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pdflatex环境部署步骤Docker的基本操作

Docker的基本操作

在各大平台的官方源里面应该都会有提供docker容器,因此这里我们也不过多的赘述。

首先我们在Manjaro Linux平台上启动docker(在其他平台上的操作可能有区别,比如service start docker等):

[dechin-root tex]# systemctl start docker

注意上述指令要在root帐号下才能够启动,如果要选择在非root帐号下操作,docker容器是不支持的,但是我们可以选择singularity这一类似的容器解决方案,相关内容可以参考这篇。启动服务之后,正常状态下我们可以看到docker的status是处于active或者running的状态:

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[dechin-root tex]# systemctl status docker
● docker.service - Docker Application Container Engine
     Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/docker.service; disabled; vendor preset: disab>
     Active: active (running) since Sun 2021-03-28 18:50:47 CST; 7s ago
TriggeredBy: ● docker.socket
       Docs: https://docs.docker.com
   Main PID: 25366 (dockerd)
      Tasks: 123 (limit: 47875)
     Memory: 219.1M
     CGroup: /system.slice/docker.service
             ├─25366 /usr/bin/dockerd -H fd://
             └─25378 containerd --config /var/run/docker/containerd/containerd.toml --log-l>

拉取容器镜像

首先我们可以访问dockerhub官网搜索一下是否存在我们所需要的容器镜像,比如我们的搜索结果如下:

可以看到这里有很多的选项,一般我们可以直接选择星星最高的容器镜像进行下载使用:

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[dechin-root tex]# docker pull fbenz/pdflatex
Using default tag: latest
latest: Pulling from fbenz/pdflatex
f22ccc0b8772: Already exists 
3cf8fb62ba5f: Already exists 
e80c964ece6a: Already exists 
9aa2583757a3: Pull complete 
2c3d7890d583: Pull complete 
Digest: sha256:6ecca11b1a203faed5c0a2ace2a13aac100dd19d7a4e0db0474283bcded3c041
Status: Downloaded newer image for fbenz/pdflatex:latest
docker.io/fbenz/pdflatex:latest

下载需要一段的时间。下载完成后,可以在本地镜像仓库中找到刚才下载的这个镜像文件:

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[dechin-root tex]# docker images
REPOSITORY                                                 TAG       IMAGE ID       CREATED         SIZE
fbenz/pdflatex                                             latest    8e7742722956   3 months ago    24GB

我们可以测试一下这个容器镜像中的pdflatex功能是否正常:

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[dechin-root tex]# docker run -it fbenz/pdflatex pdflatex --help
Usage: pdftex [OPTION]... [TEXNAME[.tex]] [COMMANDS]
   or: pdftex [OPTION]... \FIRST-LINE
   or: pdftex [OPTION]... &FMT ARGS
  Run pdfTeX on TEXNAME, usually creating TEXNAME.pdf.
  Any remaining COMMANDS are processed as pdfTeX input, after TEXNAME is read.
  If the first line of TEXNAME is %&FMT, and FMT is an existing .fmt file,
  use it.  Else use `NAME.fmt', where NAME is the program invocation name,
  most commonly `pdftex'.

  Alternatively, if the first non-option argument begins with a backslash,
  interpret all non-option arguments as a line of pdfTeX input.

  Alternatively, if the first non-option argument begins with a &, the
  next word is taken as the FMT to read, overriding all else.  Any
  remaining arguments are processed as above.

  If no arguments or options are specified, prompt for input.

-draftmode              switch on draft mode (generates no output PDF)
-enc                    enable encTeX extensions such as \mubyte
-etex                   enable e-TeX extensions
[-no]-file-line-error   disable/enable file:line:error style messages
-fmt=FMTNAME            use FMTNAME instead of program name or a %& line
-halt-on-error          stop processing at the first error
-ini                    be pdfinitex, for dumping formats; this is implicitly
                          true if the program name is `pdfinitex'
-interaction=STRING     set interaction mode (STRING=batchmode/nonstopmode/
                          scrollmode/errorstopmode)
-ipc                    send DVI output to a socket as well as the usual
                          output file
-ipc-start              as -ipc, and also start the server at the other end
-jobname=STRING         set the job name to STRING
-kpathsea-debug=NUMBER  set path searching debugging flags according to
                          the bits of NUMBER
[-no]-mktex=FMT         disable/enable mktexFMT generation (FMT=tex/tfm/pk)
-mltex                  enable MLTeX extensions such as \charsubdef
-output-comment=STRING  use STRING for DVI file comment instead of date
                          (no effect for PDF)
-output-directory=DIR   use existing DIR as the directory to write files in
-output-format=FORMAT   use FORMAT for job output; FORMAT is `dvi' or `pdf'
[-no]-parse-first-line  disable/enable parsing of first line of input file
-progname=STRING        set program (and fmt) name to STRING
-recorder               enable filename recorder
[-no]-shell-escape      disable/enable \write18{SHELL COMMAND}
-shell-restricted       enable restricted \write18
-src-specials           insert source specials into the DVI file
-src-specials=WHERE     insert source specials in certain places of
                          the DVI file. WHERE is a comma-separated value
                          list: cr display hbox math par parend vbox
-synctex=NUMBER         generate SyncTeX data for previewers according to
                          bits of NUMBER (`man synctex' for details)
-translate-file=TCXNAME use the TCX file TCXNAME
-8bit                   make all characters printable by default
-help                   display this help and exit
-version                output version information and exit

pdfTeX home page: <http://pdftex.org>

Email bug reports to pdftex@tug.org.

当我们看到help指令运行成功时,就表明容器镜像可以正常使用。使用容器还有一点需要注意的是,如果我们直接用docker run -it fbenz/pdflatex的话,没有绑定本地的目录,这样是无法看到本地所撰写的tex文件的。因此我们一般需要在运行的时候加上-v的选项来绑定本地的目录,321无损音乐网基本使用方法是:-v 本地目录:容器目录,注意需要使用绝对路径,不能使用相对路径。

编译Tex文件

在上述章节中完成基于docker的pdflatex环境部署之后,我们可以开始撰写一些简单的tex文件用来测试一下环境。

Hello World

首先最简单的我们测试一个hello world的案例,仅在pdf文档中输出一个Hello World!的字样,具体tex代码如下:

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[dechin@dechin-manjaro tex]$ cat hello_world.tex 
\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
Hello world!
\end{document}

使用方法也不难,首先我们运行docker容器,注意需要绑定一个本地路径,然后进入到容器内对应的目录下:

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[dechin-root tex]# docker run -it -v /home/dechin/projects/2021-python/tex/:/home/ fbenz/pdflatex
root@d7ed2229a244:/# ll
total 72
drwxr-xr-x   1 root root 4096 Mar 28 11:07 ./
drwxr-xr-x   1 root root 4096 Mar 28 11:07 ../
-rwxr-xr-x   1 root root    0 Mar 28 11:07 .dockerenv*
drwxr-xr-x   2 root root 4096 Nov 19 13:09 bin/
drwxr-xr-x   2 root root 4096 Apr 24  2018 boot/
drwxr-xr-x   5 root root  360 Mar 28 11:07 dev/
drwxr-xr-x   1 root root 4096 Mar 28 11:07 etc/
drwxr-xr-x   2 1000 1000 4096 Mar 28 04:43 home/
drwxr-xr-x   1 root root 4096 May 23  2017 lib/
drwxr-xr-x   2 root root 4096 Nov 19 13:09 lib64/
drwxr-xr-x   2 root root 4096 Nov 19 13:07 media/
drwxr-xr-x   2 root root 4096 Nov 19 13:07 mnt/
drwxr-xr-x   2 root root 4096 Nov 19 13:07 opt/
dr-xr-xr-x 323 root root    0 Mar 28 11:07 proc/
drwx------   2 root root 4096 Nov 19 13:09 root/
drwxr-xr-x   1 root root 4096 Nov 25 22:25 run/
drwxr-xr-x   1 root root 4096 Nov 25 22:25 sbin/
drwxr-xr-x   2 root root 4096 Nov 19 13:07 srv/
dr-xr-xr-x  13 root root    0 Mar 28 11:07 sys/
drwxrwxrwt   1 root root 4096 Nov 28 18:34 tmp/
drwxr-xr-x   1 root root 4096 Nov 19 13:07 usr/
drwxr-xr-x   1 root root 4096 Nov 19 13:09 var/
root@d7ed2229a244:/# cd home/
root@d7ed2229a244:/home# ll
total 12
drwxr-xr-x 2 1000 1000 4096 Mar 28 04:43 ./
drwxr-xr-x 1 root root 4096 Mar 28 11:07 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 1000 1000   69 Mar 28 04:43 hello_world.tex

我们看到在容器内的目录下也能够看到这个tex文件,说明路径的绑定成功的执行了。运行指令很简单,直接在docker容器内运行pdflatex your_file.tex即可:

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root@d7ed2229a244:/home# pdflatex hello_world.tex 
This is pdfTeX, Version 3.14159265-2.6-1.40.18 (TeX Live 2017/Debian) (preloaded format=pdflatex)
 restricted \write18 enabled.
entering extended mode
(./hello_world.tex
LaTeX2e <2017-04-15>
Babel <3.18> and hyphenation patterns for 84 language(s) loaded.
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/article.cls
Document Class: article 2014/09/29 v1.4h Standard LaTeX document class
(/usr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/tex/latex/base/size10.clo))
No file hello_world.aux.
[1{/var/lib/texmf/fonts/map/pdftex/updmap/pdftex.map}] (./hello_world.aux) )</u
sr/share/texlive/texmf-dist/fonts/type1/public/amsfonts/cm/cmr10.pfb>
Output written on hello_world.pdf (1 page, 11916 bytes).
Transcript written on hello_world.log.
root@d7ed2229a244:/home# ll
total 32
drwxr-xr-x 2 1000 1000  4096 Mar 28 11:08 ./
drwxr-xr-x 1 root root  4096 Mar 28 11:07 ../
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root     8 Mar 28 11:08 hello_world.aux
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root  2408 Mar 28 11:08 hello_world.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 root root 11916 Mar 28 11:08 hello_world.pdf
-rw-r--r-- 1 1000 1000    69 Mar 28 04:43 hello_world.tex
root@d7ed2229a244:/home# chmod -R 777 .
root@d7ed2229a244:/home# ll
total 32
drwxrwxrwx 2 1000 1000  4096 Mar 28 11:08 ./
drwxr-xr-x 1 root root  4096 Mar 28 11:07 ../
-rwxrwxrwx 1 root root     8 Mar 28 11:08 hello_world.aux*
-rwxrwxrwx 1 root root  2408 Mar 28 11:08 hello_world.log*
-rwxrwxrwx 1 root root 11916 Mar 28 11:08 hello_world.pdf*
-rwxrwxrwx 1 1000 1000    69 Mar 28 04:43 hello_world.tex*

运行完成后我们在目录中看到了几个新生成的文件,如果用root改成777的权限,那么在本地的非root帐号就可以对其进行编辑,否则就只能查看。我们可以在本地打开这个pdf文件看看:

可以看到这个pdf文件生成成功。

测试公式

上面hello world的案例比较简单,让我们来测试一下最常用的数学公式是否有问题:

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[dechin@dechin-manjaro tex]$ cat equation_test.tex 
\documentclass{article}
\begin{document}
Hello world!
\begin{equation}
        e^{iHt}\left|\psi\right>
\end{equation}
\end{document}

类似于上一章节的,我们也需要进入到容器的内部执行相关的指令,最后获得如下所示的一个pdf文件:

我们可以看到公式显示也是正常的。

量子线路图

最后我们测试一个比较难的,在前面写过一篇关于用ProjectQ生成Latex格式的量子线路图的,其中生成了如下所示的一个tex文件:

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[dechin@dechin-manjaro quantum-circuit]$ cat circuit.tex 
\documentclass{standalone}
\usepackage[margin=1in]{geometry}
\usepackage[hang,small,bf]{caption}
\usepackage{tikz}
\usepackage{braket}
\usetikzlibrary{backgrounds,shadows.blur,fit,decorations.pathreplacing,shapes}

\begin{document}
\begin{tikzpicture}[scale=0.8, transform shape]

\tikzstyle{basicshadow}=[blur shadow={shadow blur steps=8, shadow xshift=0.7pt, shadow yshift=-0.7pt, shadow scale=1.02}]\tikzstyle{basic}=[draw,fill=white,basicshadow]
\tikzstyle{operator}=[basic,minimum size=1.5em]
\tikzstyle{phase}=[fill=black,shape=circle,minimum size=0.1cm,inner sep=0pt,outer sep=0pt,draw=black]
\tikzstyle{none}=[inner sep=0pt,outer sep=-.5pt,minimum height=0.5cm+1pt]
\tikzstyle{measure}=[operator,inner sep=0pt,minimum height=0.5cm, minimum width=0.75cm]
\tikzstyle{xstyle}=[circle,basic,minimum height=0.35cm,minimum width=0.35cm,inner sep=-1pt,very thin]
\tikzset{
shadowed/.style={preaction={transform canvas={shift={(0.5pt,-0.5pt)}}, draw=gray, opacity=0.4}},
}
\tikzstyle{swapstyle}=[inner sep=-1pt, outer sep=-1pt, minimum width=0pt]
\tikzstyle{edgestyle}=[very thin]

\node[none] (line0_gate0) at (0.1,-0) {$\Ket{0}$};
\node[none] (line0_gate1) at (0.5,-0) {};
\node[none,minimum height=0.5cm,outer sep=0] (line0_gate2) at (0.75,-0) {};
\node[none] (line0_gate3) at (1.0,-0) {};
\draw[operator,edgestyle,outer sep=0.5cm] ([yshift=0.25cm]line0_gate1) rectangle ([yshift=-0.25cm]line0_gate3) node[pos=.5] {H};
\draw (line0_gate0) edge[edgestyle] (line0_gate1);
\node[none] (line1_gate0) at (0.1,-1) {$\Ket{0}$};
\node[none] (line1_gate1) at (0.5,-1) {};
\node[none,minimum height=0.5cm,outer sep=0] (line1_gate2) at (0.75,-1) {};
\node[none] (line1_gate3) at (1.0,-1) {};
\draw[operator,edgestyle,outer sep=0.5cm] ([yshift=0.25cm]line1_gate1) rectangle ([yshift=-0.25cm]line1_gate3) node[pos=.5] {H};
\draw (line1_gate0) edge[edgestyle] (line1_gate1);
\node[none] (line2_gate0) at (0.1,-2) {$\Ket{0}$};
\node[none] (line2_gate1) at (0.5,-2) {};
\node[none,minimum height=0.5cm,outer sep=0] (line2_gate2) at (0.75,-2) {};
\node[none] (line2_gate3) at (1.0,-2) {};
\draw[operator,edgestyle,outer sep=0.5cm] ([yshift=0.25cm]line2_gate1) rectangle ([yshift=-0.25cm]line2_gate3) node[pos=.5] {H};
\draw (line2_gate0) edge[edgestyle] (line2_gate1);
\node[xstyle] (line1_gate4) at (1.4000000000000001,-1) {};
\draw[edgestyle] (line1_gate4.north)--(line1_gate4.south);
\draw[edgestyle] (line1_gate4.west)--(line1_gate4.east);
\node[phase] (line2_gate4) at (1.4000000000000001,-2) {};
\draw (line2_gate4) edge[edgestyle] (line1_gate4);
\draw (line1_gate3) edge[edgestyle] (line1_gate4);
\draw (line2_gate3) edge[edgestyle] (line2_gate4);
\node[xstyle] (line0_gate4) at (1.9500000000000002,-0) {};
\draw[edgestyle] (line0_gate4.north)--(line0_gate4.south);
\draw[edgestyle] (line0_gate4.west)--(line0_gate4.east);
\node[phase] (line1_gate5) at (1.9500000000000002,-1) {};
\draw (line1_gate5) edge[edgestyle] (line0_gate4);
\draw (line0_gate3) edge[edgestyle] (line0_gate4);
\draw (line1_gate4) edge[edgestyle] (line1_gate5);
\node[measure,edgestyle] (line0_gate5) at (2.6000000000000005,-0) {};
\draw[edgestyle] ([yshift=-0.18cm,xshift=0.07500000000000001cm]line0_gate5.west) to [out=60,in=180] ([yshift=0.035cm]line0_gate5.center) to [out=0, in=120] ([yshift=-0.18cm,xshift=-0.07500000000000001cm]line0_gate5.east);
\draw[edgestyle] ([yshift=-0.18cm]line0_gate5.center) to ([yshift=-0.07500000000000001cm,xshift=-0.18cm]line0_gate5.north east);
\draw (line0_gate4) edge[edgestyle] (line0_gate5);
\node[measure,edgestyle] (line1_gate6) at (2.6000000000000005,-1) {};
\draw[edgestyle] ([yshift=-0.18cm,xshift=0.07500000000000001cm]line1_gate6.west) to [out=60,in=180] ([yshift=0.035cm]line1_gate6.center) to [out=0, in=120] ([yshift=-0.18cm,xshift=-0.07500000000000001cm]line1_gate6.east);
\draw[edgestyle] ([yshift=-0.18cm]line1_gate6.center) to ([yshift=-0.07500000000000001cm,xshift=-0.18cm]line1_gate6.north east);
\draw (line1_gate5) edge[edgestyle] (line1_gate6);
\node[measure,edgestyle] (line2_gate5) at (2.0500000000000003,-2) {};
\draw[edgestyle] ([yshift=-0.18cm,xshift=0.07500000000000001cm]line2_gate5.west) to [out=60,in=180] ([yshift=0.035cm]line2_gate5.center) to [out=0, in=120] ([yshift=-0.18cm,xshift=-0.07500000000000001cm]line2_gate5.east);
\draw[edgestyle] ([yshift=-0.18cm]line2_gate5.center) to ([yshift=-0.07500000000000001cm,xshift=-0.18cm]line2_gate5.north east);
\draw (line2_gate4) edge[edgestyle] (line2_gate5);

\end{tikzpicture}
\end{document}

这个文件不仅结构复杂,对周边所依赖的tex文件其实也不少,此前在其他平台(Win10)测试这个tex文件的编译的时候,都需要手动的去下载很多的依赖文件,然后放到同一个文件夹下才能正常运行和使用。这里我们直接运行,发现也可以生成这个pdf文件:

说明环境里面确实已经包含了很多必备的工具,跟overleaf的环境应该是比较类似的,使得我们可以在本地非常人性化的、轻便的可以编译tex文件。歌曲下载

总结概要

为了在本地构建一个可用性强、易于部署的环境,我们选择了放弃直接安装pdflatex的方案,以及线上的overleaf的方案。这些方案各有利弊,但是综合起来看,对于个人使用的环境而言,还是在本地使用docker镜像直接部署一个tex编译环境是最方便、最人性化的。

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