【DB笔试面试436】Oracle中如何导出存储过程、函数、包和触发器的定义语句?如何导出表的结构?如何导出索引的创建语句?

题目

Oracle中如何导出存储过程、函数、包和触发器的定义语句?如何导出表的结构?如何导出索引的创建语句?

答案

总体来说有两种方式来获取,第一,利用系统包DBMS_METADATA包中的GET_DDL函数来获取,第二,利用exp或expdp来获取。

下面来看第一种方式,如何利用系统包DBMS_METADATA包中的GET_DDL函数来获取对象的定义语句。下面是该函数的入参和出参:

SQL> DESC DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL
PARAMETER   TYPE     MODE DEFAULT? 
----------- -------- ---- -------- 
(RESULT)    CLOB                   
OBJECT_TYPE VARCHAR2 IN            
NAME        VARCHAR2 IN            
SCHEMA      VARCHAR2 IN   Y        
VERSION     VARCHAR2 IN   Y        
MODEL       VARCHAR2 IN   Y        
TRANSFORM   VARCHAR2 IN   Y        

其详细参数如下:

l OBJECT_TYPE 需要返回原数据的DDL语句的对象类型

l NAME 对象名称

l SCHEMA 对象所在的SCHEMA,默认为当前用户所在所SCHEMA

l VERSION 对象原数据的版本

l MODEL 原数据的类型默认为ORACLE

l TRANSFORM 默认值为DDL

l RETURNS 对象的原数据默认以CLOB类型返回

一般情况下,只需要给出OBJECT_TYPE、NAME和SCHEMA3个参数即可。

n 查看创建表SQL语句:

SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('TABLE','DEPT','SCOTT') FROM DUAL;
SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('TABLE',U.TABLE_NAME) FROM USER_TABLES U;

n 查看创建索引的SQL语句:

SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('INDEX','PK_DEPT','SCOTT') FROM DUAL;
SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('INDEX',U.INDEX_NAME) FROM USER_INDEXES U;

n 查看创建主键的SQL语句:

SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('CONSTRAINT','EMP_PK') FROM DUAL;

n 查看创建外键的SQL语句:

SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('REF_CONSTRAINT','EMP_FK_DEPT') FROM DUAL;

n 查看创建视图(VIEW)的SQL语句:

SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('VIEW', 'MY_TABLES','SCOTT') FROM DUAL;
SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('VIEW', U.OBJECT_NAME)
  FROM USER_OBJECTS U
 WHERE OBJECT_TYPE = 'VIEW';
SELECT TEXT FROM USER_VIEWS WHERE VIEW_NAME=UPPER('&VIEW_NAME');

n 查看创建存储过程(PROCEDURE)的SQL语句:

SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('PROCEDURE', U.OBJECT_NAME)
  FROM USER_OBJECTS U
 WHERE OBJECT_TYPE = 'PROCEDURE';

n 查看创建触发器(TRIGGER)的SQL语句:

SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('TRIGGER', U.OBJECT_NAME)
  FROM USER_OBJECTS U
 WHERE OBJECT_TYPE = 'TRIGGER';

n 查看创建函数(FUNCTION)的SQL语句:

SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('FUNCTION', U.OBJECT_NAME)
  FROM USER_OBJECTS U
 WHERE OBJECT_TYPE = 'FUNCTION';

n 查看创建包(PACKAGE)的SQL语句:

SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('PACKAGE', U.OBJECT_NAME)
  FROM USER_OBJECTS U
 WHERE OBJECT_TYPE = 'PACKAGE';

n 查看创建序列(SEQUENCE)的SQL语句:

SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('SEQUENCE', U.OBJECT_NAME)
  FROM USER_OBJECTS U
 WHERE OBJECT_TYPE = 'SEQUENCE';

n 查看创建同义词(SYNONYM)的SQL语句:

SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('SYNONYM', U.OBJECT_NAME)
  FROM USER_OBJECTS U
 WHERE OBJECT_TYPE = 'SYNONYM';

n 查看创建表空间(TABLESPACE)的SQL语句:

SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('TABLESPACE', U.TABLESPACE_NAME)
  FROM USER_TABLESPACES U;

n 查看创建角色(ROLE)的SQL语句:

SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('ROLE', U.ROLE) FROM DBA_ROLES U;

n 查看创建用户(USER)的SQL语句:

SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('USER','SYS') FROM DUAL;

n 得到某个SCHEDULER JOB的创建语句:

SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('PROCOBJ', D.JOB_NAME, D.OWNER)
  FROM DBA_SCHEDULER_JOBS D
 WHERE D.JOB_TYPE = 'STORED_PROCEDURE'
   AND D.STATE = 'SCHEDULED'
   AND D.SCHEDULE_NAME IS NULL;

n 得到一个用户下的所有表、索引、存储过程、函数的DDL语句:

SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL(U.OBJECT_TYPE, U.OBJECT_NAME)
FROM   USER_OBJECTS U
WHERE  U.OBJECT_TYPE IN ('TABLE', 'INDEX', 'PROCEDURE', 'FUNCTION');

如果想去掉表的存储参数(例如,INITIAL、NEXT、FREELISTS等参数),那么可以使用DBMS_METADATA包中的函数SET_TRANSFORM_PARAM(DBMS_METADATA.SESSION_TRANSFORM,'STORAGE',FALSE)来完成,代码如下所示:

SYS@lhrdb> SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('TABLE','DEPT','SCOTT') FROM DUAL;
DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('TABLE','DEPT','SCOTT')
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  CREATE TABLE "SCOTT"."DEPT"
   (    "DEPTNO" NUMBER(2,0),
        "DNAME" VARCHAR2(14),
        "LOC" VARCHAR2(13),
         CONSTRAINT "PK_DEPT" PRIMARY KEY ("DEPTNO")
  USING INDEX PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 COMPUTE STATISTICS
  STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
  PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1
  BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)
  TABLESPACE "USERS"  ENABLE
   ) SEGMENT CREATION IMMEDIATE
  PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255
 NOCOMPRESS LOGGING
  STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645
  PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1
  BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)
  TABLESPACE "USERS"
SYS@lhrdb> EXECUTE DBMS_METADATA.SET_TRANSFORM_PARAM(DBMS_METADATA.SESSION_TRANSFORM,'STORAGE',FALSE);
PL/SQL procedure successfully completed.
SYS@lhrdb> SELECT DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('TABLE','DEPT','SCOTT') FROM DUAL;
DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL('TABLE','DEPT','SCOTT')
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
  CREATE TABLE "SCOTT"."DEPT"
   (    "DEPTNO" NUMBER(2,0),
        "DNAME" VARCHAR2(14),
        "LOC" VARCHAR2(13),
         CONSTRAINT "PK_DEPT" PRIMARY KEY ("DEPTNO")
  USING INDEX PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 COMPUTE STATISTICS
  TABLESPACE "USERS"  ENABLE
   ) SEGMENT CREATION IMMEDIATE
  PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255
 NOCOMPRESS LOGGING
  TABLESPACE "USERS"

使用DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL需要注意以下问题:

(1)DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL()包内的参数都要大写,否则会报ORA-31600: invalid input value table for parameter OBJECT_TYPE in function GET_DDL的错误。

(2)是否查的当前用户的DDL语句,若不是则需要加上对象的属主信息即SCHEMA参数。

(3)若在SQL*Plus中显示不全,则需要set long 9999。

(4)对于DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL包,可以在PLSQL Developer工具中运行,也可以在SQL*Plus中运行。

如果要导出SCOTT用户下的所有定义,那么在SQL*Plus中代码如下所示:

SET PAGESIZE 0
SET TRIMSPOOL ON
SET LINESIZE 10000
SET LONG 90000
SET FEEDBACK OFF
SET FEED OFF;
SET ECHO OFF
SPOOL /tmp/schema_scott.sql
SELECT CASE
         WHEN U.OBJECT_TYPE IN
              ('PROCEDURE', 'FUNCTION' , 'PACKAGE', 'TRIGGER') THEN
          DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL(U.OBJECT_TYPE, U.OBJECT_NAME, U.OWNER) ||
          CHR(10) || '/'
         ELSE
          DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL(U.OBJECT_TYPE, U.OBJECT_NAME, U.OWNER)||
          CHR(10) || ';'
       END AS SCOTT_DDL
  FROM DBA_OBJECTS U
 WHERE U.OBJECT_TYPE IN
       ('TABLE', 'INDEX', 'PROCEDURE', 'FUNCTION' , 'PACKAGE', 'TRIGGER')
AND U.OWNER='SCOTT';
SPOOL OFF;

则可以导出SCOTT用户下所有的DDL语句到/tmp/schema_scott.sql文件中。

如果在PLSQL Developer工具中运行,那么可以单独运行如下的SQL语句:

SELECT CASE
         WHEN U.OBJECT_TYPE IN
              ('PROCEDURE', 'FUNCTION' , 'PACKAGE', 'TRIGGER') THEN
          DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL(U.OBJECT_TYPE, U.OBJECT_NAME, U.OWNER) ||
          CHR(10) || '/'
         ELSE
          DBMS_METADATA.GET_DDL(U.OBJECT_TYPE, U.OBJECT_NAME, U.OWNER)||
          CHR(10) || ';'
       END AS SCOTT_DDL
  FROM DBA_OBJECTS U
 WHERE U.OBJECT_TYPE IN
       ('TABLE', 'INDEX', 'PROCEDURE', 'FUNCTION' , 'PACKAGE', 'TRIGGER')
AND U.OWNER='SCOTT';

然后选择整列,右键选择“Copy to Excel”,就可以将数据导出到Excel文件中,接着,将Excel中的数据复制到PLSQL Developer工具的“SQL Window”中皆可。需要注意的是,最后复制到“SQL Window”中的时候,需要选择右键的“Past from host Language”,否则粘贴的代码含有双引号,需要做特殊处理,比较麻烦。

可以使用如下的SQL脚本生成某个用户下的所有对象的DDL语句:

sqlplus<<EOF
set long 100000
set head off
set echo off
set pagesize 0
set verify off
set feedback off
spool schema.out
select dbms_metadata.get_ddl(object_type, object_name, owner)
from
(
    --Convert DBA_OBJECTS.OBJECT_TYPE to DBMS_METADATA object type:
    select
        owner,
        --Java object names may need to be converted with DBMS_JAVA.LONGNAME.
        --That code is not included since many database don't have Java installed.
        object_name,
        decode(object_type,
            'DATABASE LINK',      'DB_LINK',
            'JOB',                'PROCOBJ',
            'RULE SET',           'PROCOBJ',
            'RULE',               'PROCOBJ',
            'EVALUATION CONTEXT', 'PROCOBJ',
            'PACKAGE',            'PACKAGE_SPEC',
            'PACKAGE BODY',       'PACKAGE_BODY',
            'TYPE',               'TYPE_SPEC',
            'TYPE BODY',          'TYPE_BODY',
            'MATERIALIZED VIEW',  'MATERIALIZED_VIEW',
            'QUEUE',              'AQ_QUEUE',
            'JAVA CLASS',         'JAVA_CLASS',
            'JAVA TYPE',          'JAVA_TYPE',
            'JAVA SOURCE',        'JAVA_SOURCE',
            'JAVA RESOURCE',      'JAVA_RESOURCE',
            object_type
        ) object_type
    from dba_objects 
    where owner in ('LHR')
        --These objects are included with other object types.
        and object_type not in ('INDEX PARTITION','INDEX SUBPARTITION',
           'LOB','LOB PARTITION','LOB SUBPARTITION','TABLE PARTITION','TABLE SUBPARTITION','PROGRAM')
        --Ignore system-generated types that support collection processing.
        and not (object_type = 'TYPE' and object_name like 'SYS_PLSQL_%')
        --Exclude nested tables, their DDL is part of their parent table.
        and (owner, object_name) not in (select owner, table_name from dba_nested_tables)
        --Exlclude overflow segments, their DDL is part of their parent table.
        and (owner, object_name) not in (select owner, table_name from dba_tables where iot_type = 'IOT_OVERFLOW')
)
order by owner, object_type, object_name;
spool off
quit
EOF
cat schema.out|sed 's/OWNER1/MYOWNER/g'>schema.out.change.sql

下面介绍第二种导出元数据的方法,就是采用exp或expdp命令。数据泵工具(impdp)提供了SQLFILE的命令行选项,只获取DDL语句,并未真正地执行数据导入。另外,若单纯为了导出DDL语句则可以在使用expdp导出的时候使用CONTENT=METADATA_ONLY和EXCLUDE=STATISTICS选项,这样导出的DMP文件比较小。如下所示:

expdp \'/ AS SYSDBA\' DIRECTORY=DATA_PUMP_DIR DUMPFILE=lhrsql20161215.dmp LOGFILE=lhrsql20161215.log CONTENT=METADATA_ONLY SCHEMAS=SCOTT EXCLUDE=STATISTICS

impdp \'/ AS SYSDBA\' DIRECTORY=DATA_PUMP_DIR DUMPFILE=lhrsql20161215.dmp LOGFILE=imp_exptest.log SQLFILE=expddl_lhr.sql

查看expddl_lhr.sql文件即可获取DDL语句。整个示例如下所示:

[ZFZHLHRDB1:oracle]:/oracle>expdp \'/ AS SYSDBA\' directory=DATA_PUMP_DIR schemas=SCOTT dumpfile=exptest_sql.dmp logfile=exp_exptest.dmp

Export: Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production on Wed Aug 3 15:14:55 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production

With the Partitioning, Real Application Clusters, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP,

Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

Starting "SYS"."SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_01": "/******** AS SYSDBA" directory=DATA_PUMP_DIR schemas=SCOTT dumpfile=exptest_sql.dmp logfile=exp_exptest.dmp

Estimate in progress using BLOCKS method...

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE_DATA

Total estimation using BLOCKS method: 256 KB

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/USER

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/SYSTEM_GRANT

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/ROLE_GRANT

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/DEFAULT_ROLE

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PRE_SCHEMA/PROCACT_SCHEMA

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEX

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINT

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICS

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/REF_CONSTRAINT

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICS

. . exported "SCOTT"."DEPT" 5.929 KB 4 rows

. . exported "SCOTT"."EMP" 8.562 KB 14 rows

. . exported "SCOTT"."SALGRADE" 5.859 KB 5 rows

. . exported "SCOTT"."TEST" 5.007 KB 1 rows

. . exported "SCOTT"."BONUS" 0 KB 0 rows

Master table "SYS"."SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_01" successfully loaded/unloaded

******************************************************************************

Dump file set for SYS.SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_01 is:

/oracle/app/oracle/admin/lhrdb/dpdump/exptest_sql.dmp

Job "SYS"."SYS_EXPORT_SCHEMA_01" successfully completed at Wed Aug 3 15:15:16 2016 elapsed 0 00:00:20

[ZFZHLHRDB1:oracle]:/oracle>impdp \'/ AS SYSDBA\' directory=DATA_PUMP_DIR dumpfile=exptest_sql.dmp logfile=imp_exptest.log sqlfile=exptest.sql

Import: Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production on Wed Aug 3 15:16:06 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production

With the Partitioning, Real Application Clusters, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP,

Data Mining and Real Application Testing options

Master table "SYS"."SYS_SQL_FILE_FULL_01" successfully loaded/unloaded

Starting "SYS"."SYS_SQL_FILE_FULL_01": "/******** AS SYSDBA" directory=DATA_PUMP_DIR dumpfile=exptest_sql.dmp logfile=imp_exptest.log sqlfile=exptest.sql

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/USER

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/SYSTEM_GRANT

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/ROLE_GRANT

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/DEFAULT_ROLE

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/PRE_SCHEMA/PROCACT_SCHEMA

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEX

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINT

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICS

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/REF_CONSTRAINT

Processing object type SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/STATISTICS/TABLE_STATISTICS

Job "SYS"."SYS_SQL_FILE_FULL_01" successfully completed at Wed Aug 3 15:16:09 2016 elapsed 0 00:00:02

[ZFZHLHRDB1:oracle]:/oracle>cd /oracle/app/oracle/admin/lhrdb/dpdump/

[ZFZHLHRDB1:oracle]:/oracle/app/oracle/admin/lhrdb/dpdump>more exptest.sql

-- CONNECT SYS

ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS '10150 TRACE NAME CONTEXT FOREVER, LEVEL 1';

ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS '10904 TRACE NAME CONTEXT FOREVER, LEVEL 1';

ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS '25475 TRACE NAME CONTEXT FOREVER, LEVEL 1';

ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS '10407 TRACE NAME CONTEXT FOREVER, LEVEL 1';

ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS '10851 TRACE NAME CONTEXT FOREVER, LEVEL 1';

ALTER SESSION SET EVENTS '22830 TRACE NAME CONTEXT FOREVER, LEVEL 192 ';

-- new object type path: SCHEMA_EXPORT/USER

-- CONNECT SYSTEM

CREATE USER "SCOTT" IDENTIFIED BY VALUES 'S:268AB71B15071D81F19C6FC5041FA8F8E49397470FFE05458B8C90D9E7F8;F894844C34402B67'

DEFAULT TABLESPACE "USERS"

TEMPORARY TABLESPACE "TEMP"

PASSWORD EXPIRE

ACCOUNT LOCK;

-- new object type path: SCHEMA_EXPORT/SYSTEM_GRANT

GRANT UNLIMITED TABLESPACE TO "SCOTT";

-- new object type path: SCHEMA_EXPORT/ROLE_GRANT

GRANT "CONNECT" TO "SCOTT";

GRANT "RESOURCE" TO "SCOTT";

-- new object type path: SCHEMA_EXPORT/DEFAULT_ROLE

ALTER USER "SCOTT" DEFAULT ROLE ALL;

-- new object type path: SCHEMA_EXPORT/PRE_SCHEMA/PROCACT_SCHEMA

-- CONNECT SCOTT

BEGIN

sys.dbms_logrep_imp.instantiate_schema(schema_name=>SYS_CONTEXT('USERENV','CURRENT_SCHEMA'), export_db_name=>'LHRDB', inst_scn=>'4225469');

COMMIT;

END;

/

-- new object type path: SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/TABLE

-- CONNECT SYS

CREATE TABLE "SCOTT"."DEPT"

( "DEPTNO" NUMBER(2,0),

"DNAME" VARCHAR2(14 BYTE),

"LOC" VARCHAR2(13 BYTE)

) SEGMENT CREATION IMMEDIATE

PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255

NOCOMPRESS LOGGING

STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645

PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1

BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)

TABLESPACE "USERS" ;

CREATE TABLE "SCOTT"."EMP"

( "EMPNO" NUMBER(4,0),

"ENAME" VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),

"JOB" VARCHAR2(9 BYTE),

"MGR" NUMBER(4,0),

"HIREDATE" DATE,

"SAL" NUMBER(7,2),

"COMM" NUMBER(7,2),

"DEPTNO" NUMBER(2,0)

) SEGMENT CREATION IMMEDIATE

PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255

NOCOMPRESS LOGGING

STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645

PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1

BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)

TABLESPACE "USERS" ;

CREATE TABLE "SCOTT"."BONUS"

( "ENAME" VARCHAR2(10 BYTE),

"JOB" VARCHAR2(9 BYTE),

"SAL" NUMBER,

"COMM" NUMBER

) SEGMENT CREATION DEFERRED

PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255

NOCOMPRESS LOGGING

TABLESPACE "USERS" ;

CREATE TABLE "SCOTT"."SALGRADE"

( "GRADE" NUMBER,

"LOSAL" NUMBER,

"HISAL" NUMBER

) SEGMENT CREATION IMMEDIATE

PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255

NOCOMPRESS LOGGING

STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645

PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1

BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)

TABLESPACE "USERS" ;

CREATE TABLE "SCOTT"."TEST"

( "DUMMY" VARCHAR2(1 BYTE)

) SEGMENT CREATION IMMEDIATE

PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255

NOCOMPRESS LOGGING

STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645

PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1

BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)

TABLESPACE "USERS" ;

-- new object type path: SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/INDEX

-- CONNECT SCOTT

CREATE UNIQUE INDEX "SCOTT"."PK_DEPT" ON "SCOTT"."DEPT" ("DEPTNO")

PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255

STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645

PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1

BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)

TABLESPACE "USERS" PARALLEL 1 ;

ALTER INDEX "SCOTT"."PK_DEPT" NOPARALLEL;

CREATE UNIQUE INDEX "SCOTT"."PK_EMP" ON "SCOTT"."EMP" ("EMPNO")

PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255

STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 MAXEXTENTS 2147483645

PCTINCREASE 0 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1

BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT CELL_FLASH_CACHE DEFAULT)

TABLESPACE "USERS" PARALLEL 1 ;

ALTER INDEX "SCOTT"."PK_EMP" NOPARALLEL;

-- new object type path: SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/CONSTRAINT/CONSTRAINT

-- CONNECT SYS

ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."DEPT" ADD CONSTRAINT "PK_DEPT" PRIMARY KEY ("DEPTNO")

USING INDEX "SCOTT"."PK_DEPT" ENABLE;

ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."EMP" ADD CONSTRAINT "PK_EMP" PRIMARY KEY ("EMPNO")

USING INDEX "SCOTT"."PK_EMP" ENABLE;

-- new object type path: SCHEMA_EXPORT/TABLE/INDEX/STATISTICS/INDEX_STATISTICS

DECLARE I_N VARCHAR2(60);

I_O VARCHAR2(60);

NV VARCHAR2(1);

c DBMS_METADATA.T_VAR_COLL;

df varchar2(21) := 'YYYY-MM-DD:HH24:MI:SS';

stmt varchar2(300) := ' INSERT INTO "SYS"."IMPDP_STATS" (type,version,flags,c1,c2,c3,c5,n1,n2,n3,n4,n5,n6,n7,n8,n9,n10,n11,n12,d1,cl1) VALUES (''I'',6,:1,:2,:3,:4,:5,

:6,:7,:8,:9,:10,:11,:12,:13,NULL,:14,:15,NULL,:16,:17)';

BEGIN

DELETE FROM "SYS"."IMPDP_STATS";

i_n := 'PK_DEPT';

i_o := 'SCOTT';

EXECUTE IMMEDIATE stmt USING 2,I_N,NV,NV,I_O,4,1,4,1,1,1,0,4,NV,NV,TO_DATE('2016-07-07 22:00:11',df),NV;

DBMS_STATS.IMPORT_INDEX_STATS('"' || i_o || '"','"' || i_n || '"',NULL,'"IMPDP_STATS"',NULL,'"SYS"');

DELETE FROM "SYS"."IMPDP_STATS";

END;

/

《《《《。。。。。。。。篇幅原因,有省略,剩下的都是统计信息,生成sqlfile的时候也可以不用生成。。。。。。。。》》》》

imp工具使用SHOW=Y LOG=GET_DDL.sql的方式,可以看到清晰的DDL脚本,同时也不会真正的执行数据导入。另外,若单纯为了导出DDL语句则可以在使用exp导出的时候使用ROWS=N选项,这样导出的DMP文件比较小。如下所示:

exp \'/ AS SYSDBA\' TABLES=SCOTT.EMP FILE=/tmp/exp_ddl_lhr_01.dmp LOG=/tmp/exp_table.log BUFFER=41943040 ROWS=N COMPRESS=N

imp \'/ AS SYSDBA\' FILE=/tmp/exp_ddl_lhr_01.dmp SHOW=Y LOG=/tmp/get_ddl.sql BUFFER=20480000 FULL=Y

查看get_ddl.sql文件即可获取DDL语句。不过对于exp生成的DDL语句不能直接使用,需要使用SHELL脚本做相应的处理后才能使用。整个示例如下所示:

[ZFZHLHRDB1:oracle]:/oracle>exp \'/ AS SYSDBA\' tables=scott.emp file=/tmp/exp_ddl_lhr_01.dmp log=/tmp/exp_table.log buffer=41943040 rows=n compress=n

Export: Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production on Tue Aug 2 15:42:11 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production

With the Partitioning, Real Application Clusters, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP,

Data Mining and Real Application Tes

Export done in ZHS16GBK character set and AL16UTF16 NCHAR character set

Note: table data (rows) will not be exported

About to export specified tables via Conventional Path ...

Current user changed to SCOTT

. . exporting table EMP

Export terminated successfully without warnings.

[ZFZHLHRDB1:oracle]:/oracle>imp \'/ AS SYSDBA\' file=/tmp/exp_ddl_lhr_01.dmp show=y log=/tmp/get_ddl.sql buffer=20480000 full=y

Import: Release 11.2.0.4.0 - Production on Tue Aug 2 15:42:44 2016

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production

With the Partitioning, Real Application Clusters, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP,

Data Mining and Real Application Tes

Export file created by EXPORT:V11.02.00 via conventional path

import done in ZHS16GBK character set and AL16UTF16 NCHAR character set

. importing SYS's objects into SYS

. importing SCOTT's objects into SCOTT

"ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA= "SCOTT""

"CREATE TABLE "EMP" ("EMPNO" NUMBER(4, 0), "ENAME" VARCHAR2(10), "JOB" VARCH"

"AR2(9), "MGR" NUMBER(4, 0), "HIREDATE" DATE, "SAL" NUMBER(7, 2), "COMM" NUM"

"BER(7, 2), "DEPTNO" NUMBER(2, 0)) PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRAN"

"S 255 STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST "

"GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT) TABLESPACE "USERS" LOGGING NOCOMPRESS"

"CREATE UNIQUE INDEX "PK_EMP" ON "EMP" ("EMPNO" ) PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAX"

"TRANS 255 STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 FREELISTS 1 FREEL"

"IST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT) TABLESPACE "USERS" LOGGING"

"ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA= "SCOTT""

"ALTER TABLE "EMP" ADD CONSTRAINT "PK_EMP" PRIMARY KEY ("EMPNO") USING INDE"

"X PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MIN"

"EXTENTS 1 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT) TABLESPACE "US"

"ERS" LOGGING ENABLE "

"ALTER TABLE "EMP" ADD CONSTRAINT "FK_DEPTNO" FOREIGN KEY ("DEPTNO") REFEREN"

"CES "DEPT" ("DEPTNO") ENABLE NOVALIDATE"

"ALTER TABLE "EMP" ENABLE CONSTRAINT "FK_DEPTNO""

Import terminated successfully without warnings.

[ZFZHLHRDB1:oracle]:/oracle>

由于格式比较混乱,直接运行会报错,建荣的书中给了一段代码来格式化:

[ZFZHLHRDB1:oracle]:/tmp>more /tmp/get_ddl.sql

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.4.0 - 64bit Production

With the Partitioning, Real Application Clusters, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP,

Data Mining and Real Application Tes

Export file created by EXPORT:V11.02.00 via conventional path

import done in ZHS16GBK character set and AL16UTF16 NCHAR character set

. importing SYS's objects into SYS

. importing SCOTT's objects into SCOTT

"ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA= "SCOTT""

"CREATE TABLE "EMP" ("EMPNO" NUMBER(4, 0), "ENAME" VARCHAR2(10), "JOB" VARCH"

"AR2(9), "MGR" NUMBER(4, 0), "HIREDATE" DATE, "SAL" NUMBER(7, 2), "COMM" NUM"

"BER(7, 2), "DEPTNO" NUMBER(2, 0)) PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRAN"

"S 255 STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST "

"GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT) TABLESPACE "USERS" LOGGING NOCOMPRESS"

"CREATE UNIQUE INDEX "PK_EMP" ON "EMP" ("EMPNO" ) PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAX"

"TRANS 255 STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 FREELISTS 1 FREEL"

"IST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT) TABLESPACE "USERS" LOGGING"

"ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA= "SCOTT""

"ALTER TABLE "EMP" ADD CONSTRAINT "PK_EMP" PRIMARY KEY ("EMPNO") USING INDE"

"X PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MIN"

"EXTENTS 1 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT) TABLESPACE "US"

"ERS" LOGGING ENABLE "

"ALTER TABLE "EMP" ADD CONSTRAINT "FK_DEPTNO" FOREIGN KEY ("DEPTNO") REFEREN"

"CES "DEPT" ("DEPTNO") ENABLE NOVALIDATE"

"ALTER TABLE "EMP" ENABLE CONSTRAINT "FK_DEPTNO""

Import terminated successfully without warnings.

[ZFZHLHRDB1:oracle]:/tmp>more /tmp/gettabddl.sh

awk '

/ \"BEGIN / { N=1; }

/ \"CREATE / { N=1; }

/ \"CREATE INDEX/ { N=1; }

/ \"CREATE UNIQUE INDEX/ { N=1; }

/ \"ALTER / { N=1; }

/ \" ALTER / { N=1; }

/ \"ANALYZE / { N=1; }

/ \"GRANT / { N=1; }

/ \"COMMENT / { N=1; }

/ \"AUDIT / { N=1; }

N==1 { printf "\n/\n"; N++ }

/\"$/ {

if (N==0) next;

s=index( $0, "\"" );

ln0=length( $0 )

if ( s!=0 ) {

lcnt++

if ( lcnt >= 30 ) {

ln=substr( $0,s+1,length( substr($0,s+1))-1)

t=index( ln, ")," )

if ( t==0 ) { t=index( ln, ", " ) }

if ( t==0 ) { t=index( ln, ") " ) }

if ( t > 0 ) {

printf "%s\n%s",substr( ln,1,t+1), substr(ln, t+2)

lcnt=0

}

else {

printf "%s", ln

if ( ln0 < 78 ) { printf "\n" ; lcnt=0 }

}

}

else {

printf "%s",substr( $0,s+1,length( substr($0,s+1))-1 )

if ( ln0 < 78 ) { printf "\n" ; lcnt=0 }

}

}

}

END { printf "\n/\n"}

' $* |sed '1,2d; /^$/ d;

s/STORAGE *(INI/~ STORAGE (INI/g;

s/, "/,~ "/g;

s/ (\"/~ &/g;

s/PCT[FI]/~ &/g;

s/[( ]PARTITION /~&/g;

s/) TABLESPACE/)~ TABLESPACE/g;

s/ , / ,~/g;

s/ DATAFILE /&~/' | tr "~" "\n"

[ZFZHLHRDB1:oracle]:/tmp>

[ZFZHLHRDB1:oracle]:/tmp>ksh /tmp/gettabddl.sh /tmp/get_ddl.sql > /tmp/gen_tabddl.sql

[ZFZHLHRDB1:oracle]:/tmp>more /tmp/gen_tabddl.sql

ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA= "SCOTT"

/

CREATE TABLE "EMP"

("EMPNO" NUMBER(4, 0),

"ENAME" VARCHAR2(10),

"JOB" VARCHAR2(9),

"MGR" NUMBER(4, 0),

"HIREDATE" DATE,

"SAL" NUMBER(7, 2),

"COMM" NUMBER(7, 2),

"DEPTNO" NUMBER(2, 0))

PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255

STORAGE (INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT)

TABLESPACE "USERS" LOGGING NOCOMPRESS

/

CREATE UNIQUE INDEX "PK_EMP" ON "EMP"

("EMPNO" )

PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255

STORAGE (INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT)

TABLESPACE "USERS" LOGGING

/

ALTER SESSION SET CURRENT_SCHEMA= "SCOTT"

/

ALTER TABLE "EMP" ADD CONSTRAINT "PK_EMP" PRIMARY KEY

("EMPNO") USING INDEX

PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255

STORAGE (INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT)

TABLESPACE "USERS" LOGGING ENABLE

/

ALTER TABLE "EMP" ADD CONSTRAINT "FK_DEPTNO" FOREIGN KEY

("DEPTNO") REFERENCES "DEPT"

("DEPTNO") ENABLE NOVALIDATE

/

ALTER TABLE "EMP" ENABLE CONSTRAINT "FK_DEPTNO"

/

这样运行起来就方便多了。

另外,使用imp工具的indexfile选项也可以把dmp文件中的表和索引的创建语句导出而不导入任何对象,命令如下:

imp userid/userid@service_name file=/tmp/exp_ddl_lhr_01.dmp FULL=Y indexfile=/tmp/get_ti_ddl.sql rows=n

示例如下所示:

[oracle@rhel6lhr tmp]$ exp \'/ AS SYSDBA\' TABLES=SCOTT.EMP FILE=/tmp/exp_ddl_lhr_01.dmp LOG=/tmp/exp_table.log BUFFER=41943040 ROWS=N COMPRESS=N

Export: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Wed May 3 21:36:47 2017

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production

With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Data Mining

and Real Application Testing options

Export done in ZHS16GBK character set and AL16UTF16 NCHAR character set

Note: table data (rows) will not be exported

About to export specified tables via Conventional Path ...

Current user changed to SCOTT

. . exporting table EMP

Export terminated successfully without warnings.

[oracle@rhel6lhr tmp]$ imp \'/ AS SYSDBA\' file=/tmp/exp_ddl_lhr_01.dmp FULL=Y indexfile=/tmp/get_ti_ddl.sql rows=n

Import: Release 11.2.0.3.0 - Production on Wed May 3 21:38:10 2017

Copyright (c) 1982, 2011, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.

Connected to: Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release 11.2.0.3.0 - 64bit Production

With the Partitioning, Automatic Storage Management, OLAP, Data Mining

and Real Application Testing options

Export file created by EXPORT:V11.02.00 via conventional path

import done in ZHS16GBK character set and AL16UTF16 NCHAR character set

Import terminated successfully without warnings.

[oracle@rhel6lhr tmp]$ more /tmp/get_ti_ddl.sql

REM CREATE TABLE "SCOTT"."EMP" ("EMPNO" NUMBER(4, 0), "ENAME"

REM VARCHAR2(10), "JOB" VARCHAR2(9), "MGR" NUMBER(4, 0), "HIREDATE" DATE,

REM "SAL" NUMBER(7, 2), "COMM" NUMBER(7, 2), "DEPTNO" NUMBER(2, 0))

REM PCTFREE 10 PCTUSED 40 INITRANS 1 MAXTRANS 255 STORAGE(INITIAL 65536

REM NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL

REM DEFAULT) TABLESPACE "USERS" LOGGING NOCOMPRESS ;

CONNECT SCOTT;

CREATE UNIQUE INDEX "SCOTT"."PK_EMP" ON "EMP" ("EMPNO" ) PCTFREE 10

INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255 STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1

FREELISTS 1 FREELIST GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT) TABLESPACE "USERS"

LOGGING ;

REM ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."EMP" ADD CONSTRAINT "PK_EMP" PRIMARY KEY

REM ("EMPNO") USING INDEX PCTFREE 10 INITRANS 2 MAXTRANS 255

REM STORAGE(INITIAL 65536 NEXT 1048576 MINEXTENTS 1 FREELISTS 1 FREELIST

REM GROUPS 1 BUFFER_POOL DEFAULT) TABLESPACE "USERS" LOGGING ENABLE ;

REM ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."EMP" ADD CONSTRAINT "FK_DEPTNO" FOREIGN KEY

REM ("DEPTNO") REFERENCES "DEPT" ("DEPTNO") ENABLE NOVALIDATE ;

REM ALTER TABLE "SCOTT"."EMP" ENABLE CONSTRAINT "FK_DEPTNO" ;

[oracle@rhel6lhr tmp]$

可以看到其中的创建表的SQL语句被注释掉了,这个可以用vi命令或者文本工具来处理,处理之后就可以直接使用了。

& 说明:

有关导出数据库存储过程、函数、包、触发器、表和索引原DDL定义语句的更多内容可以参考我的BLOG:http://blog.itpub.net/26736162/viewspace-2152892/

About Me:小麦苗

● 本文作者:小麦苗,只专注于数据库的技术,更注重技术的运用

● 作者博客地址:http://blog.itpub.net/26736162/abstract/1/

● 本系列题目来源于作者的学习笔记,部分整理自网络,若有侵权或不当之处还请谅解

● 版权所有,欢迎分享本文,转载请保留出处

● 题目解答若有不当之处,还望各位朋友批评指正,共同进步

原文发布于微信公众号 - DB宝(xiaomaimiaolhr)

原文发表时间:2018-11-01

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