set to Warning, then all log messages from Warning to
# Critical would be output, but Notice and below would be suppressed.
#
LogLevel Info

#
# PidFile: Write the PID of the main tinyproxy thread to this file so it
# can be used for signalling purposes.
# If not specified, no pidfile will be written.
#
PidFile "/var/run/tinyproxy/tinyproxy.pid"

#
# XTinyproxy: Tell Tinyproxy to include the X-Tinyproxy header, which
# contains the client's IP address.
#
#XTinyproxy Yes

#
# Upstream:
#
# Turns on upstream proxy support.
#
# The upstream rules allow you to selectively route upstream connections
# based on the host/domain of the site being accessed.
#
# Syntax: upstream type (user:pass@)ip:port ("domain")
# Or:     upstream none "domain"
# The parts in parens are optional.
# Possible types are http, socks4, socks5, none
#
# For example:
#  # connection to test domain goes through testproxy
#  upstream http testproxy:8008 ".test.domain.invalid"
#  upstream http testproxy:8008 ".our_testbed.example.com"
#  upstream http testproxy:8008 "192.168.128.0/255.255.254.0"
#
#  # upstream proxy using basic authentication
#  upstream http user:pass@testproxy:8008 ".test.domain.invalid"
#
#  # no upstream proxy for internal websites and unqualified hosts
#  upstream none ".internal.example.com"
#  upstream none "www.example.com"
#  upstream none "10.0.0.0/8"
#  upstream none "192.168.0.0/255.255.254.0"
#  upstream none "."
#
#  # connection to these boxes go through their DMZ firewalls
#  upstream http cust1_firewall:8008 "testbed_for_cust1"
#  upstream http cust2_firewall:8008 "testbed_for_cust2"
#
#  # default upstream is internet firewall
#  upstream http firewall.internal.example.com:80
#
# You may also use SOCKS4/SOCKS5 upstream proxies:
#  upstream socks4 127.0.0.1:9050
#  upstream socks5 socksproxy:1080
#
# The LAST matching rule wins the route decision.  As you can see, you
# can use a host, or a domain:
#  name     matches host exactly
#  .name    matches any host in domain "name"
#  .        matches any host with no domain (in 'empty' domain)
#  IP/bits  matches network/mask
#  IP/mask  matches network/mask
#
#Upstream http some.remote.proxy:port

#
# MaxClients: This is the absolute highest number of threads which will
# be created. In other words, only MaxClients number of clients can be
# connected at the same time.
#
MaxClients 100

#
# MinSpareServers/MaxSpareServers: These settings set the upper and
# lower limit for the number of spare servers which should be available.
#
# If the number of spare servers falls below MinSpareServers then new
# server processes will be spawned.  If the number of servers exceeds
# MaxSpareServers then the extras will be killed off.
#
MinSpareServers 5
MaxSpareServers 20

#
# StartServers: The number of servers to start initially.
#
StartServers 10

#
# MaxRequestsPerChild: The number of connections a thread will handle
# before it is killed. In practise this should be set to 0, which
# disables thread reaping. If you do notice problems with memory
# leakage, then set this to something like 10000.
#
MaxRequestsPerChild 0

#
# Allow: Customization of authorization controls. If there are any
# access control keywords then the default action is to DENY. Otherwise,
# the default action is ALLOW.
#
# The order of the controls are important. All incoming connections are
# tested against the controls based on order.
#
Allow 127.0.0.1

# BasicAuth: HTTP "Basic Authentication" for accessing the proxy.
# If there are any entries specified, access is only granted for authenticated
# users.
#BasicAuth user password

#
# AddHeader: Adds the specified headers to outgoing HTTP requests that
# Tinyproxy makes. Note that this option will not work for HTTPS
# traffic, as Tinyproxy has no control over what headers are exchanged.
#
#AddHeader "X-My-Header" "Powered by Tinyproxy"

#
# ViaProxyName: The "Via" header is required by the HTTP RFC, but using
# the real host name is a security concern.  If the following directive
# is enabled, the string supplied will be used as the host name in the
# Via header; otherwise, the server's host name will be used.
#
ViaProxyName "tinyproxy"

#
# DisableViaHeader: When this is set to yes, Tinyproxy does NOT add
# the Via header to the requests. This virtually puts Tinyproxy into
# stealth mode. Note that RFC 2616 requires proxies to set the Via
# header, so by enabling this option, you break compliance.
# Don't disable the Via header unless you know what you are doing...
#
#DisableViaHeader Yes

#
# Filter: This allows you to specify the location of the filter file.
#
Filter "/etc/tinyproxy/filter"

#
# FilterURLs: Filter based on URLs rather than domains.
#
#FilterURLs On

#
# FilterExtended: Use POSIX Extended regular expressions rather than
# basic.
#
#FilterExtended On

#
# FilterCaseSensitive: Use case sensitive regular expressions.
#
#FilterCaseSensitive On

#
# FilterDefaultDeny: Change the default policy of the filtering system.
# If this directive is commented out, or is set to "No" then the default
# policy is to allow everything which is not specifically denied by the
# filter file.
#
# However, by setting this directive to "Yes" the default policy becomes
# to deny everything which is _not_ specifically allowed by the filter
# file.
#
#FilterDefaultDeny Yes

#
# Anonymous: If an Anonymous keyword is present, then anonymous proxying
# is enabled.  The headers listed are allowed through, while all others
# are denied. If no Anonymous keyword is present, then all headers are
# allowed through.  You must include quotes around the headers.
#
# Most sites require cookies to be enabled for them to work correctly, so
# you will need to allow Cookies through if you access those sites.
#
#Anonymous "Host"
#Anonymous "Authorization"
#Anonymous "Cookie"

#
# ConnectPort: This is a list of ports allowed by tinyproxy when the
# CONNECT method is used.  To disable the CONNECT method altogether, set
# the value to 0.  If no ConnectPort line is found, all ports are
# allowed.
#
# The following two ports are used by SSL.
#
#ConnectPort 443
#ConnectPort 563

#
# Configure one or more ReversePath directives to enable reverse proxy
# support. With reverse proxying it's possible to make a number of
# sites appear as if they were part of a single site.
#
# If you uncomment the following two directives and run tinyproxy
# on your own computer at port 8888, you can access Google using
# http://localhost:8888/google/ and Wired News using
# http://localhost:8888/wired/news/. Neither will actually work
# until you uncomment ReverseMagic as they use absolute linking.
#
#ReversePath "/google/"    "http://www.google.com/"
#ReversePath "/wired/"    "http://www.wired.com/"

#
# When using tinyproxy as a reverse proxy, it is STRONGLY recommended
# that the normal proxy is turned off by uncommenting the next directive.
#
#ReverseOnly Yes

#
# Use a cookie to track reverse proxy mappings. If you need to reverse
# proxy sites which have absolute links you must uncomment this.
#
#ReverseMagic Yes

#
# The URL that's used to access this reverse proxy. The URL is used to
# rewrite HTTP redirects so that they won't escape the proxy. If you
# have a chain of reverse proxies, you'll need to put the outermost
# URL here (the address which the end user types into his/her browser).
#
# If not set then no rewriting occurs.
#
#ReverseBaseURL "http://localhost:8888/"

下面我们来看下几个主要的配置参数:

• User

指定运行 TinyProxy 的用户,默认为 nobody。

User nobody

• Group

指定运行 TinyProxy 的用户组,默认为 nobody。

Group nobody

• Listen

指定 TinyProxy 绑定的网卡接口,默认是绑定到所有可用的网卡接口的。

#Listen 192.168.0.1

如需绑定到指定网卡接口,只需去掉对应的注释并指定网卡对应 IP 地址即可。

Listen 192.168.1.100

• Port

指定 TinyProxy 的监听端口, 默认为 8888。

Port 8888

• Allow

指定可访问 TinyProxy 设备的 IP 或网段,默认仅允许本机访问。

Allow 127.0.0.1

如果你想允许所有人使用该代理,注释 Allow 选项即可。

# Allow 127.0.0.1

如果你想增加多个可访问的网段,可以用多个 Allow 选项同时定义不同网段即可。

# 添加多段 IP 地址
Allow 10.10.6.0/24
Allow 192.168.8.0/24
Allow 172.16.1.13

•BindSame 在多网卡的情况下,设置出口 IP 是否与入口 IP 相同。默认情况下是关闭的。

例如:服务器上存在 IP 1.2.3.4,当你请求该 IP 对应的 Tinyproxy 代理时,也通过 1.2.3.4 做为出口访问目标网站。

#BindSame yes

• StartServers

指定 TinyProxy 初始启动的子进程数量, 默认是 10 个。

StartServers 10

• MaxClients

设置最大客户端链接数,默认为 100。

MaxClients 100

• Logfile

指定日志文件位置, 默认为 /var/log/tinyproxy/tinyproxy.log。

LogFile /var/log/tinyproxy/tinyproxy.log

• Syslog

指定 TinyProxy 是否开启 Syslog 来记录日志,默认为关闭的。

#Syslog On

注:Logfile 和 Syslog 只能同时启用一个。如果两个都不启用的话 TinyProxy 会将日志直接输出到终端的标准输出。

• PidFile

指定 Pid 文件位置, 默认为 /var/run/tinyproxy/tinyproxy.pid,在 PidFile 文件不存在时会运行失败。

PidFile "/var/run/tinyproxy/tinyproxy.pid"

• DisableViaHeader

指定是否在 Header 中显示 Tinyproxy 相关信息,默认是关闭的。如果开启将不会在 Header 中显示 Tinyproxy 相关信息,相当于 Tinyproxy 是隐身模式。

#DisableViaHeader Yes

• Filter

指定设置过滤内容文件的位置,默认为 /etc/tinyproxy/filter。

Filter "/etc/tinyproxy/filter"

• FilterURLs

设置使用 URL 或是域名方式进行过滤,默认是基于 URL 方式过滤的。域名过滤只检查域名段,URL 过滤则检查整个 URL

FilterURLs On

• FilterExtended

设置使用 POSIX 基本或者扩展的正则表达式来匹配过滤规则,默认为使用基本的。

# FilterExtended On

• FilterCaseSensitive

设置是否使用区分大小写的正则表达式,默认为不区分大小写。

#FilterCaseSensitive On

• FilterDefaultDeny

设置默认过滤策略。如果将该指令注释掉或设为 No,过滤规则为禁止访问规则。该值默认为 Yes,过滤规则为只允许访问过滤文件中的地址。

FilterDefaultDeny Yes

过滤规则配置示例:

1. 在 /etc/tinyproxy/filter 文件中添加代理允许或拒绝的域名地址。

hi-linux.com

过滤文件中的域名地址也是支持正则表达式的。

\.google\.com$
^hi-linux\.com$

2. 仅允许代理请求 hi-linux.com 的内容,配置如下:

Filter "/etc/tinyproxy/filter"
FilterURLs On
FilterDefaultDeny Yes

3. 仅允许代理请求除 hi-linux.com 域名以外的内容,配置如下:

Filter "/etc/tinyproxy/filter"
FilterURLs On
FilterDefaultDeny No

运行 TinyProxy

• 运行 TinyProxy 非常简单,使用官方提供的脚本即可。

# 启动 TinyProxy
$ service tinyproxy start

# 停止 TinyProxy
$ service tinyproxy stop

# 重启 TinyProxy
$ service tinyproxy restart

• 如果服务器有启用防火墙,记得开放相应的 TinyProxy 端口

$ iptables -I INPUT -p tcp –dport 8888 -j ACCEPT

• 测试代理是否正常工作

$ curl --proxy 192.168.1.100:8888 -k https://www.hi-linux.com/

如果出现对应网页的源代码,则证明代理工作正常。

• 查看 TinyProxy 请求日志

$ tail -f /var/log/tinyproxy/tinyproxy.log

原文发布于微信公众号 - 运维之美(Hi-Linux)

原文发表时间:2019-04-24

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