Android自动化测试探索(四)uiautomator2简介和使用

uiautomator2简介

项目Git地址: https://github.com/openatx/uiautomator2

安装

#1. 安装 uiautomator2

使用pip进行安装, 注意因为uiaotumator2还在开发中需要加上--pre来安装最新的版本

pip install --upgrade --pre uiautomator2

也可以使用源码来进行安装

git clone https://github.com/openatx/uiautomator2
pip install -e uiautomator2

安装pillow库, 截屏功能会需要用到这个库

pip install pillow

#2.安装守护程序到设备上(对设备进行初始化)

电脑连接上一个手机或多个手机, 确保adb已经添加到环境变量中,执行下面的命令会自动安装本库所需要的设备端程序:uiautomator-serveratx-agentopenstf/minicapopenstf/minitouch

执行之前需要确保adb service开启了

adb devices

执行上面的指令能看到连接的设备id就可以

# init 所有的已经连接到电脑的设备
python -m uiautomator2 init

如果没有开启adb service会提示以下错误, 开启adb service服务就好了

socket.error: [Errno 61] Connection refused

安装提示success即可, 注意安装的过程中手机上会有提示是否安装, 要手动确认下

#3. 安装weditor (UI Inspector)

基于浏览器技术开发的weditor UI查看器, 安装方法

pip install -U weditor

启动方式:

python -m weditor

会自动打开浏览器,输入设备的ip或者序列号,点击Connect成功后,点击刷新。

鼠标选择控件,可以在右边看到对应的属性值

使用

与设备建立连接

#1. 通过WiFi连接设备

如果手机和电脑处于同一个局域网, 可以使用如下方式通过手机ip建立连接

import uiautomator2 as u2

d = u2.connect('10.234.12.104')
print d.info

其中'10.234.12.104'是手机的IP地址, 可以通过adb指令获得: adb shell ifconfig | grep Mask

运行结果如下:

{u'displayRotation': 0, u'displaySizeDpY': 829, u'displaySizeDpX': 393, u'screenOn': True, u'displayWidth': 1080, u'productName': u'lotus', u'currentPackageName': u'com.miui.home', u'sdkInt': 27, u'displayHeight': 2150, u'naturalOrientation': True}

#2.通过USB连接设备

如果手机与电脑有通过USB连接, 可以使用如下方式建立连接

import uiautomator2 as u2

d = u2.connect('62ab58430211')
print d.info

其中'62ab58430211'是手机的SN, 可以使用adb指令获得: adb devices

运行结果如下:

{u'displayRotation': 0, u'displaySizeDpY': 829, u'displaySizeDpX': 393, u'screenOn': True, u'displayWidth': 1080, u'productName': u'lotus', u'currentPackageName': u'com.miui.home', u'sdkInt': 27, u'displayHeight': 2150, u'naturalOrientation': True}

#3.通过adb WiFi连接

如果配置了手机指定端口监听TCP/IP连接, 比如

adb tcpip 5555

可以通过指定端口建立连接

import uiautomator2 as u2

d = u2.connect('10.234.12.104:5555')
print d.info

这个方法在我的机器上python2.7会报错, 可能要在3.0以上

命令行指令

注: 下面的$device_ip代表手机IP

#1. init 为设备安装所需要的程序

python -m uiautomator2 init

#2. install: 安装apk, apk通过URL给出

python -m uiautomator2.cli install $device_ip https://example.org/some.apk

#3. clear-cache: 清空缓存

python -m uiautomator2 clear-cache

#4. app-stop-all: 停止所有应用

python -m uiautomator2 app-stop-all $device_ip

#5. screenshot: 截图

python -m uiautomator2 screenshot $device_ip screenshot.jpg

#6. healthcheck: 健康检查

python -m uiautomator2 healthcheck $device_ip

常用API

全局设置

#1. Debug HTTP Requests

import uiautomator2 as u2

d = u2.connect('10.234.12.104')
d.debug=True
print d.info

运行结果:

23:17:15.628 $ curl -X POST -d '{"params": {}, "jsonrpc": "2.0", "id": "eaacec696e5911b38ea35b652f5a0d54", "method": "deviceInfo"}' 'http://10.234.12.104:7912/jsonrpc/0'
23:17:15.856 Response (228 ms) >>>
{"jsonrpc":"2.0","id":"eaacec696e5911b38ea35b652f5a0d54","result":{"currentPackageName":"com.miui.home","displayHeight":2150,"displayRotation":0,"displaySizeDpX":393,"displaySizeDpY":829,"displayWidth":1080,"productName":"lotus","screenOn":true,"sdkInt":27,"naturalOrientation":true}}
<<< END
{u'displayRotation': 0, u'displaySizeDpY': 829, u'displaySizeDpX': 393, u'screenOn': True, u'displayWidth': 1080, u'productName': u'lotus', u'currentPackageName': u'com.miui.home', u'sdkInt': 27, u'displayHeight': 2150, u'naturalOrientation': True}

#2.Implicit wait

设置元素操作等待时间, 单位: 秒

d.implicitly_wait(10.0)
d(text="小米体检").click()
print("wait timeout", d.implicitly_wait())

第一步为设置全局元素操作等待时间, 第二步点击文本"小米体检", 如果10秒内"小米体检还没有出现则会 raise UiObjectNotFoundError

这是设置会影响的操作有: click, long_click, drag_to, get_text, set_text, clear_text等

APP管理

#1. 安装APP

只支持从网络链接安装

d.app_install('http://some-domain.com/some.apk')

#2. 运行APP

d.app_start("com.example.hello_world") # start with package name

#3. 停止运行

# equivalent to `am force-stop`, thus you could lose data
d.app_stop("com.example.hello_world") 
# equivalent to `pm clear`
d.app_clear('com.example.hello_world')

#4. 停止所有运行的app

# stop all
d.app_stop_all()
# stop all app except for com.examples.demo
d.app_stop_all(excludes=['com.examples.demo'])

#5. 获取APP信息

print d.app_info("com.examples.demo")

#6. 保存app图标

# save app icon
img = d.app_icon("com.examples.demo")
img.save("icon.png")

#7. Push文件到设备

# push to a folder
d.push("foo.txt", "/sdcard/")
# push and rename
d.push("foo.txt", "/sdcard/bar.txt")
# push fileobj
with open("foo.txt", 'rb') as f:
    d.push(f, "/sdcard/")
# push and change file access mode
d.push("foo.sh", "/data/local/tmp/", mode=0o755)

#8. 从设备pull文件

d.pull("/sdcard/tmp.txt", "tmp.txt")

# FileNotFoundError will raise if the file is not found on the device
d.pull("/sdcard/some-file-not-exists.txt", "tmp.txt")

#9. 检查并维持设备端守护进程处于运行状态

d.healthcheck()

基本API使用

Shell Command

adb_shell已经废弃,现在使用shell.

short-lived shell command

默认的超时为60s, 我们试试用shell命令发送pwd指令

output, exit_code = d.shell("pwd", timeout=60)
print output
print exit_code

输出:

/

0

也可以这样写

output = d.shell('pwd').output
exit_code = d.shell('pwd').exit_code

参数可以以list的形式使用,我们试试

output, exit_code = d.shell(['ls', '-l'])
print output
print exit_code

long-running shell command

r = d.shell("logcat", stream=True)
# r: requests.models.Response
deadline = time.time() + 10 # run maxium 10s
try:
    for line in r.iter_lines(): # r.iter_lines(chunk_size=512, decode_unicode=None, delimiter=None)
        if time.time() > deadline:
            break
        print("Read:", line.decode('utf-8'))
finally:
    r.close() # this method must be called

Session

#1. 使用session来操作APP的开启和关闭

sess = d.session("com.netease.cloudmusic") # start 网易云音乐
sess.close() # 停止网易云音乐

#2. 使用with来开启和关闭

with d.session("com.netease.cloudmusic") as sess:
    sess(text="Play").click()

#3. 创建已经打开的APP的session

sess = d.session('com.ganji.android.haoche_c', attach=True)
time.sleep(5)
sess.close()

#4. 侦测APP Crash

# When app is still running
sess(text="Music").click() # operation goes normal

# If app crash or quit
sess(text="Music").click() # raise SessionBrokenError
# other function calls under session will raise SessionBrokenError too

#5. 检查session是否正常

# When app is still running
sess(text="Music").click() # operation goes normal

# If app crash or quit
sess(text="Music").click() # raise SessionBrokenError
# other function calls under session will raise SessionBrokenError too

检索设备信息

#1. base information

print d.info

结果:

{u'displayRotation': 0, u'displaySizeDpY': 829, u'displaySizeDpX': 393, u'screenOn': True, u'displayWidth': 1080, u'productName': u'lotus', u'currentPackageName': u'com.miui.home', u'sdkInt': 27, u'displayHeight': 2150, u'naturalOrientation': True}

Process finished with exit code 0

#2. windows size

print(d.window_size())
# device upright output example: (1080, 1920)
# device horizontal output example: (1920, 1080)

#3. Get current app info

print d.current_app()

运行结果:

{'activity': u'com.ganji.android.haoche_c.ui.main.MainActivity', 'package': u'com.ganji.android.haoche_c'}

Process finished with exit code 0

#4. Wait activity

sess = d.session('com.ganji.android.haoche_c')
time.sleep(5)
print d.wait_activity('com.ganji.android.haoche_c.ui.main.MainActivity')

#5. Get device serial number

print d.serial

#6. Get WLAN ip

print d.wlan_ip

#7. Get detailed device info

print d.device_info

Key Events

#1. Turn on/off screen

d.screen_on() # turn on the screen
d.screen_off() # turn off the screen

#2. Get current screen status

print d.info.get('screenOn')

#3. Press hard/soft key

d.press("home") # press the home key, with key name
d.press("back") # press the back key, with key name
d.press(0x07, 0x02) # press keycode 0x07('0') with META ALT(0x02)

之前支持的key有以下这些:

home
back
left
right
up
down
center
menu
search
enter
delete ( or del)
recent (recent apps)
volume_up
volume_down
volume_mute
camera
power

更多key可以查看: Android KeyEvnet

#4. Unlock screen

d.unlock()
# This is equivalent to
# 1. launch activity: com.github.uiautomator.ACTION_IDENTIFY
# 2. press the "home" key

Gesture interaction with the device

#1. Click on the screen

d.click(x, y)

#2. Double click

d.double_click(x, y)
d.double_click(x, y, 0.1) # default duration between two click is 0.1s

#3. Long click on the screen

d.long_click(x, y)
d.long_click(x, y, 0.5) # long click 0.5s (default)

#4. Swipe

d.swipe(sx, sy, ex, ey)
d.swipe(sx, sy, ex, ey, 0.5) # swipe for 0.5s(default)

#5. Drag

d.drag(sx, sy, ex, ey)
d.drag(sx, sy, ex, ey, 0.5) # swipe for 0.5s(default)

#6. Swipe points

# swipe from point(x0, y0) to point(x1, y1) then to point(x2, y2)
# time will speed 0.2s bwtween two points
d.swipe((x0, y0), (x1, y1), (x2, y2), 0.2)

多用于九宫格解锁,提前获取到每个点的相对坐标(这里支持百分比), 更详细的使用参考这个帖子 使用u2实现九宫图案解锁

#7. Touch and drap (beta)

这个接口属于比较底层的原始接口,感觉并不完善,不过凑合能用。注:这个地方并不支持百分比

d.touch.down(10, 10) # 模拟按下
time.sleep(.01) # down 和 move 之间的延迟,自己控制
d.touch.move(15, 15) # 模拟移动
d.touch.up() # 模拟抬起

click, swipe, drag操作支持按比例操作, 比如

d.long_click(0.5, 0.5)

意思是长按屏幕中心

#1. 获取当前设备方向

print d.orientation

可能的方向有

natural or n
left or l
right or r
upsidedown or u (can not be set)

#2. 设置设备方向

d.set_orientation('l') # or "left"
d.set_orientation("l") # or "left"
d.set_orientation("r") # or "right"
d.set_orientation("n") # or "natural"

#3. 禁止旋转和解除

# freeze rotation
d.freeze_rotation()
# un-freeze rotation
d.freeze_rotation(False)

#4. 截屏

# take screenshot and save to a file on the computer, require Android>=4.2.
d.screenshot("home.jpg")

# get PIL.Image formatted images. Naturally, you need pillow installed first
image = d.screenshot() # default format="pillow"
image.save("home.jpg") # or home.png. Currently, only png and jpg are supported

# get opencv formatted images. Naturally, you need numpy and cv2 installed first
import cv2
image = d.screenshot(format='opencv')
cv2.imwrite('home.jpg', image)

# get raw jpeg data
imagebin = d.screenshot(format='raw')
open("some.jpg", "wb").write(imagebin)

#5. 获取UI层级关系

# get the UI hierarchy dump content (unicoded).
xml = d.dump_hierarchy()

#6. 打开通知中心

d.open_notification()

#7. 快速设置

d.open_quick_settings()

Selector

选择当前窗口中的UI控件, 例如

# Select the object with text 'Clock' and its className is 'android.widget.TextView'
d(text='Clock', className='android.widget.TextView')

支持以下这些选择参数, 详细可以参考UiSelector Java doc

text, textContains, textMatches, textStartsWith
className, classNameMatches
description, descriptionContains, descriptionMatches, descriptionStartsWith
checkable, checked, clickable, longClickable
scrollable, enabled,focusable, focused, selected
packageName, packageNameMatches
resourceId, resourceIdMatches
index, instance

#1. Children (子级控件)

# get the children or grandchildren
d(className="android.widget.ListView").child(text="Bluetooth")

#2. Siblings(同级控件)

# get siblings
d(text="Google").sibling(className="android.widget.ImageView")

#3. children by text or description or instance

# get the child matching the condition className="android.widget.LinearLayout"
# and also its children or grandchildren with text "Bluetooth"
d(className="android.widget.ListView", resourceId="android:id/list") \
 .child_by_text("Bluetooth", className="android.widget.LinearLayout")

# get children by allowing scroll search
d(className="android.widget.ListView", resourceId="android:id/list") \
 .child_by_text(
    "Bluetooth",
    allow_scroll_search=True,
    className="android.widget.LinearLayout"
  )
  • child_by_description is to find children whose grandchildren have the specified description, other parameters being similar to child_by_text.
  • child_by_instance is to find children with has a child UI element anywhere within its sub hierarchy that is at the instance specified. It is performed on visible views without scrolling.

See below links for detailed information:

  • UiScrollable, getChildByDescription, getChildByText, getChildByInstance
  • UiCollection, getChildByDescription, getChildByText, getChildByInstance

Above methods support chained invoking, e.g. for below hierarchy

<node index="0" text="" resource-id="android:id/list" class="android.widget.ListView" ...>
  <node index="0" text="WIRELESS & NETWORKS" resource-id="" class="android.widget.TextView" .../>
  <node index="1" text="" resource-id="" class="android.widget.LinearLayout" ...>
    <node index="1" text="" resource-id="" class="android.widget.RelativeLayout" ...>
      <node index="0" text="Wi‑Fi" resource-id="android:id/title" class="android.widget.TextView" .../>
    </node>
    <node index="2" text="ON" resource-id="com.android.settings:id/switchWidget" class="android.widget.Switch" .../>
  </node>
  ...
</node>

To click the switch widget right to the TextView 'Wi‑Fi', we need to select the switch widgets first. However, according to the UI hierarchy, more than one switch widgets exist and have almost the same properties. Selecting by className will not work. Alternatively, the below selecting strategy would help:

d(className="android.widget.ListView", resourceId="android:id/list") \
  .child_by_text("Wi‑Fi", className="android.widget.LinearLayout") \
  .child(className="android.widget.Switch") \
  .click()

#4. relative positioning

我们可以使用相对位置来辅助获取控件: left、right、top、bottom.

  • d(A).left(B), selects B on the left side of A.
  • d(A).right(B), selects B on the right side of A.
  • d(A).up(B), selects B above A.
  • d(A).down(B), selects B under A.

所以上面的例子可以改为:

## select "switch" on the right side of "Wi‑Fi"
d(text="Wi‑Fi").right(className="android.widget.Switch").click()

#5. Multiple instances

有时候我们会遇到屏幕上有多个控件的属性一样,这个时候就可以使用instance属性来获取其中一个控件

d(text="Add new", instance=0)  # which means the first instance with text "Add new"

另外还提供了以下API功能

# get the count of views with text "Add new" on current screen
d(text="Add new").count

# same as count property
len(d(text="Add new"))

# get the instance via index
d(text="Add new")[0]
d(text="Add new")[1]
...

# iterator
for view in d(text="Add new"):
    view.info  # ...

Notes: when using selectors in a code block that walk through the result list, you must ensure that the UI elements on the screen keep unchanged. Otherwise, when Element-Not-Found error could occur when iterating through the list.

Get the selected ui object status and its information

#1. 判断UI控件是否存在

d(text="Settings").exists # True if exists, else False
d.exists(text="Settings") # alias of above property.

# advanced usage
d(text="Settings").exists(timeout=3) # wait Settings appear in 3s, same as .wait(3)

#2. 获取控件信息

print d(text="Settings").info

输出:

{ u'contentDescription': u'',
u'checked': False,
u'scrollable': False,
u'text': u'Settings',
u'packageName': u'com.android.launcher',
u'selected': False,
u'enabled': True,
u'bounds': {u'top': 385,
            u'right': 360,
            u'bottom': 585,
            u'left': 200},
u'className': u'android.widget.TextView',
u'focused': False,
u'focusable': True,
u'clickable': True,
u'chileCount': 0,
u'longClickable': True,
u'visibleBounds': {u'top': 385,
                    u'right': 360,
                    u'bottom': 585,
                    u'left': 200},
u'checkable': False
}

#3. 获取/输入/清空文本

d(text="Settings").get_text()  # get widget text
d(text="Settings").set_text("My text...")  # set the text
d(text="Settings").clear_text()  # clear the text

#4. 获取控件中心坐标/中心偏移坐标

x, y = d(text="Settings").center()
# x, y = d(text="Settings").center(offset=(0, 0)) # left-top x, y 

Perform the click action on the selected UI object

#1. 点击控件

# click on the center of the specific ui object
d(text="Settings").click()

# wait element to appear for at most 10 seconds and then click
d(text="Settings").click(timeout=10)

# click with offset(x_offset, y_offset)
# click_x = x_offset * width + x_left_top
# click_y = y_offset * height + y_left_top
d(text="Settings").click(offset=(0.5, 0.5)) # Default center
d(text="Settings").click(offset=(0, 0)) # click left-top
d(text="Settings").click(offset=(1, 1)) # click right-bottom

# click when exists in 10s, default timeout 0s
clicked = d(text='Skip').click_exists(timeout=10.0)

# click until element gone, return bool
is_gone = d(text="Skip").click_gone(maxretry=10, interval=1.0) # maxretry default 10, interval default 1.0

#2. 长按控件

# long click on the center of the specific UI object
d(text="Settings").long_click()

Gesture actions for the specific UI object

#1. 拖动控件往指定坐标或控件

# notes : drag can not be used for Android<4.3.
# drag the UI object to a screen point (x, y), in 0.5 second
d(text="Settings").drag_to(x, y, duration=0.5)
# drag the UI object to (the center position of) another UI object, in 0.25 second
d(text="Settings").drag_to(text="Clock", duration=0.25)

#2. 控件上滑动

d(text="Settings").swipe("right")
d(text="Settings").swipe("left", steps=10)
d(text="Settings").swipe("up", steps=20) # 1 steps is about 5ms, so 20 steps is about 0.1s
d(text="Settings").swipe("down", steps=20)

#3. 双指手势

d(text="Settings").gesture((sx1, sy1), (sx2, sy2), (ex1, ey1), (ex2, ey2))

#4. 缩放手势

# notes : pinch can not be set until Android 4.3.
# from edge to center. here is "In" not "in"
d(text="Settings").pinch_in(percent=100, steps=10)
# from center to edge
d(text="Settings").pinch_out()

#5. 等待控件出现或消失

# wait until the ui object appears
d(text="Settings").wait(timeout=3.0) # return bool
# wait until the ui object gone
d(text="Settings").wait_gone(timeout=1.0)

The default timeout is 20s. see global settings for more details

#6. 惯性滚动控件

# fling forward(default) vertically(default) 
d(scrollable=True).fling()
# fling forward horizontally
d(scrollable=True).fling.horiz.forward()
# fling backward vertically
d(scrollable=True).fling.vert.backward()
# fling to beginning horizontally
d(scrollable=True).fling.horiz.toBeginning(max_swipes=1000)
# fling to end vertically
d(scrollable=True).fling.toEnd()

#7. 滚动控件

# scroll forward(default) vertically(default)
d(scrollable=True).scroll(steps=10)
# scroll forward horizontally
d(scrollable=True).scroll.horiz.forward(steps=100)
# scroll backward vertically
d(scrollable=True).scroll.vert.backward()
# scroll to beginning horizontally
d(scrollable=True).scroll.horiz.toBeginning(steps=100, max_swipes=1000)
# scroll to end vertically
d(scrollable=True).scroll.toEnd()
# scroll forward vertically until specific ui object appears
d(scrollable=True).scroll.to(text="Security")

全局变量

# set delay 1.5s after each UI click and click
d.click_post_delay = 1.5 # default no delay

# set default element wait timeout (seconds)
d.wait_timeout = 30.0 # default 20.0

超时设置

>> d.jsonrpc.getConfigurator() 
{'actionAcknowledgmentTimeout': 500,
 'keyInjectionDelay': 0,
 'scrollAcknowledgmentTimeout': 200,
 'waitForIdleTimeout': 0,
 'waitForSelectorTimeout': 0}

>> d.jsonrpc.setConfigurator({"waitForIdleTimeout": 100})
{'actionAcknowledgmentTimeout': 500,
 'keyInjectionDelay': 0,
 'scrollAcknowledgmentTimeout': 200,
 'waitForIdleTimeout': 100,
 'waitForSelectorTimeout': 0}

为了防止客户端程序响应超时,waitForIdleTimeoutwaitForSelectorTimeout目前已改为0

Input Method

这种方法通常用于不知道控件的情况下的输入。第一步需要切换输入法,然后发送adb广播命令,具体使用方法如下

d.set_fastinput_ime(True) # 切换成FastInputIME输入法
d.send_keys("你好123abcEFG") # adb广播输入
d.clear_text() # 清除输入框所有内容(Require android-uiautomator.apk version >= 1.0.7)
d.set_fastinput_ime(False) # 切换成正常的输入法
d.send_action("search") # 模拟输入法的搜索

Toast

显示Toast

d.toast.show("Hello world")
d.toast.show("Hello world", 1.0) # show for 1.0s, default 1.0s

获取Toast

# [Args]
# 5.0: max wait timeout. Default 10.0
# 10.0: cache time. return cache toast if already toast already show up in recent 10 seconds. Default 10.0 (Maybe change in the furture)
# "default message": return if no toast finally get. Default None
d.toast.get_message(5.0, 10.0, "default message")

# common usage
assert "Short message" in d.toast.get_message(5.0, default="")

# clear cached toast
d.toast.reset()
# Now d.toast.get_message(0) is None

Stop UiAutomator

停止UiAutomator守护服务

https://github.com/openatx/uiautomator2/wiki/Common-issues

因为有atx-agent的存在,Uiautomator会被一直守护着,如果退出了就会被重新启动起来。但是Uiautomator又是霸道的,一旦它在运行,手机上的辅助功能、电脑上的uiautomatorviewer 就都不能用了,除非关掉该框架本身的uiautomator。下面就说下两种关闭方法

方法1:

直接打开uiautomator app(init成功后,就会安装上的),点击关闭UIAutomator

方法2:

d.service("uiautomator").stop()

# d.service("uiautomator").start() # 启动
# d.service("uiautomator").running() # 是否在运行

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