SpringBoot入门建站全系列(十三)本地缓存的使用(Ehcache和caffeine的使用)

SpringBoot入门建站全系列(十三)本地缓存的使用(Ehcache和caffeine的使用)

一、概述

本地缓存,就是使用应用内使用本地内存将数据暂缓存储,一般数据库的查询如果不怎么改动,可以用本地缓存暂存。

远程缓存,比如redis,就是第三方缓存服务器,不是在当前应用的,需要用过tcp请求去获得的缓存。

Springboot的官方文档中列出了9种:

  • Generic
  • JCache (JSR-107) (EhCache 3, Hazelcast, Infinispan, and others)
  • EhCache 2.x
  • Hazelcast
  • Infinispan
  • Couchbase
  • Redis
  • Caffeine
  • Simple

本地缓存常用的是Ehcache,很早就出现了,用的很广泛,是一个纯Java的进程内缓存框架,具有快速、精干等特点,是Hibernate中默认的CacheProvider.

Caffeine是使用Java8对Guava缓存的重写版本,有人称它为缓存之王,虽然我不知道为啥这么称呼它。我没做过性能测试哦。

本文假设你已经引入spring-boot-starter-web。已经是个SpringBoot项目了,如果不会搭建,可以打开这篇文章看一看《SpringBoot入门建站全系列(一)项目建立》

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二、Spring缓存的一些概念

缓存的注解包含:

@Cacheable:加入缓存,使用前查询缓存。

@CacheEvict:清除缓存

@CachePut:每次都执行方法,并直接存入数据到缓存,使用前不查询缓存

@Caching:可以让我们在一个方法或者类上同时指定多个Spring Cache相关的注解。其拥有三个属性:cacheable、put和evict,分别用于指定@Cacheable、@CachePut和@CacheEvict。

缓存的key是有讲究的,Springboot里面没讲,Spring占用了一大篇幅去说它,这里就不多说了,官方文档在这儿:

https://docs.spring.io/spring/docs/5.1.8.RELEASE/spring-framework-reference/integration.html#cache

三、Ehcache

3.1 Maven依赖

这里要访问数据库进行缓存,所以要依赖数据库相关jar包,同时要依赖ehcache。

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.mybatis.spring.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>mybatis-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>mysql</groupId>
    <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.commons</groupId>
    <artifactId>commons-dbcp2</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
	<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
	<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-cache</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
	<groupId>net.sf.ehcache</groupId>
	<artifactId>ehcache</artifactId>
</dependency>

3.2 配置文件

在application.properties 中需要添加下面的配置:

spring.cache.ehcache.config=classpath:ehcache.xml

spring.datasource.type=org.apache.commons.dbcp2.BasicDataSource
spring.datasource.dbcp2.max-wait-millis=60000
spring.datasource.dbcp2.min-idle=20
spring.datasource.dbcp2.initial-size=2
spring.datasource.dbcp2.validation-query=SELECT 1
spring.datasource.dbcp2.connection-properties=characterEncoding=utf8
spring.datasource.dbcp2.validation-query=SELECT 1
spring.datasource.dbcp2.test-while-idle=true
spring.datasource.dbcp2.test-on-borrow=true
spring.datasource.dbcp2.test-on-return=false

spring.datasource.driverClassName = com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mysql://127.0.0.1:3306/boot?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf8&serverTimezone=UTC
spring.datasource.username=cff
spring.datasource.password=123456

mybatis.configuration.log-impl=org.apache.ibatis.logging.stdout.StdOutImpl

这里的spring.cache.ehcache.config指定了ehcache的配置文件位置。

ehcache.xml:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<ehcache xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="http://ehcache.org/ehcache.xsd">

  <!-- 磁盘缓存位置 -->
  <diskStore path="java.io.tmpdir/ehcache"/>

  <!-- 默认缓存 -->
  <defaultCache
          maxEntriesLocalHeap="10000"
          eternal="false"
          timeToIdleSeconds="120"
          timeToLiveSeconds="120"
          maxEntriesLocalDisk="10000000"
          diskExpiryThreadIntervalSeconds="120"
          memoryStoreEvictionPolicy="LRU"/>

  <!-- userCache缓存 -->
  <cache name="userCache"
         maxElementsInMemory="1000"
         eternal="false"
         timeToIdleSeconds="0"
         timeToLiveSeconds="1000"
         overflowToDisk="false"
         memoryStoreEvictionPolicy="LRU"/>
</ehcache>

这里配置了一个defaultCache和一个userCache。不多说了,顾名思义的配置。

3.3 开启注解并使用

需要使用@EnableCaching开启注解。使用@Cacheable注解需要缓存的service。

EhcacheService:

package com.cff.springbootwork.ehcache.service;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.cache.annotation.Cacheable;
import org.springframework.cache.annotation.EnableCaching;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;

import com.cff.springbootwork.mybatis.domain.UserInfo;
import com.cff.springbootwork.mybatis.service.UserInfoService;

@Service
@EnableCaching
public class EhcacheService {
	@Autowired
	UserInfoService userInfoService;

	@Cacheable(value = "userCache", key = "#root.targetClass.simpleName+'-'+#root.methodName+'-'+#userName")
	public UserInfo getUserInfoByUserName(String userName) {
		return userInfoService.getUserInfoByUserName(userName);
	}

	public UserInfoService getUserInfoService() {
		return userInfoService;
	}

	public void setUserInfoService(UserInfoService userInfoService) {
		this.userInfoService = userInfoService;
	}

}

3.4 测试Web

package com.cff.springbootwork.ehcache.web;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PathVariable;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMethod;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

import com.cff.springbootwork.ehcache.service.EhcacheService;
import com.cff.springbootwork.mybatis.domain.UserInfo;

@RestController
@RequestMapping("/ehcache")
public class EhcacheRest {

	@Autowired
	private EhcacheService ehcacheService;

	@RequestMapping(value = "/test/{name}", method = { RequestMethod.GET })
	public UserInfo test(@PathVariable("name") String name) {
		return ehcacheService.getUserInfoByUserName(name);
	}

}

四、Caffeine

Caffeine配置起来相对简单点,没有xml这样的配置。

4.1 Maven依赖

<dependency>
    <groupId>org.mybatis.spring.boot</groupId>
    <artifactId>mybatis-spring-boot-starter</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>mysql</groupId>
    <artifactId>mysql-connector-java</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
    <groupId>org.apache.commons</groupId>
    <artifactId>commons-dbcp2</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
	<groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
	<artifactId>spring-boot-starter-cache</artifactId>
</dependency>

<dependency>
	<groupId>com.github.ben-manes.caffeine</groupId>
	<artifactId>caffeine</artifactId>
</dependency>

4.2 配置文件

在application.properties 中需要添加下面的配置:

spring.cache.type=caffeine
spring.cache.cache-names=userCache

spring.datasource.type=org.apache.commons.dbcp2.BasicDataSource
spring.datasource.dbcp2.max-wait-millis=60000
spring.datasource.dbcp2.min-idle=20
spring.datasource.dbcp2.initial-size=2
spring.datasource.dbcp2.validation-query=SELECT 1
spring.datasource.dbcp2.connection-properties=characterEncoding=utf8
spring.datasource.dbcp2.validation-query=SELECT 1
spring.datasource.dbcp2.test-while-idle=true
spring.datasource.dbcp2.test-on-borrow=true
spring.datasource.dbcp2.test-on-return=false

spring.datasource.driverClassName = com.mysql.jdbc.Driver
spring.datasource.url=jdbc:mysql://127.0.0.1:3306/boot?useUnicode=true&characterEncoding=utf8&serverTimezone=UTC
spring.datasource.username=cff
spring.datasource.password=123456

mybatis.configuration.log-impl=org.apache.ibatis.logging.stdout.StdOutImpl

这里的spring.cache.type指定了cache是用caffeine,spring.cache.cache-names=userCache是建立了一个名字为userCache的cache。

4.3 开启注解并使用

需要使用@EnableCaching开启注解。使用@Cacheable注解需要缓存的service。

CaffeineService :

package com.cff.springbootwork.caffeine.service;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.cache.annotation.Cacheable;
import org.springframework.cache.annotation.EnableCaching;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;

import com.cff.springbootwork.mybatis.domain.UserInfo;
import com.cff.springbootwork.mybatis.service.UserInfoService;

@Service
@EnableCaching
public class CaffeineService {
	@Autowired
	UserInfoService userInfoService;

	@Cacheable(value = "userCache", key = "#root.targetClass.simpleName+'-'+#root.methodName+'-'+#userName")
	public UserInfo getUserInfoByUserName(String userName) {
		return userInfoService.getUserInfoByUserName(userName);
	}

	public UserInfoService getUserInfoService() {
		return userInfoService;
	}

	public void setUserInfoService(UserInfoService userInfoService) {
		this.userInfoService = userInfoService;
	}

}

4.4 测试Web

CaffeineRest :

package com.cff.springbootwork.caffeine.web;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.PathVariable;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMethod;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RestController;

import com.cff.springbootwork.caffeine.service.CaffeineService;
import com.cff.springbootwork.mybatis.domain.UserInfo;

@RestController
@RequestMapping("/caffeine")
public class CaffeineRest {

	@Autowired
	private CaffeineService caffeineService;

	@RequestMapping(value = "/test/{name}", method = { RequestMethod.GET })
	public UserInfo test(@PathVariable("name") String name) {
		return caffeineService.getUserInfoByUserName(name);
	}

}

五、数据访问相关文件

UserInfoService:

package com.cff.springbootwork.mybatis.service;

import java.util.List;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Service;

import com.cff.springbootwork.mybatis.dao.UserInfoDao;
import com.cff.springbootwork.mybatis.domain.UserInfo;

@Service
public class UserInfoService {
	@Autowired
	UserInfoDao userInfoDao;
	public UserInfo getUserInfoByUserName(String userName){
		return userInfoDao.findByUserName(userName);
	}
}

UserInfoDao :

package com.cff.springbootwork.mybatis.dao;

import java.util.List;

import org.apache.ibatis.annotations.Mapper;
import org.apache.ibatis.annotations.Param;
import org.apache.ibatis.annotations.Select;
import org.apache.ibatis.annotations.Update;

import com.cff.springbootwork.mybatis.domain.UserInfo;

@Mapper
public interface UserInfoDao {
	@Select({
		"<script>",
	        "SELECT ",
	        "user_name as userName,passwd,name,mobile,valid, user_type as userType",
	        "FROM user_info",
	        "WHERE user_name = #{userName,jdbcType=VARCHAR}",
	   "</script>"})
	UserInfo findByUserName(@Param("userName") String userName);
	
	
}

UserInfo :

package com.cff.springbootwork.mybatis.domain;

public class UserInfo {
	private String userName;
	private String passwd;
	private String name;
	private String mobile;
	private Integer valid;
	private String userType;

	public UserInfo() {

	}

	public UserInfo(UserInfo src) {
		this.userName = src.userName;
		this.passwd = src.passwd;
		this.name = src.name;
		this.mobile = src.mobile;
		this.valid = src.valid;
	}

	public UserInfo(String userName, String passwd, String name, String mobile, Integer valid) {
		super();
		this.userName = userName;
		this.passwd = passwd;
		this.name = name;
		this.mobile = mobile;
		this.valid = valid;
	}

	public void setUserName(String userName) {
		this.userName = userName;
	}

	public String getUserName() {
		return userName;
	}

	public void setPasswd(String passwd) {
		this.passwd = passwd;
	}

	public String getPasswd() {
		return passwd;
	}

	public void setName(String name) {
		this.name = name;
	}

	public String getName() {
		return name;
	}

	public void setMobile(String mobile) {
		this.mobile = mobile;
	}

	public String getMobile() {
		return mobile;
	}

	public void setValid(Integer valid) {
		this.valid = valid;
	}

	public Integer getValid() {
		return valid;
	}

	public String getUserType() {
		return userType;
	}

	public void setUserType(String userType) {
		this.userType = userType;
	}

	public String getIdentifyTable(){
		return "user_info";
	}
}

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