验证码

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本文链接:https://blog.csdn.net/weixin_40313634/article/details/84591042

环境

  1. python3.6.7
  2. OCR识别库: OCR工具(exe)安装:选择语言库,其他默认。 tesserocr库安装:pip3 install tesserocr pillow PIL库安装:pip install pillow
  3. Sublime Text编辑器安装
  4. ChromeDriver 安装 可能遇到的问题: 问题1:tesserocr安装失败,报错如下: install --record C:\Users\Zy129\AppData\Local\Temp\pip-record-r5t7l43t\install-record.txt --single-version-externally-managed --compile" failed with error code 1 in C:\Users\Zy129\AppData\Local\Temp\pip-install-5z4ljbyj\tesserocr 解决办法:手动下载和python版本对应的原始whl文件安装即可(tesserocr-2.3.1-cp36-cp36m-win_amd64.whl)。 whl 文件:https://github.com/simonflueckiger/tesserocr-windows_build/releases 方法参考:http://www.mamicode.com/info-detail-2353336.html 建议:通常情况下,不要安装最新版本的python,因为可能某库还没有升级,导致无法使用。 问题2:调用tesserocr.image_to_text(image)方法时,报如下错: RuntimeError: Failed to init API, possibly an invalid tessdata path: C:\Users\Zy129\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python36/tessdata/ 解决:拷贝OCR库文件夹tessdata(默认路径:C:\Program Files (x86)\Tesseract-OCR)到python安装路径下(默认路径:C:\Users\Zy129\AppData\Local\Programs\Python\Python36)即可。 参考方法:https://www.jianshu.com/p/dcad7ee3b162

图形验证

   1. version1.0
       import tesserocr
       from PIL import Image

       image = Image.open('code.jpg')
       result = tesserocr.image_to_text(image)
       print(result)

效果:

2. version2.0 问题:部分图片背景上有条纹,可能导致图片识别错误。 改进点:将图片转化为灰度图像,设定阈值,小于阈值的像素点置为0,大于的置为1。即把彩色图片转化为黑白图片,忽略掉背景色的影响,从而增大验证码识别率。

import tesserocr
from PIL import Image

image = Image.open('code.jpg')

# 转化成灰度图像
image = image.convert('L')
# 设置阈值(1--500)
threshold = 127
table = []
for i in range(256):
    if i < threshold:
        table.append(0)
    else:
        table.append(1)    
image = image.point(table, '1')
# 转化后的图片
image.show()

result = tesserocr.image_to_text(image)
print(result)

效果:

滑块验证

version:

import time
from io import BytesIO
from PIL import Image
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver import ActionChains
from selenium.webdriver.common.by import By
from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait
from selenium.webdriver.support import expected_conditions as EC

EMAIL = 'cqc@cuiqingcai.com'
PASSWORD = ''
BORDER = 6
INIT_LEFT = 60


    class CrackGeetest():
        def __init__(self):
            self.url = 'https://account.geetest.com/login'
            self.browser = webdriver.Chrome()
            self.wait = WebDriverWait(self.browser, 20)
            self.email = EMAIL
            self.password = PASSWORD
    
    def __del__(self):
        self.browser.close()
    
    def get_geetest_button(self):
        """
        获取初始验证按钮
        :return:
        """
        button = self.wait.until(EC.element_to_be_clickable((By.CLASS_NAME, 'geetest_radar_tip')))
        return button
    
    def get_position(self):
        """
        获取验证码位置
        :return: 验证码位置元组
        """
        img = self.wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.CLASS_NAME, 'geetest_canvas_img')))
        time.sleep(2)
        location = img.location
        size = img.size
        top, bottom, left, right = location['y'], location['y'] + size['height'], location['x'], location['x'] + size[
            'width']
        return (top, bottom, left, right)
    
    def get_screenshot(self):
        """
        获取网页截图
        :return: 截图对象
        """
        screenshot = self.browser.get_screenshot_as_png()
        screenshot = Image.open(BytesIO(screenshot))
        return screenshot
    
    def get_slider(self):
        """
        获取滑块
        :return: 滑块对象
        """
        slider = self.wait.until(EC.element_to_be_clickable((By.CLASS_NAME, 'geetest_slider_button')))
        return slider
    
    def get_geetest_image(self, name='captcha.png'):
        """
        获取验证码图片
        :return: 图片对象
        """
        top, bottom, left, right = self.get_position()
        print('验证码位置', top, bottom, left, right)
        screenshot = self.get_screenshot()
        captcha = screenshot.crop((left, top, right, bottom))
        captcha.save(name)
        return captcha
    
    def open(self):
        """
        打开网页输入用户名密码
        :return: None
        """
        self.browser.get(self.url)
        email = self.wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.ID, 'email')))
        password = self.wait.until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.ID, 'password')))
        email.send_keys(self.email)
        password.send_keys(self.password)
    
    def get_gap(self, image1, image2):
        """
        获取缺口偏移量
        :param image1: 不带缺口图片
        :param image2: 带缺口图片
        :return:
        """
        left = 60
        for i in range(left, image1.size[0]):
            for j in range(image1.size[1]):
                if not self.is_pixel_equal(image1, image2, i, j):
                    left = i
                    return left
        return left
    
    def is_pixel_equal(self, image1, image2, x, y):
        """
        判断两个像素是否相同
        :param image1: 图片1
        :param image2: 图片2
        :param x: 位置x
        :param y: 位置y
        :return: 像素是否相同
        """
        # 取两个图片的像素点
        pixel1 = image1.load()[x, y]
        pixel2 = image2.load()[x, y]
        threshold = 60
        if abs(pixel1[0] - pixel2[0]) < threshold and abs(pixel1[1] - pixel2[1]) < threshold and abs(
                pixel1[2] - pixel2[2]) < threshold:
            return True
        else:
            return False
    
    def get_track(self, distance):
        """
        根据偏移量获取移动轨迹
        :param distance: 偏移量
        :return: 移动轨迹
        """
        # 移动轨迹
        track = []
        # 当前位移
        current = 0
        # 减速阈值
        mid = distance * 4 / 5
        # 计算间隔
        t = 0.2
        # 初速度
        v = 0
        
        while current < distance:
            if current < mid:
                # 加速度为正2
                a = 2
            else:
                # 加速度为负3
                a = -3
            # 初速度v0
            v0 = v
            # 当前速度v = v0 + at
            v = v0 + a * t
            # 移动距离x = v0t + 1/2 * a * t^2
            move = v0 * t + 1 / 2 * a * t * t
            # 当前位移
            current += move
            # 加入轨迹
            track.append(round(move))
        return track
    
    def move_to_gap(self, slider, track):
        """
        拖动滑块到缺口处
        :param slider: 滑块
        :param track: 轨迹
        :return:
        """
        ActionChains(self.browser).click_and_hold(slider).perform()
        for x in track:
            ActionChains(self.browser).move_by_offset(xoffset=x, yoffset=0).perform()
        time.sleep(0.5)
        ActionChains(self.browser).release().perform()
    
    def login(self):
        """
        登录
        :return: None
        """
        submit = self.wait.until(EC.element_to_be_clickable((By.CLASS_NAME, 'login-btn')))
        submit.click()
        time.sleep(10)
        print('登录成功')
    
    def crack(self):
        # 输入用户名密码
        self.open()
        # 点击验证按钮
        button = self.get_geetest_button()
        button.click()
        # 获取验证码图片
        image1 = self.get_geetest_image('captcha1.png')
        # 点按呼出缺口
        slider = self.get_slider()
        slider.click()
        # 获取带缺口的验证码图片
        image2 = self.get_geetest_image('captcha2.png')
        # 获取缺口位置
        gap = self.get_gap(image1, image2)
        print('缺口位置', gap)
        # 减去缺口位移
        gap -= BORDER
        # 获取移动轨迹
        track = self.get_track(gap)
        print('滑动轨迹', track)
        # 拖动滑块
        self.move_to_gap(slider, track)
        
        success = self.wait.until(
            EC.text_to_be_present_in_element((By.CLASS_NAME, 'geetest_success_radar_tip_content'), '验证成功'))
        print(success)
        
        # 失败后重试
        if not success:
            self.crack()
        else:
            self.login()


    if __name__ == '__main__':
    crack = CrackGeetest()
    crack.crack()

错误1. 报错:[17672:21484:0802/155619.485:ERROR:install_util.cc(603)] Failed to read HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Google\Chrome\MachineLevelUserCloudPolicyEnrollmentToken: 系统找不到指定 的文件。 (0x2) 解决:命令行运行「reg add HKLM\SOFTWARE\Policies\Google\Chrome /v MachineLevelUserCloudPolicyEnrollmentToken /t REG_SZ」,添加报错信息中提示的注册表值。

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