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Manjaro Linux平台用pyinstaller打包python可执行文件

当我们创建一个python项目,最终的成果如果希望用户能够不依赖于python源代码也能够正常的执行,就会比较的人性化。因为源代码数量众多,很难让每个用户都自行管理所有的源代码,因此我们需要对源码进行编译构建。对于使用场景不是很复杂的,我们可以直接做成一个可执行文件,这样开发者只需要维护可执行文件的功能正常,以及对于各种平台的兼容性较好,这就可以了。这里我们介绍如何使用pyinstaller去通过python源码构造一个可执行文件。

pyinstaller的安装

我们还是正常的使用pip来进行python包的管理即可:

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[dechin@dechin-manjaro installer]$ python3 -m pip install pyinstaller
Collecting pyinstaller
  Downloading pyinstaller-4.2.tar.gz (3.6 MB)
     |████████████████████████████████| 3.6 MB 18 kB/s 
  Installing build dependencies ... done
  Getting requirements to build wheel ... done
    Preparing wheel metadata ... done
Collecting pyinstaller-hooks-contrib>=2020.6
  Downloading pyinstaller_hooks_contrib-2021.1-py2.py3-none-any.whl (181 kB)
     |████████████████████████████████| 181 kB 13 kB/s 
Collecting altgraph
  Downloading altgraph-0.17-py2.py3-none-any.whl (21 kB)
Requirement already satisfied: setuptools in /home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages (from pyinstaller) (50.3.1.post20201107)
Building wheels for collected packages: pyinstaller
  Building wheel for pyinstaller (PEP 517) ... done
  Created wheel for pyinstaller: filename=pyinstaller-4.2-py3-none-any.whl size=2413076 sha256=29c4148e9bcda0a6b08f10c1ee3c48f3dd90992787d01b54d1e920b5954f8fd4
  Stored in directory: /home/dechin/.cache/pip/wheels/65/6f/54/0f682e8590de992d07a17ce07282267734cb150e537dfc4390
Successfully built pyinstaller
Installing collected packages: pyinstaller-hooks-contrib, altgraph, pyinstaller
Successfully installed altgraph-0.17 pyinstaller-4.2 pyinstaller-hooks-contrib-2021.1

下载安装成功后,可以运行帮助命令来测试一下:

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[dechin@dechin-manjaro installer]# pyinstaller -h
usage: pyinstaller [-h] [-v] [-D] [-F] [--specpath DIR] [-n NAME]
                   [--add-data <SRC;DEST or SRC:DEST>]
                   [--add-binary <SRC;DEST or SRC:DEST>] [-p DIR]
                   [--hidden-import MODULENAME] [--additional-hooks-dir HOOKSPATH]
                   [--runtime-hook RUNTIME_HOOKS] [--exclude-module EXCLUDES] [--key KEY]
                   [-d {all,imports,bootloader,noarchive}] [-s] [--noupx]
                   [--upx-exclude FILE] [-c] [-w]
                   [-i <FILE.ico or FILE.exe,ID or FILE.icns or "NONE">]
                   [--version-file FILE] [-m <FILE or XML>] [-r RESOURCE] [--uac-admin]
                   [--uac-uiaccess] [--win-private-assemblies] [--win-no-prefer-redirects]
                   [--osx-bundle-identifier BUNDLE_IDENTIFIER] [--runtime-tmpdir PATH]
                   [--bootloader-ignore-signals] [--distpath DIR] [--workpath WORKPATH]
                   [-y] [--upx-dir UPX_DIR] [-a] [--clean] [--log-level LEVEL]
                   scriptname [scriptname ...]

positional arguments:
  scriptname            name of scriptfiles to be processed or exactly one .spec-file. If
                        a .spec-file is specified, most options are unnecessary and are
                        ignored.

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
  -v, --version         Show program version info and exit.
  --distpath DIR        Where to put the bundled app (default: ./dist)
  --workpath WORKPATH   Where to put all the temporary work files, .log, .pyz and etc.
                        (default: ./build)
  -y, --noconfirm       Replace output directory (default: SPECPATH/dist/SPECNAME) without
                        asking for confirmation
  --upx-dir UPX_DIR     Path to UPX utility (default: search the execution path)
  -a, --ascii           Do not include unicode encoding support (default: included if
                        available)
  --clean               Clean PyInstaller cache and remove temporary files before
                        building.
  --log-level LEVEL     Amount of detail in build-time console messages. LEVEL may be one
                        of TRACE, DEBUG, INFO, WARN, ERROR, CRITICAL (default: INFO).

What to generate:
  -D, --onedir          Create a one-folder bundle containing an executable (default)
  -F, --onefile         Create a one-file bundled executable.
  --specpath DIR        Folder to store the generated spec file (default: current
                        directory)
  -n NAME, --name NAME  Name to assign to the bundled app and spec file (default: first
                        script's basename)

What to bundle, where to search:
  --add-data <SRC;DEST or SRC:DEST>
                        Additional non-binary files or folders to be added to the
                        executable. The path separator is platform specific,
                        ``os.pathsep`` (which is ``;`` on Windows and ``:`` on most unix
                        systems) is used. This option can be used multiple times.
  --add-binary <SRC;DEST or SRC:DEST>
                        Additional binary files to be added to the executable. See the
                        ``--add-data`` option for more details. This option can be used
                        multiple times.
  -p DIR, --paths DIR   A path to search for imports (like using PYTHONPATH). Multiple
                        paths are allowed, separated by ':', or use this option multiple
                        times
  --hidden-import MODULENAME, --hiddenimport MODULENAME
                        Name an import not visible in the code of the script(s). This
                        option can be used multiple times.
  --additional-hooks-dir HOOKSPATH
                        An additional path to search for hooks. This option can be used
                        multiple times.
  --runtime-hook RUNTIME_HOOKS
                        Path to a custom runtime hook file. A runtime hook is code that is
                        bundled with the executable and is executed before any other code
                        or module to set up special features of the runtime environment.
                        This option can be used multiple times.
  --exclude-module EXCLUDES
                        Optional module or package (the Python name, not the path name)
                        that will be ignored (as though it was not found). This option can
                        be used multiple times.
  --key KEY             The key used to encrypt Python bytecode.

How to generate:
  -d {all,imports,bootloader,noarchive}, --debug {all,imports,bootloader,noarchive}
                        Provide assistance with debugging a frozen
                        application. This argument may be provided multiple
                        times to select several of the following options.
                        
                        - all: All three of the following options.
                        
                        - imports: specify the -v option to the underlying
                          Python interpreter, causing it to print a message
                          each time a module is initialized, showing the
                          place (filename or built-in module) from which it
                          is loaded. See
                          https://docs.python.org/3/using/cmdline.html#id4.
                        
                        - bootloader: tell the bootloader to issue progress
                          messages while initializing and starting the
                          bundled app. Used to diagnose problems with
                          missing imports.
                        
                        - noarchive: instead of storing all frozen Python
                          source files as an archive inside the resulting
                          executable, store them as files in the resulting
                          output directory.
                        
  -s, --strip           Apply a symbol-table strip to the executable and shared libs (not
                        recommended for Windows)
  --noupx               Do not use UPX even if it is available (works differently between
                        Windows and *nix)
  --upx-exclude FILE    Prevent a binary from being compressed when using upx. This is
                        typically used if upx corrupts certain binaries during
                        compression. FILE is the filename of the binary without path. This
                        option can be used multiple times.

Windows and Mac OS X specific options:
  -c, --console, --nowindowed
                        Open a console window for standard i/o (default). On Windows this
                        option will have no effect if the first script is a '.pyw' file.
  -w, --windowed, --noconsole
                        Windows and Mac OS X: do not provide a console window for standard
                        i/o. On Mac OS X this also triggers building an OS X .app bundle.
                        On Windows this option will be set if the first script is a '.pyw'
                        file. This option is ignored in *NIX systems.
  -i <FILE.ico or FILE.exe,ID or FILE.icns or "NONE">, --icon <FILE.ico or FILE.exe,ID or FILE.icns or "NONE">
                        FILE.ico: apply that icon to a Windows executable. FILE.exe,ID,
                        extract the icon with ID from an exe. FILE.icns: apply the icon to
                        the .app bundle on Mac OS X. Use "NONE" to not apply any icon,
                        thereby making the OS to show some default (default: apply
                        PyInstaller's icon)

Windows specific options:
  --version-file FILE   add a version resource from FILE to the exe
  -m <FILE or XML>, --manifest <FILE or XML>
                        add manifest FILE or XML to the exe
  -r RESOURCE, --resource RESOURCE
                        Add or update a resource to a Windows executable. The RESOURCE is
                        one to four items, FILE[,TYPE[,NAME[,LANGUAGE]]]. FILE can be a
                        data file or an exe/dll. For data files, at least TYPE and NAME
                        must be specified. LANGUAGE defaults to 0 or may be specified as
                        wildcard * to update all resources of the given TYPE and NAME. For
                        exe/dll files, all resources from FILE will be added/updated to
                        the final executable if TYPE, NAME and LANGUAGE are omitted or
                        specified as wildcard *.This option can be used multiple times.
  --uac-admin           Using this option creates a Manifest which will request elevation
                        upon application restart.
  --uac-uiaccess        Using this option allows an elevated application to work with
                        Remote Desktop.

Windows Side-by-side Assembly searching options (advanced):
  --win-private-assemblies
                        Any Shared Assemblies bundled into the application will be changed
                        into Private Assemblies. This means the exact versions of these
                        assemblies will always be used, and any newer versions installed
                        on user machines at the system level will be ignored.
  --win-no-prefer-redirects
                        While searching for Shared or Private Assemblies to bundle into
                        the application, PyInstaller will prefer not to follow policies
                        that redirect to newer versions, and will try to bundle the exact
                        versions of the assembly.

Mac OS X specific options:
  --osx-bundle-identifier BUNDLE_IDENTIFIER
                        Mac OS X .app bundle identifier is used as the default unique
                        program name for code signing purposes. The usual form is a
                        hierarchical name in reverse DNS notation. For example:
                        com.mycompany.department.appname (default: first script's
                        basename)

Rarely used special options:
  --runtime-tmpdir PATH
                        Where to extract libraries and support files in `onefile`-mode. If
                        this option is given, the bootloader will ignore any temp-folder
                        location defined by the run-time OS. The ``_MEIxxxxxx``-folder
                        will be created here. Please use this option only if you know what
                        you are doing.
  --bootloader-ignore-signals
                        Tell the bootloader to ignore signals rather than forwarding them
                        to the child process. Useful in situations where e.g. a supervisor
                        process signals both the bootloader and child (e.g. via a process
                        group) to avoid signalling the child twice.

如果觉得这份官方的帮助文档过于冗余,可以参考下一个章节中的缩略版帮助文档。

构造python测试实例

因为可执行文件的自身内容都是固定的,只能通过配置文件或者是命令行的输入参数来进行传参,因此我们构造python文件的时候主要从命令行的这个角度来出发,通过读取命令行的输入参数来决定python项目的输出。无损音乐下载我们这里构造的是一个名为pye的项目,意思是python executable,也就是可执行的python项目,项目的功能是计算一个入参的平方:

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# pye.py

import sys

if sys.argv[1] == '-h':
    print ('pye: Test the executable python project')
    print (' -h')
    print ('\t The help message of pye.')
    print (' -p2 number')
    print ('\t Calculate the power to of input number.')

if sys.argv[1] == '-p2':
    print ('The power2 of number {} is : {}'.format(sys.argv[2], float(sys.argv[2]) ** 2))

在上述构造中我们区分了-h-p2两种参数类型,其中-h是指帮助文档,输出如下所示:

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[dechin@dechin-manjaro installer]$ python3 pye.py -h
pye: Test the executable python project
 -h
         The help message of pye.
 -p2 number
         Calculate the power to of input number.

-p2是标识需要计算平方的入参的参数:

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[dechin@dechin-manjaro installer]$ python3 pye.py -p2 2
The power2 of number 2 is : 4.0
[dechin@dechin-manjaro installer]$ python3 pye.py -p2 5
The power2 of number 5 is : 25.0

pyinstaller简单示例

由于官方的帮助文档内容太多,不太方便入门,这里我们找了一份简单常用的总结文档(表格来自于参考链接1):

了解了基本的使用方法之后,可以针对我们上述编写的pye.py的项目进行编译构建:

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[dechin@dechin-manjaro installer]$ pyinstaller -F pye.py --clean
754 INFO: PyInstaller: 4.2
754 INFO: Python: 3.8.5 (conda)
791 INFO: Platform: Linux-5.9.16-1-MANJARO-x86_64-with-glibc2.10
791 INFO: wrote /home/dechin/projects/2021-python/installer/pye.spec
794 INFO: UPX is not available.
795 INFO: Removing temporary files and cleaning cache in /home/dechin/.cache/pyinstaller
795 INFO: Extending PYTHONPATH with paths
['/home/dechin/projects/2021-python/installer',
 '/home/dechin/projects/2021-python/installer']
808 INFO: checking Analysis
808 INFO: Building Analysis because Analysis-00.toc is non existent
808 INFO: Initializing module dependency graph...
810 INFO: Caching module graph hooks...
813 WARNING: Several hooks defined for module 'win32ctypes.core'. Please take care they do not conflict.
814 INFO: Analyzing base_library.zip ...
2945 INFO: Processing pre-find module path hook distutils from '/home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks/pre_find_module_path/hook-distutils.py'.
2946 INFO: distutils: retargeting to non-venv dir '/home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8'
5397 INFO: Caching module dependency graph...
5466 INFO: running Analysis Analysis-00.toc
5487 INFO: Analyzing /home/dechin/projects/2021-python/installer/pye.py
5489 INFO: Processing module hooks...
5489 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-encodings.py' from '/home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
5526 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-pickle.py' from '/home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
5528 INFO: Excluding import of argparse from module pickle
5528 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-difflib.py' from '/home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
5529 INFO: Excluding import of doctest from module difflib
5529 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-xml.py' from '/home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
5600 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-sysconfig.py' from '/home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
5609 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-_tkinter.py' from '/home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
5693 INFO: checking Tree
5693 INFO: Building Tree because Tree-00.toc is non existent
5693 INFO: Building Tree Tree-00.toc
5699 INFO: checking Tree
5699 INFO: Building Tree because Tree-01.toc is non existent
5699 INFO: Building Tree Tree-01.toc
5733 INFO: checking Tree
5733 INFO: Building Tree because Tree-02.toc is non existent
5734 INFO: Building Tree Tree-02.toc
5736 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-distutils.py' from '/home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
5736 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-xml.etree.cElementTree.py' from '/home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
5737 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-lib2to3.py' from '/home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
5757 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-heapq.py' from '/home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
5759 INFO: Excluding import of doctest from module heapq
5759 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-distutils.util.py' from '/home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
5760 INFO: Excluding import of lib2to3.refactor from module distutils.util
5760 INFO: Loading module hook 'hook-multiprocessing.util.py' from '/home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks'...
5761 INFO: Excluding import of test from module multiprocessing.util
5761 INFO: Excluding import of test.support from module multiprocessing.util
5768 INFO: Looking for ctypes DLLs
5791 INFO: Analyzing run-time hooks ...
5794 INFO: Including run-time hook '/home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PyInstaller/hooks/rthooks/pyi_rth_multiprocessing.py'
5799 INFO: Looking for dynamic libraries
6299 INFO: Looking for eggs
6300 INFO: Python library not in binary dependencies. Doing additional searching...
6315 INFO: Using Python library /home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/libpython3.8.so.1.0
6321 INFO: Warnings written to /home/dechin/projects/2021-python/installer/build/pye/warn-pye.txt
6352 INFO: Graph cross-reference written to /home/dechin/projects/2021-python/installer/build/pye/xref-pye.html
6361 INFO: checking PYZ
6361 INFO: Building PYZ because PYZ-00.toc is non existent
6361 INFO: Building PYZ (ZlibArchive) /home/dechin/projects/2021-python/installer/build/pye/PYZ-00.pyz
6647 INFO: Building PYZ (ZlibArchive) /home/dechin/projects/2021-python/installer/build/pye/PYZ-00.pyz completed successfully.
6649 INFO: checking PKG
6650 INFO: Building PKG because PKG-00.toc is non existent
6650 INFO: Building PKG (CArchive) PKG-00.pkg
10882 INFO: Building PKG (CArchive) PKG-00.pkg completed successfully.
10883 INFO: Bootloader /home/dechin/anaconda3/lib/python3.8/site-packages/PyInstaller/bootloader/Linux-64bit/run
10883 INFO: checking EXE
10884 INFO: Building EXE because EXE-00.toc is non existent
10884 INFO: Building EXE from EXE-00.toc
10884 INFO: Appending archive to ELF section in EXE /home/dechin/projects/2021-python/installer/dist/pye
10914 INFO: Building EXE from EXE-00.toc completed successfully.

执行成功编译构建的方法之后,会在本地产生一些编译的路径,如build和dist等,完整的路径和文件清单如下所示:

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[dechin@dechin-manjaro installer]$ tree
.
├── build
│   └── pye
│       ├── Analysis-00.toc
│       ├── base_library.zip
│       ├── EXE-00.toc
│       ├── PKG-00.pkg
│       ├── PKG-00.toc
│       ├── PYZ-00.pyz
│       ├── PYZ-00.toc
│       ├── Tree-00.toc
│       ├── Tree-01.toc
│       ├── Tree-02.toc
│       ├── warn-pye.txt
│       └── xref-pye.html
├── dist
│   └── pye
├── __pycache__
│   └── pye.cpython-38.pyc
├── pye.py
└── pye.spec

4 directories, 16 files

我们可以看到在dist目录下有一个单独的可执行文件,这个就是我们最终想要的文件了。我们可以在dist目录下执行运行这个文件:

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[dechin@dechin-manjaro dist]$ ./pye -h
pye: Test the executable python project
 -h
         The help message of pye.
 -p2 number
         Calculate the power to of input number.
[dechin@dechin-manjaro dist]$ ./pye -p2 5
The power2 of number 5 is : 25.0

经过验证所有的功能都正常。那么最后还缺一步,就是我们如果想要通过项目名 -参数表示 参数这样的方法来运行我们的项目的话,就需要把这个可执行文件添加到系统路径中。最常用的方法其实是直接将该可执行文件拷贝到/usr/bin/目录下,这样该可执行文件就可以直接使用,BLACKPINK不需要在前面加上路径就能运行。当然,为了执行这个操作,我们首先需要切换到root帐号下,再执行文件拷贝操作:

[dechin-root dist]# cp pye /usr/bin/

拷贝完成后,直接运行:

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[dechin-root dist]# pye -h
pye: Test the executable python project
 -h
         The help message of pye.
 -p2 number
         Calculate the power to of input number.
[dechin-root installer]# pye -p2 7
The power2 of number 7 is : 49.0

我们发现所有的功能都是正常的,并且在普通帐号下也是可以正常使用的。到这里为止,我们就达到了项目所预期的效果。

总结概要

通过pyinstaller我们可以将一个python项目打包编译构建成一个可执行文件,然后将该可执行文件放置到一个系统路径下,使得系统可以不需要路径也能够识别到这个可执行文件,这样我们就可以仅配置一些输入文件或者命令行的入参,来运行我们的项目。

原创声明,本文系作者授权云+社区发表,未经许可,不得转载。

如有侵权,请联系 yunjia_community@tencent.com 删除。

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