精读新科学家第58期:人工智能可能有助于识别长大后的失踪儿童

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红色字体为生词和词组

黄色阴影为精讲句子

词组

红色字体为该词的搭配使用

紫色字体为该词的其他意思

绿色字体为该词的同义替换

橙色字体为短语中的词汇

【原文】

AS MISSING children age, they outgrow their last known photographs, which makes finding them tough. Now AI could make it quicker to match any found children to those old photos. Police can use software to age photos of people who have been missing for a while, but these tend to work best in adults, as age-related changes to adult faces are more predictable and so easier to simulate.

With children, these aged images don’t tend to resemble the older child, and matching photos of found children to old images in a database of missing children is difficult. “Given a [recent] face image of a child, it is extremely hard for a human to identify, visually, who the child is from a large data set of child face images,” says Debayan Deb at Michigan State University.

Now Deb and his colleagues have created an algorithm to do this for them. They trained a face-recognition algorithm on data sets including the Children Longitudinal Face data set, which contains images of nearly 1000 children aged between 2 and 18 years old. Each was photographed at least four times over a period of six years.

The AI learned to match recent photographs of children with images taken 2.5 years earlier 80 per cent of the time (arxiv.org/abs/1711.03990).

With one year between the two photographs, the method was 90 per cent accurate at identifying faces. This dropped to 73 per cent after three years. The approach beats comparing children with photos taken when they were aged 0 to 4 that have been aged by software, which hovers at 50 per cent recognition after six months. The new AI might help to improve accuracy of this kind of software as well.

“This is a very good paper that could potentially be used to identify missing children,” says Amarjot Singh at the University of Cambridge.

Deb’s next goal is to extend the age gap. His team also hopes to develop an app that could be used to fight child trafficking.

【笔记】

AS MISSING children age, theyoutgrowtheir last known photographs, which makes finding themtough. NowAIcould make it quicker to match any found children to those old photos. Police can use software to age photos of people who have been missing for a while, but these tend to work best in adults, as age-related changes to adult faces are morepredictableand so easier tosimulate.

With children, these agedimagesdon’t tend toresemblethe older child, andmatchingphotos of found children to old images in a database of missing children is difficult.“Given a [recent] face image of a child, it is extremely hard for a human toidentify,visually, who the child is from a large data set of child face images,” says Debayan Deb at Michigan State University.

word & expression

1. outgrow

vt. 过大而不适于;出生;长大成熟而不再

The girl may or may not outgrow her interest in fashion.

那个女孩可能会,也可能不会因长大而失去她对时尚的兴趣。

come into the world , see the sun

2. tough

adj. 艰苦的,困难的;坚强的,不屈不挠的;坚韧的,牢固的;强壮的,结实的

It was a very tough decision but we feel we made the right one.

这是一个非常困难的决定,但我们觉得自己做出了正确的选择。

difficult , strong , hard , rough , firm

tough cookie 非常坚强的人;不易动感情的人;自信者

tough luck 坏运气;真不走运

tough nut 大胆果断的人;暴躁的人

n. 恶棍

varlet , Highbinder

vt. 坚持;忍受,忍耐

stay , stomach , go , abide , resist

tough it out [美国口语]勇敢地承受;坚持到底

adv. 强硬地,顽强地

doggedly , pertinaciously

3. AI

abbr. 人工智能(artificial intelligence)

As with any technology, not all uses of AI will be for the better.

与某些技术一样,并非所有的人工智能都有益处。

4. predictable

adj. 可预言的

This was a predictable reaction, given the bitter hostility between the two countries.

考虑到两国之间的强烈敌意,这种反应是可以预见的。

divinable

5. simulate

vt. 模仿;假装;冒充

They rolled about on the Gilligan Road, simulating a bloodthirsty fight.

他们在吉利根路上打滚,模拟一场血腥的战斗。

pattern , come , imitate

adj. 模仿的;假装的

affected , assumed

simulate signal 模拟功能 ; 仿真信号

simulate illustration 模拟草图

6. image

n. 影像;想象;肖像;偶像

...the government's negative public image.

…政府负面的公众形象。

icon , portrait

image processing 图像处理;图象加工

digital image 数字图象

brand image 品牌形象

vt. 想象;反映;象征;作…的像

indicate , vision , glass , figure

7. resemble

vt. 类似,像

Some of the commercially produced venison resembles beef in flavour.

一些商业化生产的鹿肉味道像牛肉。

favor

8. match

vt. 使比赛;使相配;敌得过,比得上;相配;与…竞争

It can take time and effort to match buyers and sellers.

匹配买主和卖主可能需要花费一些时间和精力。

equal , rival

match with 使和……相匹配

well matched 相称,相配

vi. 比赛;匹配;相配,相称;相比

suit , balance

n. 比赛,竞赛;匹配;对手;火柴

He was watching a football match.

他正在看一场英式足球比赛。

competition , game , tournament , play , contest

boxing match n. 拳赛

best match 最佳匹配

mix and match 混合搭配

9. identify

vt. 确定;鉴定;识别,辨认出;使参与;把…看成一样

There are a number of distinguishing characteristics by which you can identify a Hollywood epic.

通过其诸多与众不同的特点,你可以识别出好莱坞的史诗影片。

confirm , recognize , ascertain

identify oneself 证明自己(的身份)

vi. 确定;认同;一致

She would only play a role if she could identify with the character.

她只愿扮演自己认同的人物角色。

cotton , square

identify with 认为…等同于,与一致

10. visually

adv. 形象化地;外表上;看得见地

What does that memory look like visually, and where in your brain is it taking place?

这种记忆外表上看来又是何种样子,以及它是在你的大脑中何处形成的呢?

externally , visibly

【参考译文】

随着失踪孩子越长越大,他们已经同失踪前留下的最后的照片不一样了,这使得寻找他们变得十分艰难。现在AI可以更快地把任何找到的孩子与那些旧照片相匹配。警方可以使用软件来对应失踪者的照片,但这种技术在成年人中使用效果最好,因为成人脸上的年龄变化更容易预测,更容易模拟。

对孩子来说,这些陈年的形象跟稍大一点儿的孩子并不相似,而且将被找到的孩子的照片与失踪儿童数据库中的旧照片作匹配是很困难的。“得到一个孩子[最近]的面部图像,再从有许多儿童面部信息的大型数据库中寻找并从视觉上识别出来,对人来说非常困难。”来自密歇根州立大学的Debayan Deb说。

Now Deb and his colleagues have created analgorithmto do this for them. Theytrainedaface-recognitionalgorithm on data sets including the ChildrenLongitudinalFace data set, whichcontainsimages of nearly 1000 children aged between 2 and 18 years old. Each was photographed at least four times over a period of six years.

The AI learned to match recent photographs of children with images taken 2.5 years earlier 80 per cent of the time (arxiv.org/abs/1711.03990).

word & expression

1. algorithm

n. [计][数] 算法,运算法则

And so the fact that in this whole slide here, this algorithm for sorting, I'm using the verb sort.

在这个排序算法中,我用到了一个动词排序。

arithmetic

genetic algorithm 遗传算法

control algorithm 控制算法

optimization algorithm 优化算法

2. train

v. 培养;训练;瞄准

Strachan is training for the new season.

斯特罗恩正在为新赛季进行训练。

aim for , take aim at

n. 火车;行列;长队;裙裾

In the old days this used to be done with a baggage train of camels.

在古时候,这常常由一队拉行李的骆驼来完成。

iron horse , choochoo

train of thought 一连串的思想或思路

by train 乘火车

train station 火车站

3. face-recognition

面貌识别

Next on our agenda, we want to demonstrate face recognition.

我们的下一个目标,是展示人脸识别技术。

4. longitudinal

adj. 长度的,纵向的;经线的

So here is a longitudinal study that was done by John Carter.

所以下面讲讲John Carter所作的纵向研究。

linear , fore-and-aft

longitudinal direction 纵向流变;轴向

longitudinal vibration 纵向振动

longitudinal wave 纵波

5. contain

vt. 包含;控制;容纳;牵制(敌军)

Watermelon contains vitamins and also potassium.

西瓜含有维生素也有钾。

involve , possess , regulate , manage , accept

vi. 含有;自制

【参考译文】

现在,Deb和他的同事们创造了一个算法来进行匹配。他们对包括儿童纵向人脸数据库在内的数据库进行了人脸识别算法的测试,其中包含了近1000名年龄在2至18岁之间的儿童的图像。每个人在六年内至少拍了四次照片。

人工智能学会将孩子最近的照片与其2.5年前的进行匹配,且80%都是正确的。

With one year between the two photographs, the method was 90 per cent accurate at identifying faces.This dropped to 73 per cent after three years. Theapproach beatscomparing children with photos taken when they were aged 0 to 4 that have been aged by software, whichhoversat 50 per cent recognition after six months. The new AI might help to improveaccuracyof this kind of software as well.

“This is a very good paper that couldpotentiallybe used to identify missing children,” says Amarjot Singh at the University of Cambridge.

Deb’s next goal is toextendthe age gap. His team also hopes to develop an app that could be used to fight childtrafficking.

word & expression

1. approach

n. 方法;途径;接近

We will be exploring different approaches to gathering information.

我们将探索收集信息的不同方法。

method , way , system , mechanism , medium

new approach 新方案;新做法

an approach to 学习...的入门;学习...的途径

basic approach 基本方法

vt. 接近;着手处理

When I approached, they grew silent.

当我走近时,他们变得沉默了。

border , go on for

vi. 靠近

come near to , draw near

2. beat

vi. 打;打败;拍打;有节奏地舒张与收缩

I felt my heart beating faster.

我感觉心脏跳得更快了。

strike , hit

beat up adj. 年久失修的;残破的 , v. 暴打,痛打;抬(价);惊动;搅拌

beat out 搞清;敲平;使筋疲力尽

beat back vt. 击退,打退;驶回

vt. 打;打败

My wife tried to stop them and they beat her.

我妻子试图阻止他们,他们就猛打她。

strike , tank , best

n. 拍子;敲击;有规律的一连串敲打

He could hear the beat of his heart.

他能听到自己的心跳。

tempo

beat frequency 拍频;差频

premature beat [医]过早搏动

adj. 筋疲力尽的;疲惫不堪的

knackered , outspent

3. hover

vi. 盘旋,翱翔;徘徊

Beautiful butterflies hovered above the wild flowers.

美丽的蝴蝶在野花上方盘旋。

plane , orbit

hover over 在…盘旋

n. 徘徊;盘旋;犹豫

vibration , spinning around

vt. 孵;徘徊在…近旁

brood , hatch

4. accuracy

n. [数] 精确度,准确性

Every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of all information given in this leaflet.

已经采取了一切措施来保证这张传单上所有信息的准确。

high accuracy 高准确度

measurement accuracy 量测精度

measuring accuracy 测量精度;计量精度

5. potentially

adv. 可能地,潜在地

Or, at least, it can potentially change these aspects of the messaging network.

或者,它至少可以潜在地更改消息网络的这些方面。

possibly

6. extend

vt. 延伸;扩大;推广;伸出;给予;使竭尽全力;对…估价

This year they have introduced three new products to extend their range.

今年他们已引入了3种新产品以扩大他们的范围。

afford , allow , deal , deliver , finger

extend one's business 扩大其营业

vi. 延伸;扩大;伸展;使疏开

The main stem will extend to around 12 ft, if left to develop naturally.

如果让其自然生长,主干会延伸到12英尺左右。

reach , spread , range , enlarge , push

7. trafficking

n. 非法交易(尤指毒品买卖)

Gerth also investigates the darkest side of Chinese consumerism: the trafficking in human organs and the sex trade.

格特还深入调查了中国消费市场中最黑暗的部分:人体器官交易与性交易。

drug trafficking 贩毒;毒品走私

【参考译文】

在相隔一年的两张照片之间,该方法准确地识别了90%的脸。三年后下降到73%。这种方法将孩子们与0岁到4岁之间的照片进行比较,而这些照片都是经过软件老化的,六个月后的识别率为50%。新的人工智能也有助于提高这种软件的精确度。

“这是一个非常好的成果,可以用来识别丢失的孩子。”来自剑桥大学的Amarjot Singh。

Deb的下一个目标是扩大年龄差距。他的团队还希望开发一个可以用于打击贩卖儿童的应用程序。

【句子精讲】

With one year between the two photographs, the method was 90 per cent accurate at identifying faces.

with的用法

表伴随作用。

译作“同……(一起)”,“跟……(一起)”等。

I went to the cinema with my mother.

我和我妈妈去看电影了。

在英语语法里,当“单数名词+with+名词”,用作主语时,其谓语动词应用单数。

A teacher, with his students, is seeing an English film.

一位教师跟他的学生们正在看一部英语

电影。

译作“随着”。

With the development of science and technology, our living standards have missed a lot.

随着科技的发展,我们的生活水平得到了很大的提高。

译作“具有”、“带有”。

The woman with a baby in her arms was my teacher in the middle school.

那位怀抱孩子的妇女就是我中学时的老师。

表工具、手段、原因、施动者。

译作“用”、“被”。

The table is covered with a nice cloth.

那张桌子用一块漂亮的布盖着。

The window had been broken with a stone.

窗户被一块石头打碎了。

The pavement on each side was crowded with smiling people.

两边的人行道上挤满了微笑的人们。

He was killed with a knife.

他被人用刀刺死了。

译作“乘”。

Mr. Black came to China with a plane called 737.

布来克先生乘坐一架名为737的飞机来中国的。

译作“由于”、“因为”等。

With so many things to do, he has to work full times.

由于有这么多的事要做,他不得不全日工作。

He passed the exam with her help.

在她的帮助下,他考试及格了。

She jumped with joy.

她高兴得跳起来。

with 的特殊用法

表示“在……范围”,有“在……工作”、“是……的成员”或“被……雇用”等。

He got a job with a motor company.

他在一家汽车公司找到了工作。

He has been with our school for 28 years.

他在我们学校工作了28年。

表示让步,译作“尽管、虽然”。

With all his shortcomings, he was a conscientious worker.

尽管他有缺点,但他却是一个勤勤恳恳的工人。

表示“与……一致(拥护)”或“与……对垒”。

Are you with us or against us?

你是拥护我们还是反对我们?

The dog was fighting with the cat.

狗在和猫打架。

Our team is playing with the team from No. 2 Middle School.

我们的球队正在和二中的球队比赛。

表示“关于,对……,就……来说”等。

Jenny didn’t want him to do that because her parents were very strict with her.

詹妮不想让他那么做,因为她的父母对她要求很严。

(还有短语:be angry with sb.)

Everything was going well with us.

我们的一切都进行得很顺利。

Something is with the computer.

那台电脑出了毛病。

表示情态。

She looked at them with great satisfactions.

她十分满意地看着他们。

She walked out with a smile.

她笑着走了出去。

with 构成的介词短语,除了可以作伴随状语、原因状语、定语外,还可以作条件状语。

With us on their side, they will win.

如果我们在他们那一边,他们就会赢。

With this sum added, we will have enough money for the building.

如果加上这一笔,我们建这栋楼房的钱就够了。

用于某些短语中,形成固定搭配。

down with(打倒)

out with(说出来)

have to do with(与……有关)

catch/keep up with(赶上/跟上)

meet with(碰到)

help…with(帮助……做……)

be with child(怀孩子了)

get in touch with(取得联系)

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  • 原文链接http://kuaibao.qq.com/s/20171213G0JGL500?refer=cp_1026
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