opengl入门-纹理

到这一讲稍微复杂点了,做个阶段性的总结,加深记忆

  1. 参考:learnOpenG-纹理
  2. opengl工作流理解: opengl实现渲染的套路有一定范式,把握两条主线:

opengl 工作流

  1. 项目目录:

项目目录

注意:1. 图片资源要放到代码同目录里加载才能成功 2.texture.vs和texture.fs源码在学习资料里通过点击跳转来获取

  1. 核心代码实现:
#include <glad/glad.h>
#include <GLFW/glfw3.h>

#define STB_IMAGE_IMPLEMENTATION
#include "stb_image.h"

#include "Shader.h"
#include <iostream>

void framebuffer_size_callback(GLFWwindow* window, int width, int height);
void processInput(GLFWwindow *window);

// settings
const unsigned int SCR_WIDTH = 800;
const unsigned int SCR_HEIGHT = 600;

int main()
{
    // glfw: initialize and configure
    // ------------------------------
    glfwInit();
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MAJOR, 3);
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_CONTEXT_VERSION_MINOR, 3);
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_PROFILE, GLFW_OPENGL_CORE_PROFILE);

#ifdef __APPLE__
    glfwWindowHint(GLFW_OPENGL_FORWARD_COMPAT, GL_TRUE);
#endif

    // glfw window creation
    // --------------------
    GLFWwindow* window = glfwCreateWindow(SCR_WIDTH, SCR_HEIGHT, "LearnOpenGL", NULL, NULL);
    if (window == NULL)
    {
        std::cout << "Failed to create GLFW window" << std::endl;
        glfwTerminate();
        return -1;
    }
    glfwMakeContextCurrent(window);
    glfwSetFramebufferSizeCallback(window, framebuffer_size_callback);

    // glad: load all OpenGL function pointers
    // ---------------------------------------
    if (!gladLoadGLLoader((GLADloadproc)glfwGetProcAddress))
    {
        std::cout << "Failed to initialize GLAD" << std::endl;
        return -1;
    }

    // build and compile our shader zprogram
    // ------------------------------------
    Shader ourShader("4.1.texture.vs", "4.1.texture.fs");

    // set up vertex data (and buffer(s)) and configure vertex attributes
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------
    float vertices[] = {
        // positions          // colors           // texture coords
         0.5f,  0.5f, 0.0f,   1.0f, 0.0f, 0.0f,   1.0f, 1.0f, // top right
         0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f,   0.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f,   1.0f, 0.0f, // bottom right
        -0.5f, -0.5f, 0.0f,   0.0f, 0.0f, 1.0f,   0.0f, 0.0f, // bottom left
        -0.5f,  0.5f, 0.0f,   1.0f, 1.0f, 0.0f,   0.0f, 1.0f  // top left
    };
    unsigned int indices[] = {
        0, 1, 3, // first triangle
        1, 2, 3  // second triangle
    };
    unsigned int VBO, VAO, EBO;
    glGenVertexArrays(1, &VAO);
    glGenBuffers(1, &VBO);
    glGenBuffers(1, &EBO);

    glBindVertexArray(VAO);

    glBindBuffer(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, VBO);
    glBufferData(GL_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(vertices), vertices, GL_STATIC_DRAW);

    glBindBuffer(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, EBO);
    glBufferData(GL_ELEMENT_ARRAY_BUFFER, sizeof(indices), indices, GL_STATIC_DRAW);

    // position attribute
    glVertexAttribPointer(0, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 8 * sizeof(float), (void*)0);
    glEnableVertexAttribArray(0);
    // color attribute
    glVertexAttribPointer(1, 3, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 8 * sizeof(float), (void*)(3 * sizeof(float)));
    glEnableVertexAttribArray(1);
    // texture coord attribute
    glVertexAttribPointer(2, 2, GL_FLOAT, GL_FALSE, 8 * sizeof(float), (void*)(6 * sizeof(float)));
    glEnableVertexAttribArray(2);


    // load and create a texture
    // -------------------------
    unsigned int texture1, texture2;
    glGenTextures(1, &texture1);
    glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture1); // all upcoming GL_TEXTURE_2D operations now have effect on this texture object
    // set the texture wrapping parameters
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_REPEAT);    // set texture wrapping to GL_REPEAT (default wrapping method)
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_REPEAT);
    // set texture filtering parameters
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
    // load image, create texture and generate mipmaps
    int width, height, nrChannels;
    // The FileSystem::getPath(...) is part of the GitHub repository so we can find files on any IDE/platform; replace it with your own image path.

// 测试代码,判断文件是否存在,这里一开始写绝对路径,找不到文件,把文件拷贝到项目目录下才可以
//    std::fstream _file;
//    _file.open("container.jpg", std::ios::in);
//    if (_file.is_open()) {
//        std::cout<<"打开成功"<<std::endl;
//    } else {
//        std::cout <<"打开失败"<< std::endl;
//    }
//
//    return 0;
    
    
    stbi_set_flip_vertically_on_load(true);
    unsigned char *data = stbi_load("container.jpg", &width, &height, &nrChannels, 0);
    
//    unsigned char *data = stbi_load("/Users/baidu/Downloads/container.jpg", &width, &height, &nrChannels, 0);
    
    
    if (data)
    {
        glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGB, width, height, 0, GL_RGB, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, data);
        glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_2D);
    }
    else
    {
        std::cout << "Failed to load texture" << std::endl;
    }
    stbi_image_free(data);
    
    
    // texture2
    glGenTextures(1, &texture2);
    glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture2);
    // set the texture wrapping parameters
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_S, GL_REPEAT);
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_WRAP_T, GL_REPEAT);
    // set texture filtering parameters
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MIN_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
    glTexParameteri(GL_TEXTURE_2D, GL_TEXTURE_MAG_FILTER, GL_LINEAR);
    // load image, create texture and generate mipmaps
    data = stbi_load("awesomeface.png", &width, &height, &nrChannels, 0);
    if (data)
    {
        glTexImage2D(GL_TEXTURE_2D, 0, GL_RGBA, width, height, 0, GL_RGBA, GL_UNSIGNED_BYTE, data);
        glGenerateMipmap(GL_TEXTURE_2D);
    }
    else
    {
        std::cout << "Failed to load texture" << std::endl;
    }
    stbi_image_free(data);
    
    // tell opengl for each sampler to which texture unit it belongs to (only has to be done once)
    ourShader.use();
    // either set it manually like so:
    glUniform1i(glGetUniformLocation(ourShader.ID, "texture1"), 0);
    // or set it via the texture class
    ourShader.setInt("texture2", 1);
    
    
    // render loop
    // -----------
    while (!glfwWindowShouldClose(window))
    {
        // input
        // -----
        processInput(window);

        // render
        // ------
        glClearColor(0.2f, 0.3f, 0.3f, 1.0f);
        glClear(GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT);

        // bind Texture
        // bind textures on corresponding texture units
        glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE0);
        glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture1);
        glActiveTexture(GL_TEXTURE1); // GL_TEXTURE2就不行
        glBindTexture(GL_TEXTURE_2D, texture2);

        // render container
        ourShader.use();
        glBindVertexArray(VAO);
        glDrawElements(GL_TRIANGLES, 6, GL_UNSIGNED_INT, 0);

        // glfw: swap buffers and poll IO events (keys pressed/released, mouse moved etc.)
        // -------------------------------------------------------------------------------
        glfwSwapBuffers(window);
        glfwPollEvents();
    }

    // optional: de-allocate all resources once they've outlived their purpose:
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------------
    glDeleteVertexArrays(1, &VAO);
    glDeleteBuffers(1, &VBO);
    glDeleteBuffers(1, &EBO);

    // glfw: terminate, clearing all previously allocated GLFW resources.
    // ------------------------------------------------------------------
    glfwTerminate();
    return 0;
}

// process all input: query GLFW whether relevant keys are pressed/released this frame and react accordingly
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
void processInput(GLFWwindow *window)
{
    if (glfwGetKey(window, GLFW_KEY_ESCAPE) == GLFW_PRESS)
        glfwSetWindowShouldClose(window, true);
}

// glfw: whenever the window size changed (by OS or user resize) this callback function executes
// ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
void framebuffer_size_callback(GLFWwindow* window, int width, int height)
{
    // make sure the viewport matches the new window dimensions; note that width and
    // height will be significantly larger than specified on retina displays.
    glViewport(0, 0, width, height);
}

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