如何在共享内存中使用numpy数组进行多处理?

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我希望在共享内存中使用numpy数组,以便与多处理模块一起使用。困难之处在于将其作为一个numpy数组使用,而不仅仅是作为一个ctype数组使用。

from multiprocessing import Process, Array
import scipy

def f(a):
    a[0] = -a[0]

if __name__ == '__main__':
    # Create the array
    N = int(10)
    unshared_arr = scipy.rand(N)
    a = Array('d', unshared_arr)
    print "Originally, the first two elements of arr = %s"%(arr[:2])

    # Create, start, and finish the child process
    p = Process(target=f, args=(a,))
    p.start()
    p.join()

    # Print out the changed values
    print "Now, the first two elements of arr = %s"%arr[:2]

这将产生如下输出:

Originally, the first two elements of arr = [0.3518653236697369, 0.517794725524976]
Now, the first two elements of arr = [-0.3518653236697369, 0.517794725524976]

可以以ctype方式访问数组,例如我说得通。但是,它不是numpy数组,我不能执行-1之类的操作。*a,或.sum()。我认为解决方案是将ctype数组转换为numpy数组。然而(除了不能使这个工作),我不相信它将不再共享。

提问于
用户回答回答于

Array对象具有get_obj()方法,该方法返回表示缓冲区接口的ctype数组:

from multiprocessing import Process, Array
import scipy
import numpy

def f(a):
    a[0] = -a[0]

if __name__ == '__main__':
    # Create the array
    N = int(10)
    unshared_arr = scipy.rand(N)
    a = Array('d', unshared_arr)
    print "Originally, the first two elements of arr = %s"%(a[:2])

    # Create, start, and finish the child process
    p = Process(target=f, args=(a,))
    p.start()
    p.join()

    # Print out the changed values
    print "Now, the first two elements of arr = %s"%a[:2]

    b = numpy.frombuffer(a.get_obj())

    b[0] = 10.0
    print a[0]

在运行时,将打印出a现在是10.0,显示ab只是两个视图进入同一个内存。

用户回答回答于

你可以用shared_arr.get_lock(),需要时同步访问:

shared_arr = mp.Array(ctypes.c_double, N)
# ...
def f(i): # could be anything numpy accepts as an index such another numpy array
    with shared_arr.get_lock(): # synchronize access
        arr = np.frombuffer(shared_arr.get_obj()) # no data copying
        arr[i] = -arr[i]

import ctypes
import logging
import multiprocessing as mp

from contextlib import closing

import numpy as np

info = mp.get_logger().info

def main():
    logger = mp.log_to_stderr()
    logger.setLevel(logging.INFO)

    # create shared array
    N, M = 100, 11
    shared_arr = mp.Array(ctypes.c_double, N)
    arr = tonumpyarray(shared_arr)

    # fill with random values
    arr[:] = np.random.uniform(size=N)
    arr_orig = arr.copy()

    # write to arr from different processes
    with closing(mp.Pool(initializer=init, initargs=(shared_arr,))) as p:
        # many processes access the same slice
        stop_f = N // 10
        p.map_async(f, [slice(stop_f)]*M)

        # many processes access different slices of the same array
        assert M % 2 # odd
        step = N // 10
        p.map_async(g, [slice(i, i + step) for i in range(stop_f, N, step)])
    p.join()
    assert np.allclose(((-1)**M)*tonumpyarray(shared_arr), arr_orig)

def init(shared_arr_):
    global shared_arr
    shared_arr = shared_arr_ # must be inhereted, not passed as an argument

def tonumpyarray(mp_arr):
    return np.frombuffer(mp_arr.get_obj())

def f(i):
    """synchronized."""
    with shared_arr.get_lock(): # synchronize access
        g(i)

def g(i):
    """no synchronization."""
    info("start %s" % (i,))
    arr = tonumpyarray(shared_arr)
    arr[i] = -1 * arr[i]
    info("end   %s" % (i,))

if __name__ == '__main__':
    mp.freeze_support()
    main()

如果您不需要同步访问或创建您自己的锁,那么mp.Array()是不必要的。你可以用mp.sharedctypes.RawArray

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