有奖调研

通过 API 访问集群

最近更新时间:2021-10-29 17:48:03

Elasticsearch 提供了功能全面的 RESTful API 与集群交互,详情请参见 Elasticsearch 官方的 API 文档

腾讯云 ES 构建在用户 VPC 内,用户可以通过位于同一 VPC 下的 CVM 作为客户端访问 ES 集群。可通过内网访问外网访问两种方式访问 ES 集群,外网访问存在安全风险,需谨慎开启。

说明:

  • 外网访问仅用于开发调试,因系统会限制调用频次,所以不能用于生产环境。
  • 当前 ES 公网访问不计费,带宽10M。

查看内外网访问地址

集群列表页,单击集群 ID/名称进入详情页:

  • 对于内网地址,在基础配置中可直接查看。
  • 对于外网地址,出于安全考虑默认是关闭的。对于已开启 ES 集群用户登录认证 的集群,支持开启公网地址。开启公网访问可能会为集群引入安全风险,同时也将允许通过 API 直接访问、操作甚至删除在 ElasticSearch 集群中的数据,请谨慎开启。

基本配置

测试访问

可通过 curl 的方式测试访问集群,不支持通过 ping 的方式测试连通性。

测试服务是否可访问

说明:

对于已开启 ES 集群用户登录认证 的集群,登录时需要用户名和密码认证,具体规则为curl action -u user:password host ...,需要将 user、password 替换为自己实际的用户名和密码,将 host 替换为自己的 IP。

下面将以内网地址访问来演示各访问操作。输入命令:

curl -XGET http://10.0.17.2:9200
若开启了ES集群用户登录认证,请注意输入用户名密码
curl -XGET -u user:password http://10.0.17.2:9200
返回如下,表示集群访问正常,具体参数的值会根据集群的版本有所不同:
{
"name": "15589826570000*****",
"cluster_name": "es-******",
"cluster_uuid": "NGIm1M_zRw-L3o_gH****",
"version": {
  "number": "6.4.3",
  "build_flavor": "default",
  "build_type": "zip",
  "build_hash": "fe40335",
  "build_date": "2019-05-17T14:22:47.286024Z",
  "build_snapshot": false,
  "lucene_version": "7.4.0",
  "minimum_wire_compatibility_version": "5.6.0",
  "minimum_index_compatibility_version": "5.0.0"
},
"tagline": "You Know, for Search"
}

创建文档

创建单个文档

  • 若集群未开启用户登录认证, 输入命令行:
    curl -XPUT http://10.0.0.2:9200/china/_doc/beijing -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
      {
      "name":"北京市",
      "province":"北京市",
      "lat":39.9031324643,
      "lon":116.4010433787,
      "x":6763,
      "level.range":4,
      "level.level":1,
      "level.name":"一线城市",
      "y":6381,
      "cityNo":1
      }
      '
  • 若集群已开启用户登录认证,需要将下文中的 user、password 替换为自己集群实际的用户名和密码。输入命令行:
    curl -XPUT -u user:password http://10.0.0.2:9200/china/_doc/beijing -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
      {
      "name":"北京市",
      "province":"北京市",
      "lat":39.9031324643,
      "lon":116.4010433787,
      "x":6763,
      "level.range":4,
      "level.level":1,
      "level.name":"一线城市",
      "y":6381,
      "cityNo":1
      }
      '
    响应如下:
    {
      "_index":"china",
      "_type":"_doc",
      "_id":"beijing",
      "_version":1,
      "result":"created",
      "_shards":{
          "total":2,
          "successful":1,
          "failed":0
      },
      "created":true
      }

创建多个文档

输入命令行:

curl -XPOST http://10.0.0.2:9200/_bulk -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
{ "index" : { "_index": "china", "_type" : "_doc", "_id" : "beijing" } }
{"name":"北京市","province":"北京市","lat":39.9031324643,"lon":116.4010433787,"x":6763,"level.range":4,"level.level":1,"level.name":"一线城市","y":6381,"cityNo":1}
{ "index" : { "_index": "china", "_type" : "_doc", "_id" : "shanghai" } }
{"name":"上海市","province":"上海市","lat":31.2319526784,"lon":121.469443249,"x":7779,"level.range":4,"level.level":1,"level.name":"一线城市","y":4409,"cityNo":2}
{ "index" : { "_index": "china", "_type" : "_doc", "_id" : "guangzhou" } }
{"name":"广州市","province":"广东省越秀区吉祥路79","lat":23.1317146641,"lon":113.2595185241,"x":6173,"level.range":4,"level.level":1,"level.name":"一线城市","y":2560,"cityNo":3}
{ "index" : { "_index": "china", "_type" : "_doc", "_id" : "shenzhen" } }
{"name":"深圳市","province":"广东省福田区新园路37","lat":22.5455465546,"lon":114.0527779134,"x":6336,"level.range":4,"level.level":1,"level.name":"一线城市","y":2429,"cityNo":4}
{ "index" : { "_index": "china", "_type" : "_doc", "_id" : "chengdu" } }
{"name":"成都市","province":"四川省锦江区红星路4段-88号-附1","lat":30.6522796787,"lon":104.0725574128,"x":4387,"level.level":2,"level.range":19,"level.name":"新一线城市","y":4304,"cityNo":5}
{ "index" : { "_index": "china", "_type" : "_doc", "_id" : "hangzhou" } }
{"name":"杭州市","province":"浙江省拱墅区环城北路316","lat":30.2753694112,"lon":120.1509063337,"x":7530,"level.level":2,"level.range":19,"level.name":"新一线城市","y":4182,"cityNo":6}
'
响应如下:
"took":9,"errors":false,"items":[{"index":{"_index":"china","_type":"_doc","_id":"beijing","_version":4,"result":"updated","_shards":{"total":2,"successful":2,"failed":0},"created":false,"status":200}},{"index":{"_index":"china","_type":"_doc","_id":"shanghai","_version":2,"result":"updated","_shards":{"total":2,"successful":2,"failed":0},"created":false,"status":200}},{"index":{"_index":"china","_type":"_doc","_id":"guangzhou","_version":1,"result":"created","_shards":{"total":2,"successful":2,"failed":0},"created":true,"status":201}},{"index":{"_index":"china","_type":"_doc","_id":"shenzhen","_version":1,"result":"created","_shards":{"total":2,"successful":2,"failed":0},"created":true,"status":201}},{"index":{"_index":"china","_type":"_doc","_id":"chengdu","_version":2,"result":"updated","_shards":{"total":2,"successful":2,"failed":0},"created":false,"status":200}},{"index":{"_index":"china","_type":"_doc","_id":"hangzhou","_version":2,"result":"updated","_shards":{"total":2,"successful":2,"failed":0},"created":false,"status":200}}]

更新文档

重复上文创建单个文档的输入代码,即可更新指定 ID beijing的文档。 响应如下:

{"_index":"china","_type":"_doc","_id":"beijing","_version":2,"result":"updated","_shards":{"total":2,"successful":2,"failed":0},"created":false}

查询文档

查询指定 ID

输入命令行:

curl -XGET 'http://10.0.0.2:9200/china/_doc/beijing?pretty' -H 'Content-Type: application/json' 
响应如下:
{
"_index" : "china",
"_type" : "_doc",
"_id" : "beijing",
"_version" : 4,
"found" : true,
"_source" : {
  "name" : "北京市",
  "province" : "北京市",
  "lat" : 39.9031324643,
  "lon" : 116.4010433787,
  "x" : 6763,
  "level.range" : 4,
  "level.level" : 1,
  "level.name" : "一线城市",
  "y" : 6381,
  "cityNo" : 1
}
}

查询某个索引

输入命令行:

curl -XGET 'http://10.0.0.2:9200/china/_search?pretty' -H 'Content-Type: application/json' 
响应如下:
{
"took" : 0,
"timed_out" : false,
"_shards" : {
  "total" : 5,
  "successful" : 5,
  "skipped" : 0,
  "failed" : 0
},
"hits" : {
  "total" : 6,
  "max_score" : 1.0,
  "hits" : [
    {
      "_index" : "china",
      "_type" : "_doc",
      "_id" : "guangzhou",
      "_score" : 1.0,
      "_source" : {
        "name" : "广州市",
        "province" : "广东省越秀区吉祥路79",
        "lat" : 23.1317146641,
        "lon" : 113.2595185241,
        "x" : 6173,
        "level.range" : 4,
        "level.level" : 1,
        "level.name" : "一线城市",
        "y" : 2560,
        "cityNo" : 3
      }
    }]
  },
  ......
}   

复杂查询

模拟 SQL:

select * from china where level.level=2
curl -XGET http://10.0.0.2:9200/china/_search?pretty -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
{
  "query" : {
      "constant_score" : { 
          "filter" : {
              "term" : { 
                  "level.level" : 2
              }
          }
      }
  }
}'
响应如下:
{
"took" : 2,
"timed_out" : false,
"_shards" : {
  "total" : 5,
  "successful" : 5,
  "skipped" : 0,
  "failed" : 0
},
"hits" : {
  "total" : 2,
  "max_score" : 1.0,
  "hits" : [
    {
      "_index" : "china",
      "_type" : "_doc",
      "_id" : "chengdu",
      "_score" : 1.0,
      "_source" : {
        "name" : "成都市",
        "province" : "四川省锦江区红星路4段-88号-附1",
        "lat" : 30.6522796787,
        "lon" : 104.0725574128,
        "x" : 4387,
        "level.level" : 2,
        "level.range" : 19,
        "level.name" : "新一线城市",
        "y" : 4304,
        "cityNo" : 5
      }
    },
    {
      "_index" : "china",
      "_type" : "_doc",
      "_id" : "hangzhou",
      "_score" : 1.0,
      "_source" : {
        "name" : "杭州市",
        "province" : "浙江省拱墅区环城北路316",
        "lat" : 30.2753694112,
        "lon" : 120.1509063337,
        "x" : 7530,
        "level.level" : 2,
        "level.range" : 19,
        "level.name" : "新一线城市",
        "y" : 4182,
        "cityNo" : 6
      }
    }
  ]
}
}

聚合查询

模拟 SQL:

select level.level, count(1) from city group by level.level
curl -XGET http://10.0.0.2:9200/china/_search?pretty -H 'Content-Type: application/json' -d'
{
  "size" : 0,
  "aggs" : { 
      "city_level" : { 
          "terms" : { 
            "field" : "level.level"
          }
      }
  }
}'
响应如下:
{
"took" : 10,
"timed_out" : false,
"_shards" : {
  "total" : 5,
  "successful" : 5,
  "skipped" : 0,
  "failed" : 0
},
"hits" : {
  "total" : 7,
  "max_score" : 0.0,
  "hits" : [ ]
},
"aggregations" : {
  "city_level" : {
    "doc_count_error_upper_bound" : 0,
    "sum_other_doc_count" : 0,
    "buckets" : [
      {
        "key" : 1,
        "doc_count" : 4
      },
      {
        "key" : 2,
        "doc_count" : 3
      }
    ]
  }
}
}

删除文档

删除单个文档

输入命令行:

curl -XDELETE 'http://10.0.0.2:9200/china/_doc/beijing?pretty' -H 'Content-Type: application/json' 
响应如下:
{
"found" : true,
"_index" : "china",
"_type" : "_doc",
"_id" : "beijing",
"_version" : 5,
"result" : "deleted",
"_shards" : {
  "total" : 2,
  "successful" : 2,
  "failed" : 0
}
}

删除类型

curl -XDELETE 'http://10.0.0.2:9200/china/_doc?pretty' -H 'Content-Type: application/json' 

删除索引

curl -XDELETE 'http://10.0.0.2:9200/china?pretty' -H 'Content-Type: application

目录