HttpClient在多线程环境下踩坑总结

问题现场

在多线程环境下使用HttpClient组件对某个HTTP服务发起请求,运行一段时间之后发现客户端主机CPU利用率呈现出下降趋势,而不是一个稳定的状态。 而且,从程序日志中判断有线程处于hang住的状态,应该是被阻塞了。

问题排查

一开始找不到原因,怀疑是多线程并发导致的死锁问题,但是通过代码审查并未定位到任何可能的多线程并发问题。 甚至开始怀疑是否是因为内存资源不够引起JVM频繁GC到导致业务线程被暂停,但是从GC的日志输出结果看,GC是正常的。 于是,进入一种丈二和尚摸不着头脑头脑的状态,再次Review代码,发现并未设置请求超时时间,于是设置超时控制,发现问题依然存在,彻底懵逼了。 最后,dump线程堆栈和内存堆栈,再对堆栈数据进行分析。从分析结果看,确认是因为Socket连接在读取数据时被阻塞引起线程hang住。搜索“httpclient 超时”关键字,找到各式各样设置HttpClient超时控制的方式,均尝试过但是并未生效。 实际上到后来才知道,HttpCient的超时控制在不同的版本中设置请求超时参数的方式均各不相同,这才导致了我使用了网上看到的方式设置之后并未生效。当然,根本原因还是因为对HttpClient这个组件不熟悉导致的.

问题重现

1.HttpClient版本

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.httpcomponents</groupId>
    <artifactId>httpclient</artifactId>
    <version>4.5.2</version>
</dependency>

2.Java代码

public class HttpClientTest {
    private AtomicInteger counter = new AtomicInteger(0);
    private String url = "http://www.baidu.com/";

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        new HttpClientTest().test();
    }

    // 执行测试
    private void test() {
        int number = 100000; // 总请求数
        int concurrent = 50; // 每次并发请求数
        CountDownLatch countDownLatch = new CountDownLatch(number); // 计数器
        ExecutorService threadPool = Executors.newFixedThreadPool(concurrent); // 线程池
        int concurrentPer = concurrent;
        boolean over = false;
        while(!over) {
            number = number - concurrent;
            if(number <= 0) {
                concurrentPer = number + concurrent;
                over = true;
            }

            // 线程池批量提交
            for(int i = 0; i < concurrentPer; i++) {
                threadPool.execute(new Runnable() {
                    @Override
                    public void run() {
                        try {
                            request(url);
                            Thread.sleep(100);
                        } catch (IOException | InterruptedException e) {
                            e.printStackTrace();
                        } finally {
                            countDownLatch.countDown();
                        }
                    }
                });
            }
        }
        try {
            countDownLatch.await();
            threadPool.shutdown();
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }

    // 访问指定地址
    private void request(String url) throws IOException {
        HttpGet httpGet = new HttpGet(url);
        commnicate(httpGet);
    }

    // 负责底层通信处理
    private void commnicate(HttpRequestBase request) throws IOException {
        ResponseHandler<String> responseHandler = new ResponseHandler<String>() {
            @Override
            public String handleResponse(HttpResponse response) throws ClientProtocolException, IOException {
                return EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity());
            }
        };

        HttpClient client = HttpClients.createDefault();
        String body = client.execute(request, responseHandler); // 线程可能会在这里被阻塞
        System.out.println(String.format("body size: %s, counter: %s", body.length(), counter.incrementAndGet()));
    }
}

运行上述代码一段时间后很容易可以重现出问题,如下为运行控制台信息:

并且线程全部hang住,进程无法正常结束.

查看端口状态存在大量请求处于建立连接状态(ESTABLISHED):

# netstat -anpt
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:56408           180.118.128.179:56033       ESTABLISHED 3766/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:57644           115.202.238.177:27016       ESTABLISHED 3847/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:36616           117.57.21.0:25719           ESTABLISHED 3766/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:59944           112.245.197.118:57220       ESTABLISHED 3847/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:48722           218.5.215.10:40835          ESTABLISHED 4007/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:52734           115.194.17.14:45210         ESTABLISHED 4007/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:60586           59.32.37.129:16637          ESTABLISHED 3686/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:36776           222.89.86.109:21667         ESTABLISHED 3766/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:51690           60.161.249.162:59039        ESTABLISHED 3927/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:42226           58.218.200.59:80            TIME_WAIT   -                   
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:56566           117.70.47.194:40879         ESTABLISHED 3686/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:43266           182.120.202.204:45893       ESTABLISHED 3766/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:55630           60.169.223.16:21280         ESTABLISHED 3927/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:54922           60.168.81.26:25464          ESTABLISHED 3927/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:53352           112.252.97.83:53584         ESTABLISHED 3847/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:52684           113.121.242.43:14447        ESTABLISHED 3927/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:54750           113.121.241.168:45173       ESTABLISHED 3686/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:41510           113.105.202.106:47288       ESTABLISHED 4007/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:38804           121.232.148.62:57938        ESTABLISHED 3847/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:41468           113.105.202.106:47288       ESTABLISHED 3927/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:45444           123.163.81.185:22012        ESTABLISHED 3766/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:54810           113.121.241.168:45173       ESTABLISHED 4007/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:51542           175.153.23.147:20766        ESTABLISHED 3927/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:45644           218.5.215.10:40835          ESTABLISHED 4007/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:35730           116.53.197.198:30042        ESTABLISHED 3766/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:54738           113.121.241.168:45173       ESTABLISHED 3686/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:60600           59.32.37.129:16637          ESTABLISHED 3686/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:54862           113.121.241.168:45173       ESTABLISHED 4007/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:40980           115.225.153.215:17292       ESTABLISHED 3686/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:54166           123.149.162.129:18269       ESTABLISHED 3766/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:60712           120.35.190.184:33054        ESTABLISHED 3766/java           
tcp        0      0 172.17.7.81:55802           106.42.211.65:59547         ESTABLISHED 3766/java 

同时,分析线程堆栈信息(jstack -F -l pid > thread_stack.log)可以看到如下信息:

"pool-1-thread-45" #55 prio=5 os_prio=0 tid=0x00007f78702df000 nid=0x33d5 runnable [0x00007f7830c1d000]
   java.lang.Thread.State: RUNNABLE
    at java.net.SocketInputStream.socketRead0(Native Method)
    at java.net.SocketInputStream.socketRead(SocketInputStream.java:116)
    at java.net.SocketInputStream.read(SocketInputStream.java:171)
    at java.net.SocketInputStream.read(SocketInputStream.java:141)
    at org.apache.http.impl.io.SessionInputBufferImpl.streamRead(SessionInputBufferImpl.java:139)
    at org.apache.http.impl.io.SessionInputBufferImpl.fillBuffer(SessionInputBufferImpl.java:155)
    at org.apache.http.impl.io.SessionInputBufferImpl.readLine(SessionInputBufferImpl.java:284)
    at org.apache.http.impl.conn.DefaultHttpResponseParser.parseHead(DefaultHttpResponseParser.java:140)
    at org.apache.http.impl.conn.DefaultHttpResponseParser.parseHead(DefaultHttpResponseParser.java:57)
    at org.apache.http.impl.io.AbstractMessageParser.parse(AbstractMessageParser.java:261)
    at org.apache.http.impl.DefaultBHttpClientConnection.receiveResponseHeader(DefaultBHttpClientConnection.java:165)
    at org.apache.http.impl.conn.CPoolProxy.receiveResponseHeader(CPoolProxy.java:167)
    at org.apache.http.protocol.HttpRequestExecutor.doReceiveResponse(HttpRequestExecutor.java:272)
    at org.apache.http.protocol.HttpRequestExecutor.execute(HttpRequestExecutor.java:124)
    at org.apache.http.impl.execchain.MainClientExec.execute(MainClientExec.java:271)
    at org.apache.http.impl.execchain.ProtocolExec.execute(ProtocolExec.java:184)
    at org.apache.http.impl.execchain.RetryExec.execute(RetryExec.java:88)
    at org.apache.http.impl.execchain.RedirectExec.execute(RedirectExec.java:110)
    at org.apache.http.impl.client.InternalHttpClient.doExecute(InternalHttpClient.java:184)
    at org.apache.http.impl.client.CloseableHttpClient.execute(CloseableHttpClient.java:71)
    at org.apache.http.impl.client.CloseableHttpClient.execute(CloseableHttpClient.java:220)
    at org.apache.http.impl.client.CloseableHttpClient.execute(CloseableHttpClient.java:164)
    at org.apache.http.impl.client.CloseableHttpClient.execute(CloseableHttpClient.java:139)
    at org.chench.extra.HttpClientTest.commnicate(HttpClientTest.java:106) # 线程在这里阻塞
    at org.chench.extra.HttpClientTest.request(HttpClientTest.java:93)
    at org.chench.extra.HttpClientTest.access$100(HttpClientTest.java:31)
    at org.chench.extra.HttpClientTest$1.run(HttpClientTest.java:62)
    at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor.runWorker(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:1149)
    at java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker.run(ThreadPoolExecutor.java:624)
    at java.lang.Thread.run(Thread.java:748)

   Locked ownable synchronizers:
    - <0x0000000086d50638> (a java.util.concurrent.ThreadPoolExecutor$Worker)

从堆栈日志中可以看到,线程处于RUNNABLE状态,并且阻塞在at org.chench.extra.HttpClientTest.commnicate(HttpClientTest.java:106)处.

解决方案

通过线程堆栈日志分析可以定位到线程hang住是因为HttpClient在执行访问时被阻塞了,结合源代码找到阻塞原因是因为未设置请求超时时间.

上述问题本质上是因为HttpClient组件并未设置请求超时控制导致的:虽然连接超时,但是读取失败,导致线程一直被阻塞. 那么,应该如何设置HttpClient的超时时间呢?鉴于HttpClient的官方文档没有明确说明,并且不同版本的HttpClient组件设置超时控制的方式不一致,所以建议直接查看源码. HttpClient执行访问请求时序图如下:

顺藤摸瓜,在MainClientExec.javaexecute()方法中看到有2处使用了timeout参数,其含义各不相同: (1)在获取HttpClientConnection对象时需要读取配置参数中的ConnectionRequestTimeout值,该参数用于控制获取连接的超时时间.

(2)获取到HttpClientConnection对象之后读取配置参数中的SocketTimeout值,设置Socket超时时间.

显然,这2个timeout参数都需要从RequestConfig对象中获取. 既然找到了使用timeout参数的地方,下一步需要确定该参数是如何设置的.沿着HttpClient的请求时序图路径往回查找,在InternalHttpClient.java类的doExecute()方法中可以很清晰地看到设置了RequestConfig对象参数.

@Override
    protected CloseableHttpResponse doExecute(
            final HttpHost target,
            final HttpRequest request,
            final HttpContext context) throws IOException, ClientProtocolException {
        Args.notNull(request, "HTTP request");
        HttpExecutionAware execAware = null;
        if (request instanceof HttpExecutionAware) {
            execAware = (HttpExecutionAware) request;
        }
        try {
            final HttpRequestWrapper wrapper = HttpRequestWrapper.wrap(request, target);
            final HttpClientContext localcontext = HttpClientContext.adapt(
                    context != null ? context : new BasicHttpContext());
            // 通过RequestConfig对象配置连接参数
            RequestConfig config = null; 
            if (request instanceof Configurable) {
                // 如果在HttpRequest对象中设置了RequestConfig属性,直接使用
                config = ((Configurable) request).getConfig(); 
            }
            if (config == null) {
                // 如果在HttpRequest对象中未设置RequestConfig对象属性,则获取HttpParams属性构造RequestConfig对象
                final HttpParams params = request.getParams(); 
                if (params instanceof HttpParamsNames) {
                    if (!((HttpParamsNames) params).getNames().isEmpty()) {
                        config = HttpClientParamConfig.getRequestConfig(params);
                    }
                } else {
                    config = HttpClientParamConfig.getRequestConfig(params);
                }
            }
            if (config != null) {
                // 使用RequestConfig对象配置连接参数
                localcontext.setRequestConfig(config); 
            }
            setupContext(localcontext);
            final HttpRoute route = determineRoute(target, wrapper, localcontext);
            return this.execChain.execute(route, wrapper, localcontext, execAware);
        } catch (final HttpException httpException) {
            throw new ClientProtocolException(httpException);
        }
    }

(3)HttpClient默认使用的连接池为PoolingHttpClientConnectionManager,在建立连接时(connect()方法)会使用其中的SocketConfig配置参数对Socket进行配置,如下所示:

  • PoolingHttpClientConnectionManager.java
@Override
public void connect(
        final HttpClientConnection managedConn,
        final HttpRoute route,
        final int connectTimeout,
        final HttpContext context) throws IOException {
    Args.notNull(managedConn, "Managed Connection");
    Args.notNull(route, "HTTP route");
    final ManagedHttpClientConnection conn;
    synchronized (managedConn) {
        final CPoolEntry entry = CPoolProxy.getPoolEntry(managedConn);
        conn = entry.getConnection();
    }
    final HttpHost host;
    if (route.getProxyHost() != null) {
        host = route.getProxyHost();
    } else {
        host = route.getTargetHost();
    }
    final InetSocketAddress localAddress = route.getLocalSocketAddress();
    SocketConfig socketConfig = this.configData.getSocketConfig(host);
    if (socketConfig == null) {
        // 使用配置参数SocketConfig
        socketConfig = this.configData.getDefaultSocketConfig();
    }
    if (socketConfig == null) {
        socketConfig = SocketConfig.DEFAULT;
    }
    this.connectionOperator.connect(
            conn, host, localAddress, connectTimeout, socketConfig, context);
}
  • DefaultHttpClientConnectionOperator.java
@Override
    public void connect(
            final ManagedHttpClientConnection conn,
            final HttpHost host,
            final InetSocketAddress localAddress,
            final int connectTimeout,
            final SocketConfig socketConfig,
            final HttpContext context) throws IOException {
        final Lookup<ConnectionSocketFactory> registry = getSocketFactoryRegistry(context);
        final ConnectionSocketFactory sf = registry.lookup(host.getSchemeName());
        if (sf == null) {
            throw new UnsupportedSchemeException(host.getSchemeName() +
                    " protocol is not supported");
        }
        final InetAddress[] addresses = host.getAddress() != null ?
                new InetAddress[] { host.getAddress() } : this.dnsResolver.resolve(host.getHostName());
        final int port = this.schemePortResolver.resolve(host);
        for (int i = 0; i < addresses.length; i++) {
            final InetAddress address = addresses[i];
            final boolean last = i == addresses.length - 1;

            Socket sock = sf.createSocket(context);
            // 使用socketConfig参数中的超时时间对Socket进行配置
            sock.setSoTimeout(socketConfig.getSoTimeout());
            sock.setReuseAddress(socketConfig.isSoReuseAddress());
            sock.setTcpNoDelay(socketConfig.isTcpNoDelay());
            sock.setKeepAlive(socketConfig.isSoKeepAlive());
            if (socketConfig.getRcvBufSize() > 0) {
                sock.setReceiveBufferSize(socketConfig.getRcvBufSize());
            }
            if (socketConfig.getSndBufSize() > 0) {
                sock.setSendBufferSize(socketConfig.getSndBufSize());
            }

            final int linger = socketConfig.getSoLinger();
            if (linger >= 0) {
                sock.setSoLinger(true, linger);
            }
            conn.bind(sock);

            // ...
        }
    }

经过源码解读可以很明确地知道,在HttpClient 4.5.2版本中,设置连接参数有3种方式: (1)在HttpRequest对象中设置RequestConfig对象属性 (2)在HttpRequest对象中设置HttpParams对象属性. (3)在连接池对象中设置SocketConfig对象属性

既然找到了根源,下面分别通过这3种方式设置超时参数进行验证. 方式1: 通过RequestConfig对象设置超时参数

int timeOut = 5000;
RequestConfig requestConfig = RequestConfig.custom()
        .setConnectionRequestTimeout(timeOut) // 获取连接超时时间
        .setConnectTimeout(timeOut) // 设置HTTP连接超时时间
        .setSocketTimeout(timeOut) // 设置Socket超时时间
        .build();
request.setConfig(requestConfig);

方式2: 通过HttpParams对象设置超时参数

int timeOut = 5000;
HttpParams  params = new BasicHttpParams();
params.setParameter(CoreConnectionPNames.SO_TIMEOUT, timeOut);  // 设置Socket超时时间
params.setParameter(CoreConnectionPNames.CONNECTION_TIMEOUT, timeOut); // 设置HTTP连接超时时间
request.setParams(params);

方式3: 通过连接池对象设置超时参数

int timeOut = 5000;
PoolingHttpClientConnectionManager connManager = new PoolingHttpClientConnectionManager();
// 对连接池设置SocketConfig对象
connManager.setDefaultSocketConfig(SocketConfig.custom().setSoTimeout(timeOut).build());
client = HttpClients.custom().setConnectionManager(connManager).build();

通过上述3种方式分别设置超时参数验证,虽然在运行过程中会有报错,但是不会导致线程被阻塞,进程能正常运行结束:

解决问题之后客户端CPU使用率恢复正常:

总结/教训/反思

  1. 之所以会遇到这样的问题,还是因为对HttpClient组件不熟悉导致的;另外,在发现问题之后如何快速定位问题,并搜索稳定的解决方案很重要。
  2. HttpClient组件每个版本的API变化都比较大,在使用时一定要彻底清楚当前使用的版本是如何设置超时时间的。而如何确定知道超时时间控制,通过源代码查看最为妥当.
  3. 在Java平台使用Http客户端组件,可以有多个选择: (1)直接使用JDK提供的URL类访问 (2)使用HttpClient组件,有坑,不同版本设置参数的方式变动较大,最好是阅读一下当前使用版本的源码实现,正确设置好超时时间等参数 (3)如果使用了Spring MVC框架,还可以使用Spring MVC提供的RestTemplate组件,底层是使用Netty实现的客户端
  4. 遇到的这个坑本身并不属于技术难点,但是面对这个问题的解决思路值得总结: (1)程序日志,运行日志非常关键,是定位问题时第一时间需要查看的 (2)代码review,逐行逐行地审查,首先排除可能存在的代码逻辑问题,比如:死锁等 (3)通过jstack命令查看线程堆栈信息: jstack -l -F <pid> > stack.log (4)通过jmap命令查看内存堆栈信息: jmap -dump:live format=b,file=heap.bin <pid> (5)如果结合搜索引擎和上述排查步骤依然未能解决问题,应该第一时间考虑直接阅读组件的源代码实现,特别是使用了开源组件时这可能才是真正解决问题的最佳路径

【参考】 https://blog.csdn.net/u011191463/article/details/78664896 HttpClient超时设置详解 https://my.oschina.net/jywm/blog/1834702 解决httpclient超时设置不生效的问题 https://www.jianshu.com/p/4b3e172c4f2d HttpClient 4.5.2-(四)连接超时的配置 https://www.jianshu.com/p/6a41c95855e3 HttpClient 4.5.2-(五)连接池的配置 https://www.jianshu.com/p/c852cbcf3d68 HttpClient高并发下性能优化-http连接池 https://blog.csdn.net/u011402596/article/details/44619443 HttpClient 多线程处理 https://field-notes.iteye.com/blog/2383759 多线程消费使用HttpClient引发的坑 http://blog.51cto.com/lihao001/1788490 httpclient4.3 导致线程阻塞 https://study121007.iteye.com/blog/2304274 HttpClient4.5.2 连接管理 https://www.jianshu.com/p/c852cbcf3d68 HttpClient高并发下性能优化-http连接池 https://alafqq.iteye.com/blog/2325041 httpclient 多线程执行(网上版本太多了。。。误人子弟) https://gaozzsoft.iteye.com/blog/2352241 HttpClient 4.5.2版本设置连接超时时间-CloseableHttpClient设置Timeout https://www.cnblogs.com/softidea/p/6964347.html HttpClient 专题 https://blog.csdn.net/Fhaohaizi/article/details/78217903 httpclient4.5如何确保资源释放 https://blog.csdn.net/u010634066/article/details/83120122 一场HttpClient调用未关闭流引发的问题 https://www.cnblogs.com/mumuxinfei/p/5066633.html Apache HttpClient使用之阻塞陷阱 https://issues.apache.org/jira/browse/HTTPCLIENT-1584 CloseableHttpClient - SSL Handshake has no Socket Timeout https://monkeyissexy.github.io/2016/11/11/httpclient_ssl_handshake_socketTimeout_bug/ httpclient ssl handshake socketTimeout bug 分析解决过程 http://geekerwang.com/2017/10/22/%E8%AE%B0%E5%BD%95%E4%B8%80%E6%AC%A1%E5%9D%91%EF%BC%9AsocketRead-hang/ 记录一次坑:socketRead hang https://www.cnblogs.com/jessezeng/p/7448636.html 解决: httpclient ssl 验证导致死锁问题 http://itbang.me/solu/detail/201 JAVA线程卡死问题如何定位?

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