原文题目：Derivation of Relations between Scaling Exponents and Standard Deviation Ratios
原文：The law of allometric growth is one of basic rules for understanding urban evolution. The general form of this law is allometric scaling law. However, the deep meaning and underlying rationale of the scaling exponents remain to be brought to light. In this paper, the theories of linear algebra and regression analysis are employed to reveal the mathematical and statistic essence of allometric scaling exponents. Suppose that the geometric measure relations between a set of elements in an urban system follow the allometric growth law. An allometric scaling exponent is proved to equal in theory to the ratio of the standard deviation of one logarithmic measure to the standard deviation of another logarithmic measure. In empirical analyses based on observational data, the scaling exponent is equal to the product between the standard deviation ratio and the corresponding Pearson correlation coefficient. This finding can be generalized to city fractals and city size distribution to explain fractal dimensions of urban space and Zipf scaling exponent of urban hierarchy. A conclusion can be reached that scaling exponents reflect the ratios of characteristic lengths. This study may be helpful for understanding scaling from a new perspective and the connections and distinctions between scaling and characteristic scales.
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