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Istio的流量管理(实操一)(istio 系列三)

Istio的流量管理(实操一)(istio 系列三)

使用官方的Bookinfo应用进行测试。涵盖官方文档Traffic Management章节中的请求路由,故障注入,流量迁移,TCP流量迁移,请求超时,熔断处理和流量镜像。不含ingress和Egree,后续再补充。

目录

部署Bookinfo应用

Bookinfo应用说明

官方提供的测试应用如下,包含如下4个组件:

  • productpageproductpage 服务会调用detailsreviews来填充web页面.
  • detailsdetails 服务包含book信息.
  • reviewsreviews 服务包含书评,它会调用 ratings 服务.
  • ratingsratings 服务包与书评相关的含排名信息

reviews 包含3个版本:

  • v1版本不会调用 ratings 服务.
  • v2版本会调用 ratings 服务,并按照1到5的黑色星展示排名
  • v2版本会调用 ratings 服务,并按照1到5的红色星展示排名

部署

Bookinfo应用部署在default命名空间下,使用自动注入sidecar的方式:

  • 通过如下命令在default命名空间(当然也可以部署在其他命名空间下面,Bookinfo配置文件中并没有指定部署的命名空间)中启用自动注入sidecar: $ cat <<EOF | oc -n <target-namespace> create -f - apiVersion: "k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1" kind: NetworkAttachmentDefinition metadata: name: istio-cni EOF $ kubectl label namespace default istio-injection=enabled
  • 切换在default命名空间下,部署Bookinfo应用: $ kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/platform/kube/bookinfo.yaml 等待一段时间,Bookinfo的所有pod就可以成功启动,查看pod和service: $ oc get pod NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE details-v1-78d78fbddf-5mfv9 2/2 Running 0 2m27s productpage-v1-85b9bf9cd7-mfn47 2/2 Running 0 2m27s ratings-v1-6c9dbf6b45-nm6cs 2/2 Running 0 2m27s reviews-v1-564b97f875-ns9vz 2/2 Running 0 2m27s reviews-v2-568c7c9d8f-6r6rq 2/2 Running 0 2m27s reviews-v3-67b4988599-ddknm 2/2 Running 0 2m27s $ oc get svc NAME TYPE CLUSTER-IP EXTERNAL-IP PORT(S) AGE details ClusterIP 10.84.97.183 <none> 9080/TCP 3m33s kubernetes ClusterIP 10.84.0.1 <none> 443/TCP 14d productpage ClusterIP 10.84.98.111 <none> 9080/TCP 3m33s ratings ClusterIP 10.84.237.68 <none> 9080/TCP 3m33s reviews ClusterIP 10.84.39.249 <none> 9080/TCP 3m33s 使用如下命令判断Bookinfo应用是否正确安装: $ kubectl exec -it $(kubectl get pod -l app=ratings -o jsonpath='{.items[0].metadata.name}') -c ratings -- curl productpage:9080/productpage | grep -o "<title>.*</title>" <title>Simple Bookstore App</title> #返回的结果 也可以直接通过svc的endpoint进行访问 $ oc describe svc productpage|grep Endpoint Endpoints: 10.83.1.85:9080 $ curl -s 10.83.1.85:9080/productpage | grep -o "<title>.*</title>" 可在openshift中创建router(属于kuberenetes的ingress gateway)进行访问(将${HOST_NAME}替换为实际的主机名) kind: Route apiVersion: route.openshift.io/v1 metadata: name: productpage namespace: default labels: app: productpage service: productpage annotations: openshift.io/host.generated: 'true' spec: host: ${HOST_NAME} to: kind: Service name: productpage weight: 100 port: targetPort: http wildcardPolicy: None 此处先不根据官方文档配置ingress,后续再配置
  • 配置默认的destination rules 配置带mutual TLS(一开始学习istio时不建议配置) $ kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/destination-rule-all.yaml 配置不带mutual TLS $ kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/destination-rule-all-mtls.yaml 获取配置的destination rules $ kubectl get destinationrules -o yaml 获取到的destination rules如下,注意默认安装下,除了reviews外的service只有v1版本 - apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1beta1 kind: DestinationRule metadata: annotations: ... name: details namespace: default spec: host: details #对应kubernetes service "details" subsets: - labels: #实际的details的deployment只有一个标签"version: v1" version: v1 name: v1 - labels: version: v2 name: v2 - apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1beta1 kind: DestinationRule metadata: annotations: ... name: productpage namespace: default spec: host: productpage subsets: - labels: version: v1 name: v1 - apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1beta1 kind: DestinationRule metadata: annotations: ... name: ratings namespace: default spec: host: ratings subsets: - labels: version: v1 name: v1 - labels: version: v2 name: v2 - labels: version: v2-mysql name: v2-mysql - labels: version: v2-mysql-vm name: v2-mysql-vm - apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1beta1 kind: DestinationRule metadata: annotations: ... name: reviews # kubernetes service "reviews"实际中有3个版本 namespace: default spec: host: reviews subsets: - labels: version: v1 name: v1 - labels: version: v2 name: v2 - labels: version: v3 name: v3

卸载

使用如下命令可以卸载Bookinfo

$ samples/bookinfo/platform/kube/cleanup.sh

流量管理

请求路由

下面展示如何根据官方提供的Bookinfo微服务的多个版本动态地路由请求。在上面部署BookInfo应用之后,该应用有3个reviews服务,分别提供:无排名,有黑星排名,有红星排名三种显示。由于默认情况下istio会使用轮询模式将请求一次分发到3个reviews服务上,因此在刷新/productpage的页面时,可以看到如下变化:

  • V1版本:
  • V2版本:
  • V3版本:

本次展示如何将请求仅分发到某一个reviews服务上。

首先创建如下virtual service:

$ kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-all-v1.yaml

查看路由信息

$ kubectl get virtualservices -o yaml
- apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1beta1
  kind: VirtualService
  metadata:
    annotations:
      ...
    name: details
    namespace: default
  spec:
    hosts:
    - details
    http:
    - route:
      - destination:
          host: details
          subset: v1
		  
- apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1beta1
  kind: VirtualService
  metadata:
    annotations:
      ...
    name: productpage
    namespace: default
  spec:
    hosts:
    - productpage
    http:
    - route:
      - destination:
          host: productpage
          subset: v1
		  
- apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1beta1
  kind: VirtualService
  metadata:
    annotations:
      ...
    name: ratings
    namespace: default
  spec:
    hosts:
    - ratings
    http:
    - route:
      - destination:
          host: ratings
          subset: v1
		  
- apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1beta1
  kind: VirtualService
  metadata:
    annotations:
      ...
    name: reviews
    namespace: default
  spec:
    hosts:
    - reviews
    http:
    - route:
      - destination: #可以看到流量都分发到`reviews`服务的v1版本上
          host: reviews #kubernetes的服务,解析为reviews.default.svc.cluster.local
          subset: v1 #将v1修改为v2就可以将请求分只发到v2版本上

此时再刷新/productpage的页面时,发现只显示无排名的页面

卸载:

$ kubectl delete -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-all-v1.yaml

基于用户ID的路由

下面展示基于HTTP首部字段的路由,首先在/productpage页面中使用名为jason的用户登陆(密码随便写)。

部署启用基于用户的路由:

$ kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-reviews-test-v2.yaml

创建的VirtualService如下

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1beta1
kind: VirtualService
metadata:
  annotations:
    ...
  name: reviews
  namespace: default
spec:
  hosts:
  - reviews
  http:
  - match: #将HTTP请求首部中有end-user:jason字段的请求路由到v2
    - headers:
        end-user:
          exact: jason
    route:
    - destination:
        host: reviews
        subset: v2
  - route: #HTTP请求首部中不带end-user:jason字段的请求会被路由到v1
    - destination:
        host: reviews
        subset: v1

刷新/productpage页面,可以看到只会显示v2版本(带黑星排名)页面,退出jason登陆,可以看到只显示v1版本(不带排名)页面。

卸载:

$ kubectl delete -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-reviews-test-v2.yaml

故障注入

本节使用故障注入来测试应用的可靠性。

首先使用如下配置固定请求路径:

$ kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-all-v1.yaml
$ kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-reviews-test-v2.yaml

执行后,请求路径变为:

  • productpagereviews:v2ratings (仅适用于用户 jason)
  • productpagereviews:v1 (适用于除jason外的其他用户)

注入HTTP延时故障

为了测试Bookinfo应用的弹性,为用户jasonreviews:v2ratings 的微服务间注入7s的延时,用来模拟Bookinfo的内部bug。

注意reviews:v2在调用ratings服务时,有一个10s的硬编码超时时间,因此即使引入了7s的延时,端到端流程上也不会看到任何错误。

注入故障,来延缓来自测试用户jason的流量:

$ kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-ratings-test-delay.yaml

查看部署的virtual service信息:

$ kubectl get virtualservice ratings -o yaml
apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1beta1
kind: VirtualService
metadata:
  annotations:
    ...
  name: ratings
  namespace: default
spec:
  hosts:
  - ratings
  http:
  - fault: #将来自jason的全部流量注入5s的延迟,流量目的地为v1版本的ratings服务
      delay:
        fixedDelay: 7s
        percentage:
          value: 100
    match:
    - headers:
        end-user:
          exact: jason
    route:
    - destination:
        host: ratings
        subset: v1
  - route: #非来自jason的流量不受影响
    - destination:
        host: ratings
        subset: v1

打开 /productpage 页面,使用jason用户登陆并刷新浏览器页面,可以看到7s内不会加载页面,且页面上可以看到如下错误信息:

相同服务的virtualservice的配置会被覆盖,因此此处没必要清理

注入HTTP中断故障

ratings微服务上模拟为测试用户jason引入HTTP中断故障,这种场景下,在加载页面时会看到错误信息Ratings service is currently unavailable.

使用如下命令为用户jason注入HTTP中断

$ kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-ratings-test-abort.yaml

获取部署的ratings的virtual service信息

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1beta1
kind: VirtualService
metadata:
  annotations:
    ...
  name: ratings
  namespace: default
spec:
  hosts:
  - ratings
  http:
  - fault: #对来自用户jason的请求直接响应500错误码
      abort:
        httpStatus: 500
        percentage:
          value: 100
    match:
    - headers:
        end-user:
          exact: jason
    route:
    - destination:
        host: ratings
        subset: v1
  - route:
    - destination:
        host: ratings
        subset: v1

打开 /productpage 页面,使用jason用户登陆,可以看到如下错误。退出用户jason后该错误消失。

删除注入的中断故障

$ kubectl delete -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-ratings-test-abort.yaml

卸载

环境清理

$ kubectl delete -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-all-v1.yaml

流量迁移

本章展示如何将流量从一个版本的微服务上迁移到另一个版本的微服务,如将流量从老版本切换到新版本。通常情况下会逐步进行流量切换,istio下可以基于百分比进行流量切换。注意各个版本的权重之和必须等于100,否则会报total destination weight ${weight-total}= 100的错误,${weight-total}为当前配置的权重之和。

基于权重的路由

  • 首先将所有微服务的流量都分发到v1版本的微服务,打开/productpage页面可以看到该页面上没有任何排名信息。 $ kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-all-v1.yaml
  • 使用如下命令将50%的流量从reviews:v1迁移到review:v3 $ kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-reviews-50-v3.yaml
  • 获取virtual service信息 $ kubectl get virtualservice reviews -o yaml apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1beta1 kind: VirtualService metadata: annotations: ... name: reviews namespace: default spec: hosts: - reviews http: - route: #50%的流量到v1,50%的流量到v3。 - destination: host: reviews subset: v1 weight: 50 - destination: host: reviews subset: v3 weight: 50
  • 登陆并刷新/productpage,可以看到50%概率会看到v1的页面,50%的概率会看到v2的页面

卸载

$ kubectl delete -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-all-v1.yaml

TCP流量迁移

本节展示如何将TCP流量从一个版本的迁移到另一个版本。例如将TCP的流量从老版本迁移到新版本。

基于权重的TCP路由

单独创建一个命名空间部署tcp-echo应用

$ kubectl create namespace istio-io-tcp-traffic-shifting

openshift下面需要授权1337的用户进行sidecar注入

$ oc adm policy add-scc-to-group privileged system:serviceaccounts:istio-io-tcp-traffic-shifting
$ oc adm policy add-scc-to-group anyuid system:serviceaccounts:istio-io-tcp-traffic-shifting

创建NetworkAttachmentDefinition,使用istio-cni

$ cat <<EOF | oc -n istio-io-tcp-traffic-shifting create -f -
apiVersion: "k8s.cni.cncf.io/v1"
kind: NetworkAttachmentDefinition
metadata:
  name: istio-cni
EOF

对命名空间istio-io-tcp-traffic-shifting使用自动注入sidecar的方式

$ kubectl label namespace istio-io-tcp-traffic-shifting istio-injection=enabled

部署tcp-echo应用

$ kubectl apply -f samples/tcp-echo/tcp-echo-services.yaml -n istio-io-tcp-traffic-shifting

tcp-echo服务的流量全部分发到v1版本

$ kubectl apply -f samples/tcp-echo/tcp-echo-all-v1.yaml -n istio-io-tcp-traffic-shifting

tcp-echo服务的pod如下,包含v1v2两个版本

$ oc get pod
NAME                           READY   STATUS    RESTARTS   AGE
tcp-echo-v1-5cb688897c-hk277   2/2     Running   0          16m
tcp-echo-v2-64b7c58f68-hk9sr   2/2     Running   0          16m

默认部署的gateway如下,可以看到它使用了istio默认安装的ingress gateway,通过端口31400进行访问

$ oc get gateways.networking.istio.io tcp-echo-gateway -oyaml
apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1beta1
kind: Gateway
metadata:
  annotations:
    ...
  name: tcp-echo-gateway
  namespace: istio-io-tcp-traffic-shifting
spec:
  selector:
    istio: ingressgateway
  servers:
  - hosts:
    - '*'
    port:
      name: tcp
      number: 31400
      protocol: TCP

对应绑定的virtual service为tcp-echo。此处host为"*",表示只要访问到gateway tcp-echo-gateway 31400端口上的流量都会被分发到该virtual service中。

apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3
kind: VirtualService
metadata:
  name: tcp-echo
spec:
  hosts:
  - "*"
  gateways:
  - tcp-echo-gateway
  tcp:
  - match:
    - port: 31400
    route:
    - destination: #转发到的后端服务的信息
        host: tcp-echo
        port:
          number: 9000
        subset: v1

由于没有安装ingress gateway(没有生效),按照gateway的原理,可以通过istio默认安装的ingress gateway模拟ingress的访问方式。可以看到默认的ingress gateway pod中打开了31400端口:

$ oc exec -it  istio-ingressgateway-64f6f9d5c6-qrnw2 /bin/sh -n istio-system
$ ss -ntl                                                          
State          Recv-Q          Send-Q      Local Address:Port       Peer Address:Port     
LISTEN         0               0                 0.0.0.0:15090           0.0.0.0:*       
LISTEN         0               0               127.0.0.1:15000           0.0.0.0:*       
LISTEN         0               0                 0.0.0.0:31400           0.0.0.0:*       
LISTEN         0               0                 0.0.0.0:80              0.0.0.0:*       
LISTEN         0               0                       *:15020                 *:* 

通过ingress gateway pod的kubernetes service进行访问:

$ oc get svc |grep ingress
istio-ingressgateway   LoadBalancer   10.84.93.45  ...
$ for i in {1..10}; do (date; sleep 1) | nc 10.84.93.45 31400; done
one Wed May 13 11:17:44 UTC 2020
one Wed May 13 11:17:45 UTC 2020
one Wed May 13 11:17:46 UTC 2020
one Wed May 13 11:17:47 UTC 2020

可以看到所有的流量都分发到了v1版本(打印"one")的tcp-echo服务

直接使用tcp-echo对应的kubernetes service进行访问是不受istio管控的,需要通过virtual service进行访问

下面将20%的流量从tcp-echo:v1 迁移到tcp-echo:v2

$ kubectl apply -f samples/tcp-echo/tcp-echo-20-v2.yaml -n istio-io-tcp-traffic-shifting

查看部署的路由规则

$ kubectl get virtualservice tcp-echo -o yaml -n istio-io-tcp-traffic-shifting
apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1beta1
kind: VirtualService
metadata:
  annotations:
    ...
  name: tcp-echo
  namespace: istio-io-tcp-traffic-shifting
spec:
  gateways:
  - tcp-echo-gateway
  hosts:
  - '*'
  tcp:
  - match:
    - port: 31400
    route:
    - destination:
        host: tcp-echo
        port:
          number: 9000
        subset: v1
      weight: 80
    - destination:
        host: tcp-echo
        port:
          number: 9000
        subset: v2
      weight: 20

再次进行测试,结果如下:

$ for i in {1..10}; do (date; sleep 1) | nc 10.84.93.45 31400; done
one Wed May 13 13:17:44 UTC 2020
two Wed May 13 13:17:45 UTC 2020
one Wed May 13 13:17:46 UTC 2020
one Wed May 13 13:17:47 UTC 2020
one Wed May 13 13:17:48 UTC 2020
one Wed May 13 13:17:49 UTC 2020
one Wed May 13 13:17:50 UTC 2020
one Wed May 13 13:17:51 UTC 2020
one Wed May 13 13:17:52 UTC 2020
two Wed May 13 13:17:53 UTC 2020

卸载

执行如下命令卸载tcp-echo应用

$ kubectl delete -f samples/tcp-echo/tcp-echo-all-v1.yaml -n istio-io-tcp-traffic-shifting
$ kubectl delete -f samples/tcp-echo/tcp-echo-services.yaml -n istio-io-tcp-traffic-shifting
$ kubectl delete namespace istio-io-tcp-traffic-shifting

请求超时

本节介绍如何使用istio在Envoy上配置请求超时时间。用到了官方的例子Bookinfo

部署路由

$ kubectl apply -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-all-v1.yaml

HTTP请求的超时时间在路由规则的timeout字段中指定。默认情况下禁用HTTP的超时,下面会将review服务的超时时间设置为1s,为了校验效果,将ratings 服务延时2s。

  • 将请求路由到v2版本的review服务,即调用ratings服务的版本,此时review服务没有设置超时 $ kubectl apply -f - <<EOF apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3 kind: VirtualService metadata: name: reviews spec: hosts: - reviews http: - route: - destination: host: reviews subset: v2 EOF
  • rating服务增加2s延时 $ kubectl apply -f - <<EOF apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3 kind: VirtualService metadata: name: ratings spec: hosts: - ratings http: - fault: delay: percent: 100 fixedDelay: 2s route: - destination: host: ratings subset: v1 EOF
  • 打开/productpage页面,可以看到Bookinfo应用正在,但刷新页面后会有2s的延时
  • 为review服务设置0.5s的请求超时 $ kubectl apply -f - <<EOF apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3 kind: VirtualService metadata: name: reviews spec: hosts: - reviews http: - route: - destination: host: reviews subset: v2 timeout: 0.5s EOF
  • 此时刷新页面,大概1s返回结果,reviews不可用 响应花了1s,而不是0.5s的原因是productpage 服务硬编码了一次重试,因此reviews 服务在返回前会超时2次。Bookinfo应用是有自己内部的超时机制的,具体参见fault-injection

卸载

$ kubectl delete -f samples/bookinfo/networking/virtual-service-all-v1.yaml

断路

本节将显示如何为连接、请求和异常值检测配置熔断。断路是创建弹性微服务应用程序的重要模式,允许编写的程序能够限制错误,延迟峰值以及非期望的网络的影响。

default命名空间(已经开启自动注入sidecar)下部署httpbin

$ kubectl apply -f samples/httpbin/httpbin.yaml

配置断路器

  • 创建destination rule,在调用httpbin服务时应用断路策略。 $ kubectl apply -f - <<EOF apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3 kind: DestinationRule metadata: name: httpbin spec: host: httpbin trafficPolicy: connectionPool: tcp: maxConnections: 1 #到一个目的主机的HTTP1/TCP 的最大连接数 http: http1MaxPendingRequests: 1 #到一个目标的处于pending状态的最大HTTP请求数 maxRequestsPerConnection: 1 #到一个后端的每条连接上的最大请求数 outlierDetection: #控制从负载平衡池中逐出不正常主机的设置 consecutiveErrors: 1 interval: 1s baseEjectionTime: 3m maxEjectionPercent: 100 EOF
  • 校验destination rule的正确性 $ kubectl get destinationrule httpbin -o yaml apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1beta1 kind: DestinationRule metadata: annotations: ... name: httpbin namespace: default spec: host: httpbin trafficPolicy: connectionPool: http: http1MaxPendingRequests: 1 maxRequestsPerConnection: 1 tcp: maxConnections: 1 outlierDetection: baseEjectionTime: 3m consecutiveErrors: 1 interval: 1s maxEjectionPercent: 100

添加客户端

创建一个客户端,向httpbin服务发送请求。客户端是一个名为 fortio的简单负载测试工具,fortio可以控制连接数,并发数和发出去的HTTP调用延时。下面将使用该客户端触发设置在 DestinationRule中的断路器策略。

  • 部署fortio服务 $ kubectl apply -f samples/httpbin/sample-client/fortio-deploy.yaml
  • 登陆到客户端的pod,使用名为的fortio工具调用httpbin,使用-curl指明期望执行一次调用 $ FORTIO_POD=$(kubectl get pod | grep fortio | awk '{ print $1 }') $ kubectl exec -it $FORTIO_POD -c fortio /usr/bin/fortio -- load -curl http://httpbin:8000/get 调用结果如下,可以看到请求成功: $ kubectl exec -it $FORTIO_POD -c fortio /usr/bin/fortio -- load -curl http://httpbin:8000/get HTTP/1.1 200 OK server: envoy date: Thu, 14 May 2020 01:21:47 GMT content-type: application/json content-length: 586 access-control-allow-origin: * access-control-allow-credentials: true x-envoy-upstream-service-time: 11 { "args": {}, "headers": { "Content-Length": "0", "Host": "httpbin:8000", "User-Agent": "fortio.org/fortio-1.3.1", "X-B3-Parentspanid": "b5cd907bcfb5158f", "X-B3-Sampled": "0", "X-B3-Spanid": "407597df02737b32", "X-B3-Traceid": "45f3690565e5ca9bb5cd907bcfb5158f", "X-Forwarded-Client-Cert": "By=spiffe://cluster.local/ns/default/sa/httpbin;Hash=dac158cf40c0f28f3322e6219c45d546ef8cc3b7df9d993ace84ab6e44aab708;Subject=\"\";URI=spiffe://cluster.local/ns/default/sa/default" }, "origin": "127.0.0.1", "url": "http://httpbin:8000/get" }

触发断路器

在上面的DestinationRule设定中指定了maxConnections: 1http1MaxPendingRequests: 1,表示如果并发的连接数和请求数大于1,则后续的请求和连接会失败,此时触发断路。

  1. 使用两条并发的连接 (-c 2) ,并发生20个请求 (-n 20): $ kubectl exec -it $FORTIO_POD -c fortio /usr/bin/fortio -- load -c 2 -qps 0 -n 20 -loglevel Warning http://httpbin:8000/get 05:50:30 I logger.go:97> Log level is now 3 Warning (was 2 Info) Fortio 1.3.1 running at 0 queries per second, 16->16 procs, for 20 calls: http://httpbin:8000/get Starting at max qps with 2 thread(s) [gomax 16] for exactly 20 calls (10 per thread + 0) 05:50:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 05:50:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 05:50:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 05:50:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) Ended after 51.51929ms : 20 calls. qps=388.2 Aggregated Function Time : count 20 avg 0.0041658472 +/- 0.003982 min 0.000313105 max 0.017104987 sum 0.083316943 # range, mid point, percentile, count >= 0.000313105 <= 0.001 , 0.000656552 , 15.00, 3 > 0.002 <= 0.003 , 0.0025 , 70.00, 11 > 0.003 <= 0.004 , 0.0035 , 80.00, 2 > 0.005 <= 0.006 , 0.0055 , 85.00, 1 > 0.008 <= 0.009 , 0.0085 , 90.00, 1 > 0.012 <= 0.014 , 0.013 , 95.00, 1 > 0.016 <= 0.017105 , 0.0165525 , 100.00, 1 # target 50% 0.00263636 # target 75% 0.0035 # target 90% 0.009 # target 99% 0.016884 # target 99.9% 0.0170829 Sockets used: 6 (for perfect keepalive, would be 2) Code 200 : 16 (80.0 %) Code 503 : 4 (20.0 %) Response Header Sizes : count 20 avg 184.05 +/- 92.03 min 0 max 231 sum 3681 Response Body/Total Sizes : count 20 avg 701.05 +/- 230 min 241 max 817 sum 14021 All done 20 calls (plus 0 warmup) 4.166 ms avg, 388.2 qps 主要关注的内容如下,可以看到大部分请求都是成功的,但也有一小部分失败 Sockets used: 6 (for perfect keepalive, would be 2) Code 200 : 16 (80.0 %) Code 503 : 4 (20.0 %)
  2. 将并发连接数提升到3 $ kubectl exec -it $FORTIO_POD -c fortio /usr/bin/fortio -- load -c 3 -qps 0 -n 30 -loglevel Warning http://httpbin:8000/get 06:00:30 I logger.go:97> Log level is now 3 Warning (was 2 Info) Fortio 1.3.1 running at 0 queries per second, 16->16 procs, for 30 calls: http://httpbin:8000/get Starting at max qps with 3 thread(s) [gomax 16] for exactly 30 calls (10 per thread + 0) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) 06:00:30 W http_client.go:679> Parsed non ok code 503 (HTTP/1.1 503) Ended after 18.885972ms : 30 calls. qps=1588.5 Aggregated Function Time : count 30 avg 0.0015352119 +/- 0.002045 min 0.000165718 max 0.006403746 sum 0.046056356 # range, mid point, percentile, count >= 0.000165718 <= 0.001 , 0.000582859 , 70.00, 21 > 0.002 <= 0.003 , 0.0025 , 73.33, 1 > 0.003 <= 0.004 , 0.0035 , 83.33, 3 > 0.004 <= 0.005 , 0.0045 , 90.00, 2 > 0.005 <= 0.006 , 0.0055 , 93.33, 1 > 0.006 <= 0.00640375 , 0.00620187 , 100.00, 2 # target 50% 0.000749715 # target 75% 0.00316667 # target 90% 0.005 # target 99% 0.00634318 # target 99.9% 0.00639769 Sockets used: 23 (for perfect keepalive, would be 3) Code 200 : 9 (30.0 %) Code 503 : 21 (70.0 %) Response Header Sizes : count 30 avg 69 +/- 105.4 min 0 max 230 sum 2070 Response Body/Total Sizes : count 30 avg 413.5 +/- 263.5 min 241 max 816 sum 12405 All done 30 calls (plus 0 warmup) 1.535 ms avg, 1588.5 qps 可以看到发生了短路,只有30%的请求成功 Sockets used: 23 (for perfect keepalive, would be 3) Code 200 : 9 (30.0 %) Code 503 : 21 (70.0 %)
  3. 查询 istio-proxy 获取更多信息 $ kubectl exec $FORTIO_POD -c istio-proxy -- pilot-agent request GET stats | grep httpbin | grep pending cluster.outbound|8000||httpbin.default.svc.cluster.local.circuit_breakers.default.rq_pending_open: 0 cluster.outbound|8000||httpbin.default.svc.cluster.local.circuit_breakers.high.rq_pending_open: 0 cluster.outbound|8000||httpbin.default.svc.cluster.local.upstream_rq_pending_active: 0 cluster.outbound|8000||httpbin.default.svc.cluster.local.upstream_rq_pending_failure_eject: 0 cluster.outbound|8000||httpbin.default.svc.cluster.local.upstream_rq_pending_overflow: 93 cluster.outbound|8000||httpbin.default.svc.cluster.local.upstream_rq_pending_total: 139

卸载

$ kubectl delete destinationrule httpbin
$ kubectl delete deploy httpbin fortio-deploy
$ kubectl delete svc httpbin fortio

镜像

本节展示istio的流量镜像功能。镜像会将活动的流量的副本发送到镜像的服务上。

该任务中,首先将所有的流量分发到v1的测试服务上,然后通过镜像将一部分流量分发到v2。

  • 首先部署两个版本的httpbin服务 httpbin-v1: $ cat <<EOF | istioctl kube-inject -f - | kubectl create -f - apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: httpbin-v1 spec: replicas: 1 selector: matchLabels: app: httpbin version: v1 #v1版本标签 template: metadata: labels: app: httpbin version: v1 spec: containers: - image: docker.io/kennethreitz/httpbin imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent name: httpbin command: ["gunicorn", "--access-logfile", "-", "-b", "0.0.0.0:80", "httpbin:app"] ports: - containerPort: 80 EOF httpbin-v2: $ cat <<EOF | istioctl kube-inject -f - | kubectl create -f - apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: httpbin-v2 spec: replicas: 1 selector: matchLabels: app: httpbin version: v2 #v2版本标签 template: metadata: labels: app: httpbin version: v2 spec: containers: - image: docker.io/kennethreitz/httpbin imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent name: httpbin command: ["gunicorn", "--access-logfile", "-", "-b", "0.0.0.0:80", "httpbin:app"] ports: - containerPort: 80 EOF httpbin Kubernetes service: $ kubectl create -f - <<EOF apiVersion: v1 kind: Service metadata: name: httpbin labels: app: httpbin spec: ports: - name: http port: 8000 targetPort: 80 selector: app: httpbin EOF
  • 启动一个sleep服务,提供curl功能 cat <<EOF | istioctl kube-inject -f - | kubectl create -f - apiVersion: apps/v1 kind: Deployment metadata: name: sleep spec: replicas: 1 selector: matchLabels: app: sleep template: metadata: labels: app: sleep spec: containers: - name: sleep image: tutum/curl command: ["/bin/sleep","infinity"] imagePullPolicy: IfNotPresent EOF

创建默认路由策略

默认kubernetes会对httpbin的所有版本的服务进行负载均衡,这一步中,将所有的流量分发到v1

  • 创建一个默认的路由,将所有流量分发大v1版本的服务 $ kubectl apply -f - <<EOF apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3 kind: VirtualService metadata: name: httpbin spec: hosts: - httpbin http: - route: - destination: host: httpbin subset: v1 # 100%将流量分发到v1 weight: 100 --- apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3 kind: DestinationRule metadata: name: httpbin spec: host: httpbin subsets: - name: v1 labels: version: v1 - name: v2 labels: version: v2 EOF
  • 向该服务发送部分流量 $ export SLEEP_POD=$(kubectl get pod -l app=sleep -o jsonpath={.items..metadata.name}) $ kubectl exec -it $SLEEP_POD -c sleep -- sh -c 'curl http://httpbin:8000/headers' | python -m json.tool { "headers": { "Accept": "*/*", "Content-Length": "0", "Host": "httpbin:8000", "User-Agent": "curl/7.35.0", "X-B3-Parentspanid": "a35a08a1875f5d18", "X-B3-Sampled": "0", "X-B3-Spanid": "7d1e0a1db0db5634", "X-B3-Traceid": "3b5e9010f4a50351a35a08a1875f5d18", "X-Forwarded-Client-Cert": "By=spiffe://cluster.local/ns/default/sa/default;Hash=6dd991f0846ac27dc7fb878ebe8f7b6a8ebd571bdea9efa81d711484505036d7;Subject=\"\";URI=spiffe://cluster.local/ns/default/sa/default" } }
  • 校验v1v2版本的httpbin pod的日志,可以看到v1服务是有访问日志的,而v2则没有 $ export V1_POD=$(kubectl get pod -l app=httpbin,version=v1 -o jsonpath={.items..metadata.name}) $ kubectl logs -f $V1_POD -c httpbin ... 127.0.0.1 - - [14/May/2020:06:17:57 +0000] "GET /headers HTTP/1.1" 200 518 "-" "curl/7.35.0" 127.0.0.1 - - [14/May/2020:06:18:16 +0000] "GET /headers HTTP/1.1" 200 518 "-" "curl/7.35.0" $ export V2_POD=$(kubectl get pod -l app=httpbin,version=v2 -o jsonpath={.items..metadata.name}) $ kubectl logs -f $V2_POD -c httpbin <none>

将流量镜像到v2

  • 修改路由规则,将流量镜像到v2 $ kubectl apply -f - <<EOF apiVersion: networking.istio.io/v1alpha3 kind: VirtualService metadata: name: httpbin spec: hosts: - httpbin http: - route: - destination: host: httpbin subset: v1 #100%将流量分发到v1 weight: 100 mirror: host: httpbin subset: v2 #100%将流量镜像到v2 mirror_percent: 100 EOF 当流量配置了镜像时,发送到镜像服务的请求会在Host/Authority首部之后加上-shadow,如cluster-1 变为cluster-1-shadow需要注意的是,镜像的请求是"发起并忘记"的方式,即会丢弃对镜像请求的响应。 可以使用``mirror_percent 字段镜像一部分流量,而不是所有的流量。如果没有出现该字段,为了兼容老版本,会镜像所有的流量。
  • 发送流量 $ kubectl exec -it $SLEEP_POD -c sleep -- sh -c 'curl http://httpbin:8000/headers' | python -m json.tool 查看v1和v2服务的日志,可以看到此时将v1服务的请求镜像到了v2服务上 $ kubectl logs -f $V1_POD -c httpbin ... 127.0.0.1 - - [14/May/2020:06:17:57 +0000] "GET /headers HTTP/1.1" 200 518 "-" "curl/7.35.0" 127.0.0.1 - - [14/May/2020:06:18:16 +0000] "GET /headers HTTP/1.1" 200 518 "-" "curl/7.35.0" 127.0.0.1 - - [14/May/2020:06:32:09 +0000] "GET /headers HTTP/1.1" 200 518 "-" "curl/7.35.0" 127.0.0.1 - - [14/May/2020:06:32:37 +0000] "GET /headers HTTP/1.1" 200 518 "-" "curl/7.35.0" $ kubectl logs -f $V2_POD -c httpbin ... 127.0.0.1 - - [14/May/2020:06:32:37 +0000] "GET /headers HTTP/1.1" 200 558 "-" "curl/7.35.0"

卸载

$ kubectl delete virtualservice httpbin
$ kubectl delete destinationrule httpbin
$ kubectl delete deploy httpbin-v1 httpbin-v2 sleep
$ kubectl delete svc httpbin

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