如何以标准方式修剪前导/尾随空格?

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是否有一个干净的,最好是标准的方法来修剪C中的字符串的前后空白?我会推出自己的产品,但我认为这是一个同样常见解决方案的常见问题。

提问于
用户回答回答于

如果你可以修改字符串:

// Note: This function returns a pointer to a substring of the original string.
// If the given string was allocated dynamically, the caller must not overwrite
// that pointer with the returned value, since the original pointer must be
// deallocated using the same allocator with which it was allocated.  The return
// value must NOT be deallocated using free() etc.
char *trimwhitespace(char *str)
{
  char *end;

  // Trim leading space
  while(isspace((unsigned char)*str)) str++;

  if(*str == 0)  // All spaces?
    return str;

  // Trim trailing space
  end = str + strlen(str) - 1;
  while(end > str && isspace((unsigned char)*end)) end--;

  // Write new null terminator
  *(end+1) = 0;

  return str;
}

如果你不能修改字符串,那么你可以使用基本相同的方法:

// Stores the trimmed input string into the given output buffer, which must be
// large enough to store the result.  If it is too small, the output is
// truncated.
size_t trimwhitespace(char *out, size_t len, const char *str)
{
  if(len == 0)
    return 0;

  const char *end;
  size_t out_size;

  // Trim leading space
  while(isspace((unsigned char)*str)) str++;

  if(*str == 0)  // All spaces?
  {
    *out = 0;
    return 1;
  }

  // Trim trailing space
  end = str + strlen(str) - 1;
  while(end > str && isspace((unsigned char)*end)) end--;
  end++;

  // Set output size to minimum of trimmed string length and buffer size minus 1
  out_size = (end - str) < len-1 ? (end - str) : len-1;

  // Copy trimmed string and add null terminator
  memcpy(out, str, out_size);
  out[out_size] = 0;

  return out_size;
}
用户回答回答于

这是一个将字符串转换为缓冲区的第一个位置的字符串。你可能需要这种行为,以便在动态分配字符串时,仍然可以将其释放到trim()返回的同一指针上:

char *trim(char *str)
{
    size_t len = 0;
    char *frontp = str;
    char *endp = NULL;

    if( str == NULL ) { return NULL; }
    if( str[0] == '\0' ) { return str; }

    len = strlen(str);
    endp = str + len;

    /* Move the front and back pointers to address the first non-whitespace
     * characters from each end.
     */
    while( isspace((unsigned char) *frontp) ) { ++frontp; }
    if( endp != frontp )
    {
        while( isspace((unsigned char) *(--endp)) && endp != frontp ) {}
    }

    if( str + len - 1 != endp )
            *(endp + 1) = '\0';
    else if( frontp != str &&  endp == frontp )
            *str = '\0';

    /* Shift the string so that it starts at str so that if it's dynamically
     * allocated, we can still free it on the returned pointer.  Note the reuse
     * of endp to mean the front of the string buffer now.
     */
    endp = str;
    if( frontp != str )
    {
            while( *frontp ) { *endp++ = *frontp++; }
            *endp = '\0';
    }


    return str;
}

测试正确性:

int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
    char *sample_strings[] =
    {
            "nothing to trim",
            "    trim the front",
            "trim the back     ",
            " trim one char front and back ",
            " trim one char front",
            "trim one char back ",
            "                   ",
            " ",
            "a",
            "",
            NULL
    };
    char test_buffer[64];
    int index;

    for( index = 0; sample_strings[index] != NULL; ++index )
    {
            strcpy( test_buffer, sample_strings[index] );
            printf("[%s] -> [%s]\n", sample_strings[index],
                                     trim(test_buffer));
    }

    /* The test prints the following:
    [nothing to trim] -> [nothing to trim]
    [    trim the front] -> [trim the front]
    [trim the back     ] -> [trim the back]
    [ trim one char front and back ] -> [trim one char front and back]
    [ trim one char front] -> [trim one char front]
    [trim one char back ] -> [trim one char back]
    [                   ] -> []
    [ ] -> []
    [a] -> [a]
    [] -> []
    */

    return 0;
}

源文件是trim.c. 用'cc trim.c -o trim'编译。

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