专栏首页包罗万想Academic writing 课程精华

Academic writing 课程精华

这个暑假在华师上英语培训,分为ARW(academic reading & writing)和ASL(academic speaking & listening)两部分。课程不做评价。总之,能直接考雅思的别过来上这个。当然,凡事要往好处看。事物发展总是阴阳相生的。那就把我这两个月学到的认为精华的部分整理出来。留作纪念......(万一以后用着呢,毕竟上课还是花钱了的。)

这篇只写写作部分。

分为两块。

第一块是,Academic Research Articles,也就是论文的框架结构。基本固定的框架。

第二块是,Essay structure,更具体的文章结构。当然也是很不错的结构,便于我们把一个话题扯出更多的字数来。

Part 1 Academic Research Articles

Abstract: purpose, research method, researchresults, conclusion

Introduction: general background, purpose and research subjectmatters, delimitation(the choices made or boundaries set by the researcher for the study)

Literature review or critique: describes, summarises and evaluates other research in the same research field and relates it to the research, also called critique ortheoretical background, may be included in the introduction.

Methodology: describes how the research has been conducted, must fit the purpose , must bereproducible, also called methodology, research design or methods.

Results/findings: text tables graphs, includes unexpected and negative results,sometimes referred to as findings.

Discussion: evaluates the research results, compares the results to those from other studies, comments on themethodological limitations of research findings.

Conclusion: includes a summary of the research, make recommendations for future study

References: Lists all documents mentioned in the article so that the reader can find andrefer to the original article.

Part 2 Essay structure

1.Introduction

1.1Historical and current background information to the essay question

1.2Definition of key concepts in the essay question

1.3Thesis statement

1.4Preview of the essay to support the thesis

2.Body Paragraphs (2BPs)

2.1Aclaim linked to the thesis and preview

2.2A general reason to justify the claim

2.3Specific Reasons to further analyse the GR

2.4Supportive evidence from other sources, such as examples/data

2.5Critical comments on the significance of the data

2.6Concluding sentence to re-confirm the claim

3.Conclusion

3.1Summary of the main points of the argument

3.2Re-confirming your thesis with comments on the limitations of your answer

3.3Prediction or implications for future development

1.Introduction

1.1Background information to lead the reader to the direction

The rate of technological development has accelerated to the point Where it often outpaces the ability of societies to regulate, moderate or even understand the resulting changes. One area of particularly rapid progress is Artificial Intelligence (Al). AI, to put it simply, is the ability of human- created systems to think and learn.

1.2Definition of key concepts in the essay question

The term Al is generally applied to computerised systems which can apply logic to problems and store feedback from interaction with the world as data to improve that problem solving process. In considering adopting and further researching emerging technologies, harmful technology should be treated with significant caution; more so than technology that is merely dangerous. Dangerous technology has the potential for causing harm, but some technology is inherently harmful regardless of What attempts are made to restrict and safeguard its use.

1.3Thesis statement

It is argued in this essay that Artificial intelligence is one such harmful technology.

1.4Preview of the essay to support the thesis

This is because Al by its nature fundamentally challenges the set of values on which the functioning of societies depends and also irreversibly undermines humanity's control over its technology.

2.Body Paragraphs

1.claim from a preview point

Automationplays a significant role in enhancing the quality of life.

2.general reason to justify the claim

This isbecause automation helps to modify the existing technologies which may enhancethe various ways of services and learning to create potential for the growth ofsociety.

3.two specific reasons to further analyse the GR.

3.1(SR1)

Firstly,automated technologies help improve the health services by providing easyaccess to the health information.

4.1evidence for the first aspect from SR1

Forexample, a study conducted to examine the usefulness of autonomous telehealthmachine in providing self-management education indicates that the automatictelehealth machines are very efficient to diagnose the symptoms on time. Withthe use of the automated technologies, the admission rate to the hospitaldecreased in hospital and visits to emergency room by 82% and 75% respectively.(Pratt, Naslund, Wolfe, Santos & Bartels 2015, p. 264)

5.1evaluatethe significance of evidence for SR1 & comment on why & how it is used.

The evidence clearly shows that automatictelehealth machines are capable of providing the symptoms for the patients.Consequently, they save patient's time and reduce unnecessary stress for thepatients. As this facility increases the availability and accessibility to thehealth services with low cost and in short time, more patients may gettreatment on time.

3.2(SR2)

Secondly,an automated system upgrades the educational programs by auto grading thestudent's academic levels through their performance.

4.2evidence for the first aspect from SR2

Forinstance, a study which examines the validation of an automatic scoring systemto determine the relevancy of the notes prepared by medical students and theirconsistency in uploading their activities shows that the system is veryeffective for evaluating the student performance (Spickard, Ridinger, Wrenn,Brien , Shpigel, Wolf, Stein & Denny 2014, p. 68) It is found that theautomated system shows 75% high rate of relevance in medical student's academicperformance compared with the results given by medical experts.

5.2evaluate the significance of evidence for SR2 & comment on why & how it is used.

It isclearly indicated that the automated ranking system is an advance technology totrack the student's clinical knowledge and performance in their world. Thesystem encourages obtaining in-depth knowledge regarding the clinical symptomsand also provides opportunities for students to improve the work. lt alsorefines their ability to solve the medical problems confidently which may aidto develop their career in the future. The qualified medical personnelcontribute to provide preventive, curative and rehabilitation services to thesociety which may provide possible ways to develop the society.

6.Concluding the paragraph by re-confirming the claim

Inconclusion, automation improves the quality of life.

3.Conclusion

3.1Summary of the main points of the argument

It has been established that Al undermines the values of society through hampering empathy and the autonomy of individuals to develop their own ideas. Furthermore, Al establishes a new relationship between humanity and technology in which the technology is out of control and potentially superior in intelligence to people, perhaps to the point where it can override the safeguards that its programmers put in place to reduce its power to harm.

3.2Re-confirming your thesis with comments on the limitations of your answer

Therefore, Al is an inherently harmful technology.

3.3Prediction or implications for future development

It is also an increasingly powerful form of technology with the potential to open up previously undreamed of possibilities, and therefor, it is unlikely that innovators will approach it with the caution and restraint that it warrants.

本文分享自微信公众号 - 包罗万想(An-mind),作者:安包

原文出处及转载信息见文内详细说明,如有侵权,请联系 yunjia_community@tencent.com 删除。

原始发表时间:2019-08-19

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