Linux中如何使用GCC开发项目?

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我在上大学,正在使用一个项目C。我们探索了GCC和Clang,而Clang似乎比GCC更友好。因此,我想知道使用clang(而不是gcc)在Linux上用C和C++进行开发有什么好处或缺点?

提问于
用户回答回答于

对于学生,我无条件地推荐Clang。

现在还不清楚gcc和clang之间生成代码的性能(虽然我认为gcc 4.7仍然领先),但是对于学生来说,学习它并不重要。

另一方面,Clang的极其清晰的诊断对于初学者来说无疑更容易理解。

考虑一下下面这个简单的片段:

#include <string>
#include <iostream>

struct Student {
std::string surname;
std::string givenname;
}

std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream& out, Student const& s) {
  return out << "{" << s.surname << ", " << s.givenname << "}";
}

int main() {
  Student me = { "Doe", "John" };
  std::cout << me << "\n";
}

你会立即注意到,在Student上课,对吧?

好吧,gcc也注意到了,经过一段时间后:

prog.cpp:9: error: expected initializer before ‘&’ token
prog.cpp: In function ‘int main()’:
prog.cpp:15: error: no match for ‘operator<<’ in ‘std::cout << me’
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/ostream:112: note: candidates are: std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& (*)(std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>&)) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/ostream:121: note:                 std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(std::basic_ios<_CharT, _Traits>& (*)(std::basic_ios<_CharT, _Traits>&)) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/ostream:131: note:                 std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(std::ios_base& (*)(std::ios_base&)) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/ostream:169: note:                 std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(long int) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/ostream:173: note:                 std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(long unsigned int) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/ostream:177: note:                 std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(bool) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/bits/ostream.tcc:97: note:                 std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(short int) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/ostream:184: note:                 std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(short unsigned int) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/bits/ostream.tcc:111: note:                 std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(int) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/ostream:195: note:                 std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(unsigned int) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/ostream:204: note:                 std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(long long int) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/ostream:208: note:                 std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(long long unsigned int) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/ostream:213: note:                 std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(double) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/ostream:217: note:                 std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(float) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/ostream:225: note:                 std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(long double) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/ostream:229: note:                 std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(const void*) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]
/usr/lib/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu/4.3.4/include/g++-v4/bits/ostream.tcc:125: note:                 std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>& std::basic_ostream<_CharT, _Traits>::operator<<(std::basic_streambuf<_CharT, _Traits>*) [with _CharT = char, _Traits = std::char_traits<char>]

而Clang是:

/tmp/webcompile/_25327_1.cc:9:6: error: redefinition of 'ostream' as different kind of symbol
std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream& out, Student const& s) {
     ^
In file included from /tmp/webcompile/_25327_1.cc:1:
In file included from /usr/include/c++/4.3/string:49:
In file included from /usr/include/c++/4.3/bits/localefwd.h:47:
/usr/include/c++/4.3/iosfwd:134:33: note: previous definition is here
  typedef basic_ostream<char>           ostream;        ///< @isiosfwd
                                        ^
/tmp/webcompile/_25327_1.cc:9:13: error: expected ';' after top level declarator
std::ostream& operator<<(std::ostream& out, Student const& s) {
            ^
            ;
2 errors generated.

我们注意到Clang避免了大量错误。

用户回答回答于

到目前为止,GCC对C++11特性的支持要比Clang好得多,也更完整。此外,GCC的代码生成器比Clang中的代码生成器执行更好的优化(在我的经验中,我还没有看到任何详尽的测试)。

另一方面,Clang通常比gcc更快地编译代码,并在代码出现问题时生成更好的错误消息。

选择使用哪一种,实际上取决于什么东西对你很重要。我更看重C++11的支持和代码生成质量比我更看重编译的方便性。因此,我使用gcc。对你来说,权衡可能是不同的。

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