通过 API 访问集群

最近更新时间:2020-07-29 16:43:22

Elasticsearch 提供了功能全面的 RESTful API 与集群交互,详情请参见 Elasticsearch 官方的 API 文档

腾讯云 ES 构建在用户 VPC 内,用户可以通过位于同一 VPC 下的 CVM 作为客户端访问 ES 集群。可通过内网访问外网访问两种方式访问 ES 集群,外网访问存在安全风险,需谨慎开启。

说明:

  • 外网访问仅用于开发调试,因系统会限制调用频次,所以不能用于生产环境。
  • 当前 ES 公网访问不计费,带宽10M。

查看内外网访问地址

集群列表页,单击【集群 ID】进入详情页:

  • 对于内网地址,在基础配置中可直接查看。
  • 对于外网地址,出于安全考虑默认是关闭的。对于已开启 ES 集群用户登录认证 的集群,支持开启公网地址。开启公网访问可能会为集群引入安全风险,同时也将允许通过 API 直接访问、操作甚至删除在 ElasticSearch 集群中的数据,请谨慎开启。

基本配置

测试访问

可通过 curl 的方式测试访问集群,不支持通过 ping 的方式测试连通性。

测试服务是否可访问

说明:

对于已开启 ES 集群用户登录认证 的集群,登录时需要用户名和密码认证,具体规则为curl action -u user:password host ...,需要将 user、password 替换为自己实际的用户名和密码。

下面将以内网地址访问来演示各访问操作。

输入命令:

curl -XGET http://10.0.17.2:9200
若开启了ES集群用户登录认证,请注意输入用户名密码
curl -XGET -u user:password http://10.0.17.2:9200

返回如下,表示集群访问正常,具体参数的值会根据集群的版本有所不同:

{
  "name": "15589826570000*****",
  "cluster_name": "es-******",
  "cluster_uuid": "NGIm1M_zRw-L3o_gH****",
  "version": {
    "number": "6.4.3",
    "build_flavor": "default",
    "build_type": "zip",
    "build_hash": "fe40335",
    "build_date": "2019-05-17T14:22:47.286024Z",
    "build_snapshot": false,
    "lucene_version": "7.4.0",
    "minimum_wire_compatibility_version": "5.6.0",
    "minimum_index_compatibility_version": "5.0.0"
  },
  "tagline": "You Know, for Search"
}

创建文档

创建单个文档

  • 若集群未开启用户登录认证, 输入命令行:
    curl -XPUT http://10.0.0.2:9200/china/city/beijing -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
    {
    "name":"北京市",
    "province":"北京市",
    "lat":39.9031324643,
    "lon":116.4010433787,
    "x":6763,
    "level.range":4,
    "level.level":1,
    "level.name":"一线城市",
    "y":6381,
    "cityNo":1
    }
    '
  • 若集群已开启用户登录认证,需要将下文中的 user、password 替换为自己集群实际的用户名和密码。 输入命令行:
    curl -XPUT -u user:password http://10.0.0.2:9200/china/city/beijing -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
    {
    "name":"北京市",
    "province":"北京市",
    "lat":39.9031324643,
    "lon":116.4010433787,
    "x":6763,
    "level.range":4,
    "level.level":1,
    "level.name":"一线城市",
    "y":6381,
    "cityNo":1
    }
    '
    响应如下:
    {
      "_index":"china",
      "_type":"city",
      "_id":"beijing",
      "_version":1,
      "result":"created",
      "_shards":{
          "total":2,
          "successful":1,
          "failed":0
      },
      "created":true
    }

创建多个文档

输入命令行:

curl -XPOST http://10.0.0.2:9200/_bulk -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
{ "index" : { "_index": "china", "_type" : "city", "_id" : "beijing" } }
{"name":"北京市","province":"北京市","lat":39.9031324643,"lon":116.4010433787,"x":6763,"level.range":4,"level.level":1,"level.name":"一线城市","y":6381,"cityNo":1}
{ "index" : { "_index": "china", "_type" : "city", "_id" : "shanghai" } }
{"name":"上海市","province":"上海市","lat":31.2319526784,"lon":121.469443249,"x":7779,"level.range":4,"level.level":1,"level.name":"一线城市","y":4409,"cityNo":2}
{ "index" : { "_index": "china", "_type" : "city", "_id" : "guangzhou" } }
{"name":"广州市","province":"广东省越秀区吉祥路79号","lat":23.1317146641,"lon":113.2595185241,"x":6173,"level.range":4,"level.level":1,"level.name":"一线城市","y":2560,"cityNo":3}
{ "index" : { "_index": "china", "_type" : "city", "_id" : "shenzhen" } }
{"name":"深圳市","province":"广东省福田区新园路37号","lat":22.5455465546,"lon":114.0527779134,"x":6336,"level.range":4,"level.level":1,"level.name":"一线城市","y":2429,"cityNo":4}
{ "index" : { "_index": "china", "_type" : "city", "_id" : "chengdu" } }
{"name":"成都市","province":"四川省锦江区红星路4段-88号-附1号","lat":30.6522796787,"lon":104.0725574128,"x":4387,"level.level":2,"level.range":19,"level.name":"新一线城市","y":4304,"cityNo":5}
{ "index" : { "_index": "china", "_type" : "city", "_id" : "hangzhou" } }
{"name":"杭州市","province":"浙江省拱墅区环城北路316号","lat":30.2753694112,"lon":120.1509063337,"x":7530,"level.level":2,"level.range":19,"level.name":"新一线城市","y":4182,"cityNo":6}
'

响应如下:

"took":9,"errors":false,"items":[{"index":{"_index":"china","_type":"city","_id":"beijing","_version":4,"result":"updated","_shards":{"total":2,"successful":2,"failed":0},"created":false,"status":200}},{"index":{"_index":"china","_type":"city","_id":"shanghai","_version":2,"result":"updated","_shards":{"total":2,"successful":2,"failed":0},"created":false,"status":200}},{"index":{"_index":"china","_type":"city","_id":"guangzhou","_version":1,"result":"created","_shards":{"total":2,"successful":2,"failed":0},"created":true,"status":201}},{"index":{"_index":"china","_type":"city","_id":"shenzhen","_version":1,"result":"created","_shards":{"total":2,"successful":2,"failed":0},"created":true,"status":201}},{"index":{"_index":"china","_type":"city","_id":"chengdu","_version":2,"result":"updated","_shards":{"total":2,"successful":2,"failed":0},"created":false,"status":200}},{"index":{"_index":"china","_type":"city","_id":"hangzhou","_version":2,"result":"updated","_shards":{"total":2,"successful":2,"failed":0},"created":false,"status":200}}]

更新文档

重复上文创建单个文档的输入代码,即可更新指定 ID beijing的文档。 响应如下:

{"_index":"china","_type":"city","_id":"beijing","_version":2,"result":"updated","_shards":{"total":2,"successful":2,"failed":0},"created":false}

查询文档

查询指定 ID

输入命令行:

curl -XGET 'http://10.0.0.2:9200/china/city/beijing?pretty' -H 'Content-Type: application/json' 

响应如下:

{
  "_index" : "china",
  "_type" : "city",
  "_id" : "beijing",
  "_version" : 4,
  "found" : true,
  "_source" : {
    "name" : "北京市",
    "province" : "北京市",
    "lat" : 39.9031324643,
    "lon" : 116.4010433787,
    "x" : 6763,
    "level.range" : 4,
    "level.level" : 1,
    "level.name" : "一线城市",
    "y" : 6381,
    "cityNo" : 1
  }
}

查询某个索引

输入命令行:

curl -XGET 'http://10.0.0.2:9200/china/city/_search?pretty' -H 'Content-Type: application/json' 

响应如下:

{
  "took" : 0,
  "timed_out" : false,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 5,
    "successful" : 5,
    "skipped" : 0,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "hits" : {
    "total" : 6,
    "max_score" : 1.0,
    "hits" : [
      {
        "_index" : "china",
        "_type" : "city",
        "_id" : "guangzhou",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "name" : "广州市",
          "province" : "广东省越秀区吉祥路79号",
          "lat" : 23.1317146641,
          "lon" : 113.2595185241,
          "x" : 6173,
          "level.range" : 4,
          "level.level" : 1,
          "level.name" : "一线城市",
          "y" : 2560,
          "cityNo" : 3
        }
      }]
    },
    ......
}   

复杂查询

模拟 SQL:

select * from city where level.level=2
curl -XGET http://10.0.0.2:9200/china/city/_search?pretty -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
{
    "query" : {
        "constant_score" : { 
            "filter" : {
                "term" : { 
                    "level.level" : 2
                }
            }
        }
    }
}'

响应如下:

{
  "took" : 2,
  "timed_out" : false,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 5,
    "successful" : 5,
    "skipped" : 0,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "hits" : {
    "total" : 2,
    "max_score" : 1.0,
    "hits" : [
      {
        "_index" : "china",
        "_type" : "city",
        "_id" : "chengdu",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "name" : "成都市",
          "province" : "四川省锦江区红星路4段-88号-附1号",
          "lat" : 30.6522796787,
          "lon" : 104.0725574128,
          "x" : 4387,
          "level.level" : 2,
          "level.range" : 19,
          "level.name" : "新一线城市",
          "y" : 4304,
          "cityNo" : 5
        }
      },
      {
        "_index" : "china",
        "_type" : "city",
        "_id" : "hangzhou",
        "_score" : 1.0,
        "_source" : {
          "name" : "杭州市",
          "province" : "浙江省拱墅区环城北路316号",
          "lat" : 30.2753694112,
          "lon" : 120.1509063337,
          "x" : 7530,
          "level.level" : 2,
          "level.range" : 19,
          "level.name" : "新一线城市",
          "y" : 4182,
          "cityNo" : 6
        }
      }
    ]
  }
}

聚合查询

模拟 SQL:

select level.level, count(1) from city group by level.level
curl -XGET http://10.0.0.2:9200/china/city/_search?pretty -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
{
    "size" : 0,
    "aggs" : { 
        "city_level" : { 
            "terms" : { 
              "field" : "level.level"
            }
        }
    }
}'

响应如下:

{
  "took" : 10,
  "timed_out" : false,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 5,
    "successful" : 5,
    "skipped" : 0,
    "failed" : 0
  },
  "hits" : {
    "total" : 7,
    "max_score" : 0.0,
    "hits" : [ ]
  },
  "aggregations" : {
    "city_level" : {
      "doc_count_error_upper_bound" : 0,
      "sum_other_doc_count" : 0,
      "buckets" : [
        {
          "key" : 1,
          "doc_count" : 4
        },
        {
          "key" : 2,
          "doc_count" : 3
        }
      ]
    }
  }
}

删除文档

删除单个文档

输入命令行:

curl -XDELETE 'http://10.0.0.2:9200/china/city/beijing?pretty' -H 'Content-Type: application/json' 

响应如下:

{
  "found" : true,
  "_index" : "china",
  "_type" : "city",
  "_id" : "beijing",
  "_version" : 5,
  "result" : "deleted",
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 2,
    "successful" : 2,
    "failed" : 0
  }
}

删除类型

curl -XDELETE 'http://10.0.0.2:9200/china/city?pretty' -H 'Content-Type: application/json' 

删除索引

curl -XDELETE 'http://10.0.0.2:9200/china?pretty' -H 'Content-Type: application/json' 
目录