对于NumPy矩阵和Array类,乘法有什么不同?

内容来源于 Stack Overflow,并遵循CC BY-SA 3.0许可协议进行翻译与使用

  • 回答 (2)
  • 关注 (0)
  • 查看 (28)

numpy文档建议使用数组而不是矩阵来处理矩阵。然而,*不执行矩阵乘法,需要使用MatxMultipy()函数。怎么理解?

提问于
用户回答回答于

下面是一些代码片段来说明:

>>> from numpy import linalg as LA
>>> import numpy as NP

>>> a1 = NP.matrix("4 3 5; 6 7 8; 1 3 13; 7 21 9")
>>> a1
matrix([[ 4,  3,  5],
        [ 6,  7,  8],
        [ 1,  3, 13],
        [ 7, 21,  9]])

>>> a2 = NP.matrix("7 8 15; 5 3 11; 7 4 9; 6 15 4")
>>> a2
matrix([[ 7,  8, 15],
        [ 5,  3, 11],
        [ 7,  4,  9],
        [ 6, 15,  4]])

>>> a1.shape
(4, 3)

>>> a2.shape
(4, 3)

>>> a2t = a2.T
>>> a2t.shape
(3, 4)

>>> a1 * a2t         # same as NP.dot(a1, a2t) 
matrix([[127,  84,  85,  89],
        [218, 139, 142, 173],
        [226, 157, 136, 103],
        [352, 197, 214, 393]])

但是,如果将这两个NumPy矩阵转换为数组,则此操作将失败:

>>> a1 = NP.array(a1)
>>> a2t = NP.array(a2t)

>>> a1 * a2t
Traceback (most recent call last):
   File "<pyshell#277>", line 1, in <module>
   a1 * a2t
   ValueError: operands could not be broadcast together with shapes (4,3) (3,4) 

虽然使用NP.点语法与阵列这种运算的工作方式类似于矩阵乘法:

>> NP.dot(a1, a2t)
array([[127,  84,  85,  89],
       [218, 139, 142, 173],
       [226, 157, 136, 103],
       [352, 197, 214, 393]])

下面是我调用了一个纯线性代数运算(实际上,来自Numpy的线性代数模块)并在NumPy数组中传递的片段

行列式数组的:

>>> m = NP.random.randint(0, 10, 16).reshape(4, 4)
>>> m
array([[6, 2, 5, 2],
       [8, 5, 1, 6],
       [5, 9, 7, 5],
       [0, 5, 6, 7]])

>>> type(m)
<type 'numpy.ndarray'>

>>> md = LA.det(m)
>>> md
1772.9999999999995

特征向量/特征值对:

>>> LA.eig(m)
(array([ 19.703+0.j   ,   0.097+4.198j,   0.097-4.198j,   5.103+0.j   ]), 
array([[-0.374+0.j   , -0.091+0.278j, -0.091-0.278j, -0.574+0.j   ],
       [-0.446+0.j   ,  0.671+0.j   ,  0.671+0.j   , -0.084+0.j   ],
       [-0.654+0.j   , -0.239-0.476j, -0.239+0.476j, -0.181+0.j   ],
       [-0.484+0.j   , -0.387+0.178j, -0.387-0.178j,  0.794+0.j   ]]))

矩阵范数:

>>>> LA.norm(m)
22.0227

QR分解:

>>> LA.qr(a1)
(array([[ 0.5,  0.5,  0.5],
        [ 0.5,  0.5, -0.5],
        [ 0.5, -0.5,  0.5],
        [ 0.5, -0.5, -0.5]]), 
 array([[ 6.,  6.,  6.],
        [ 0.,  0.,  0.],
        [ 0.,  0.,  0.]]))

矩阵:

>>> m = NP.random.rand(40).reshape(8, 5)
>>> m
array([[ 0.545,  0.459,  0.601,  0.34 ,  0.778],
       [ 0.799,  0.047,  0.699,  0.907,  0.381],
       [ 0.004,  0.136,  0.819,  0.647,  0.892],
       [ 0.062,  0.389,  0.183,  0.289,  0.809],
       [ 0.539,  0.213,  0.805,  0.61 ,  0.677],
       [ 0.269,  0.071,  0.377,  0.25 ,  0.692],
       [ 0.274,  0.206,  0.655,  0.062,  0.229],
       [ 0.397,  0.115,  0.083,  0.19 ,  0.701]])
>>> LA.matrix_rank(m)
5

矩阵条件:

>>> a1 = NP.random.randint(1, 10, 12).reshape(4, 3)
>>> LA.cond(a1)
5.7093446189400954

倒置需要一个NumPy矩阵

>>> a1 = NP.matrix(a1)
>>> type(a1)
<class 'numpy.matrixlib.defmatrix.matrix'>

>>> a1.I
matrix([[ 0.028,  0.028,  0.028,  0.028],
        [ 0.028,  0.028,  0.028,  0.028],
        [ 0.028,  0.028,  0.028,  0.028]])
>>> a1 = NP.array(a1)
>>> a1.I

Traceback (most recent call last):
   File "<pyshell#230>", line 1, in <module>
   a1.I
   AttributeError: 'numpy.ndarray' object has no attribute 'I'

输出:

>>> LA.pinv(m)
matrix([[ 0.314,  0.407, -1.008, -0.553,  0.131,  0.373,  0.217,  0.785],
        [ 1.393,  0.084, -0.605,  1.777, -0.054, -1.658,  0.069, -1.203],
        [-0.042, -0.355,  0.494, -0.729,  0.292,  0.252,  1.079, -0.432],
        [-0.18 ,  1.068,  0.396,  0.895, -0.003, -0.896, -1.115, -0.666],
        [-0.224, -0.479,  0.303, -0.079, -0.066,  0.872, -0.175,  0.901]])

>>> m = NP.array(m)

>>> LA.pinv(m)
array([[ 0.314,  0.407, -1.008, -0.553,  0.131,  0.373,  0.217,  0.785],
       [ 1.393,  0.084, -0.605,  1.777, -0.054, -1.658,  0.069, -1.203],
       [-0.042, -0.355,  0.494, -0.729,  0.292,  0.252,  1.079, -0.432],
       [-0.18 ,  1.068,  0.396,  0.895, -0.003, -0.896, -1.115, -0.666],
       [-0.224, -0.479,  0.303, -0.079, -0.066,  0.872, -0.175,  0.901]])
用户回答回答于

例如:

import numpy as np
x = np.arange(9).reshape((3,3))
y = np.arange(3)

print np.dot(x,y)

扫码关注云+社区