Docker Compose version 3 使用详解

Define application stacks built using multiple containers, services, and swarm configurations.

GitHub: https://github.com/docker/compose

install

Docker CE for Windows 10 、Docker CE for Mac 自带 docker-compose,官方建议随 Docker 版本升级。

Linux 请在 GitHub releases 处下载二进制文件,移入 PATH 并赋予可执行权限。

或者执行以下命令进行下载安装。

$ DOCKER_COMPOSE_VERSION=1.18.0

$ curl -L https://github.com/docker/compose/releases/download/${DOCKER_COMPOSE_VERSION}/docker-compose-`uname -s`-`uname -m` > docker-compose

$ chmod +x docker-compose

$ sudo mv docker-compose /usr/local/bin

$ docker-compose --version

或者通过 Python 包管理工具 pip 安装。

Command-line completion

fish

~/.config/fish/completions

$ wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/docker/compose/master/contrib/completion/fish/docker-compose.fish

bash

官方文档:https://docs.docker.com/compose/completion/

Compose file reference

build

version: '3'
services:
  webapp:
    build:
      # Dockerfile 目录或 git 仓库网址
      context: ./dir | .
      # Dockerfile 文件名称
      dockerfile: Dockerfile-alternate
      # 3.2
      cache_from:
        - alpine:latest
        - corp/web_app:3.14
      # 3.3  
      labels:
        com.example.description: "Accounting webapp"
        com.example.department: "Finance"
        com.example.label-with-empty-value: ""  
      # 构建时变量,相当于 docker build --build-arg list
      args:
        buildno: 1
      args:
        - buildno=1
      # 3.5  
      shm_size: '2gb'  
    image: webapp:tag

Dockerfile 中包含变量

ARG buildno
ARG password

RUN echo "Build number: $buildno"
RUN script-requiring-password.sh "$password"

cap_add, cap_drop

没用过,不了解。

Add or drop container capabilities. See man 7 capabilities for a full list.

cap_add:
  - ALL

cap_drop:
  - NET_ADMIN
  - SYS_ADMIN

command

command: bundle exec thin -p 3000

command: ["bundle", "exec", "thin", "-p", "3000"]

command:
  - bundle
  - exec
  - thin
  - -p
  - 3000

configs

3.3

version: "3.3"
services:
  redis:
    image: redis:latest
    deploy:
      replicas: 1
    configs:
      - my_config
      - my_other_config

configs:
  my_config:
    file: ./my_config.txt
  # 使用外部的 config,使用 docker config create 命令创建的 config  
  my_other_config:
    external: true
version: "3.3"
services:

  redis:
    image: redis:latest
    deploy:
      replicas: 1
    configs:
      - source: my_config
        target: /redis_config
        uid: '103'
        gid: '103'
        mode: 0440

configs:
  my_config:
    file: ./my_config.txt
  my_other_config:
    external: true

cgroup_parent

Specify an optional parent cgroup for the container.

cgroup_parent: m-executor-abcd

container_name

不建议使用,此项配置的话,服务将不能扩展。

container_name: my-web-container

credential_spec

没用过,不了解。

3.3

仅用于 Windows 容器。

deploy

仅用于 Swarm mode

version: '3'
services:

  redis:
    image: redis:alpine
    deploy:
      # 集群中运行该服务的容器个数
      mode: replicated
      replicas: 6
      update_config:
        parallelism: 2
        delay: 10s
      restart_policy:
        condition: on-failure
      labels:
        com.example.description: "This label will appear on the web service"

endpoint_mode

3.3

deploy:
  endpoint_mode: vip
  endpoint_mode: dnsrr

mode

https://docs.docker.com/engine/swarm/how-swarm-mode-works/services/#replicated-and-global-services

deploy:
  # 每个节点一个容器 exactly one container per swarm node
  mode: global
  # 指定数量的容器 a specified number of containers
  mode: replicated

placement

deploy:
  placement:
    constraints:
      # 运行在管理节点
      - node.role == manager
      - engine.labels.operatingsystem == ubuntu 14.04
    preferences:
      - spread: node.labels.zone

resources

资源限制

deploy:
  resources:
    limits:
      cpus: '0.50'
      memory: 50M
    reservations:
      cpus: '0.25'
      memory: 20M

restart_policy

version: "3"
services:
  redis:
    image: redis:alpine
    deploy:
      restart_policy:
        condition: none | on-failure | any (默认)
        # 等待时间
        delay: 5s
        # 最大尝试次数
        max_attempts: 3
        # How long to wait before deciding if a restart has succeeded, specified as a duration (default: decide immediately)
        window: 120s

update_config

version: '3.4'
services:
  vote:
    image: dockersamples/examplevotingapp_vote:before
    depends_on:
      - redis
    deploy:
      replicas: 2
      update_config:
        # 同时升级 config 的容器个数
        parallelism: 2
        delay: 10s
        failure_action: continue | rollback | pause (默认)
        monitor:
        max_failure_ration:
        # 3.4
        order: stop-first (默认) | start-first

docker stack deploy 不支持以下参数

build

cgroup_parent

container_name

devices

tmpfs

external_links

links

network_mode

security_opt

stop_signal

sysctls

userns_mode

devices

List of device mappings. Uses the same format as the –device docker client create option.

devices:
  - "/dev/ttyUSB0:/dev/ttyUSB0"

depends_on

保证依赖的服务完全启动之后才启动 https://docs.docker.com/compose/startup-order/

依赖关系

version: '3'
services:

  web:
    build: .
    depends_on:
      - db
      - redis

  redis:
    image: redis

  db:
    image: postgres

dns

dns: 8.8.8.8

dns:
  - 8.8.8.8
  - 9.9.9.9

dns_search

dns_search: example.com

dns_search:
  - dc1.example.com
  - dc2.example.com

tmpfs

tmpfs: /run

tmpfs:
  - /run
  - /tmp

entrypoint

入口文件

entrypoint: /code/entrypoint.sh

entrypoint:
    - php
    - -d
    - zend_extension=/usr/local/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20100525/xdebug.so
    - -d
    - memory_limit=-1
    - vendor/bin/phpunit

env_file

从文件读取变量写入镜像 环境变量

env_file: .env

env_file:
  - ./common.env
  - ./apps/web.env
  - /opt/secrets.env

若变量重复,后边文件的变量会覆盖后边的。

env 文件内容举例

# 支持 # 号注释
RACK_ENV=development

environment

设置环境变量

environment:
  RACK_ENV: development
  SHOW: 'true'
  SESSION_SECRET:

environment:
  - RACK_ENV=development
  - SHOW=true
  - SESSION_SECRET

expose

内部暴露端口

expose:
 - "3000"
 - "8000"

external_links

链接外部容器。不建议使用,建议通过网络进行连接!

CONTAINER:ALIAS

external_links:
 - redis_1
 - project_db_1:mysql
 - project_db_1:postgresql

extra_hosts

extra_hosts:
 - "somehost:162.242.195.82"
 - "otherhost:50.31.209.229"

在容器内 /etc/hosts 写入下面的内容

162.242.195.82  somehost
50.31.209.229   otherhost

healthcheck

健康检查

healthcheck:
  test: ["CMD", "curl", "-f", "http://localhost"]
  # 间隔
  interval: 1m30s
  # 超时时间
  timeout: 10s
  # 重试次数
  retries: 3
# Hit the local web app
test: ["CMD", "curl", "-f", "http://localhost"]

# As above, but wrapped in /bin/sh. Both forms below are equivalent.
test: ["CMD-SHELL", "curl -f http://localhost && echo 'cool, it works'"]
test: curl -f https://localhost && echo 'cool, it works'

image

image: redis
image: ubuntu:14.04
image: tutum/influxdb
image: example-registry.com:4000/postgresql
image: a4bc65fd

isolation

https://docs.docker.com/engine/reference/commandline/run/#specify-isolation-technology-for-container---isolation

Specify a container’s isolation technology. On Linux, the only supported value is default. On Windows, acceptable values are default, processand hyperv.

labels

labels:
  com.example.description: "Accounting webapp"
  com.example.department: "Finance"
  com.example.label-with-empty-value: ""

labels:
  - "com.example.description=Accounting webapp"
  - "com.example.department=Finance"
  - "com.example.label-with-empty-value"

links

不建议使用!

web:
  links:
   - db
   - db:database
   - redis

logging

日志配置

logging:
  driver: syslog
  options:
    syslog-address: "tcp://192.168.0.42:123"
driver: "json-file"
driver: "syslog"
driver: "none"
options:
  max-size: "200k"
  max-file: "10"
services:
  some-service:
    image: some-service
    logging:
      driver: "json-file"
      options:
        max-size: "200k"
        max-file: "10"

network_mode

network_mode: "bridge"
network_mode: "host"
network_mode: "none"
network_mode: "service:[service name]"
network_mode: "container:[container name/id]"

networks

services:
  some-service:
    networks:
     - some-network
     - other-network

aliases

services:
  some-service:
    networks:
      some-network:
        aliases:
         - alias1
         - alias3
      other-network:
        aliases:
         - alias2
version: '2'

services:
  web:
    build: ./web
    networks:
      - new

  worker:
    build: ./worker
    networks:
      - legacy

  db:
    image: mysql
    networks:
      new:
        aliases:
          - database
      legacy:
        aliases:
          - mysql

networks:
  new:
  legacy:

ipv4_address ipv6_address

version: '2.1'

services:
  app:
    image: busybox
    command: ifconfig
    networks:
      app_net:
        ipv4_address: 172.16.238.10
        ipv6_address: 2001:3984:3989::10

networks:
  app_net:
    driver: bridge
    enable_ipv6: true
    ipam:
      driver: default
      config:
      -
        subnet: 172.16.238.0/24
      -
        subnet: 2001:3984:3989::/64

pid

pid: "host"

ports

ports:
 - "3000"
 - "3000-3005"
 - "8000:8000"
 - "9090-9091:8080-8081"
 - "49100:22"
 - "127.0.0.1:8001:8001"
 - "127.0.0.1:5000-5010:5000-5010"
 - "6060:6060/udp"

3.2 开始支持长格式

ports:
  - target: 80
    published: 8080
    protocol: tcp
    mode: host

secrets

version: "3.1"
services:
  redis:
    image: redis:latest
    deploy:
      replicas: 1
    secrets:
      - my_secret
      - my_other_secret
secrets:
  my_secret:
    file: ./my_secret.txt
  my_other_secret:
    # 使用外部 secret
    external: true

长格式

version: "3.1"
services:
  redis:
    image: redis:latest
    deploy:
      replicas: 1
    secrets:
      - source: my_secret
        target: redis_secret
        uid: '103'
        gid: '103'
        mode: 0440
secrets:
  my_secret:
    file: ./my_secret.txt
  my_other_secret:
    external: true

security_opt

security_opt:
  - label:user:USER
  - label:role:ROLE

stop_grace_period

stop_grace_period: 1s
stop_grace_period: 1m30s

stop_signal

stop_signal: SIGUSR1

sysctls

Kernel parameters to set in the container. You can use either an array or a dictionary.

sysctls:
  net.core.somaxconn: 1024
  net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies: 0

sysctls:
  - net.core.somaxconn=1024
  - net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies=0

ulimits

Override the default ulimits for a container. You can either specify a single limit as an integer or soft/hard limits as a mapping.

ulimits:
  nproc: 65535
  nofile:
    soft: 20000
    hard: 40000

userns_mode

Disables the user namespace for this service, if Docker daemon is configured with user namespaces. See dockerd for more information.

userns_mode: "host"

volumes

version: "3.2"
services:
  web:
    image: nginx:alpine
    volumes:
      - type: volume
        source: mydata
        target: /data
        volume:
          nocopy: true
      - type: bind
        source: ./static
        target: /opt/app/static

  db:
    image: postgres:latest
    volumes:
      - "/var/run/postgres/postgres.sock:/var/run/postgres/postgres.sock"
      - "dbdata:/var/lib/postgresql/data"

volumes:
  mydata:
  dbdata:
volumes:
  # Just specify a path and let the Engine create a volume
  - /var/lib/mysql

  # Specify an absolute path mapping
  - /opt/data:/var/lib/mysql

  # Path on the host, relative to the Compose file
  - ./cache:/tmp/cache

  # User-relative path
  - ~/configs:/etc/configs/:ro

  # Named volume
  - datavolume:/var/lib/mysql

  #

  - source:/target:constraints (默认) | cached (宿主机优先)| delegated (容器优先)
version: "3.2"
services:
  web:
    image: nginx:alpine
    ports:
      - "80:80"

networks:
  webnet:

volumes:
  - type: volume
    source: mydata
    target: /data
    volume:
      nocopy: true
  - type: bind
    source: ./static
    target: /opt/app/static

restart

restart: "no"
restart: always
restart: on-failure
restart: unless-stopped

domainname, hostname, ipc, mac_address, privileged, read_only, shm_size, stdin_open, tty, user, working_dir

user: postgresql
working_dir: /code

domainname: foo.com
hostname: foo
ipc: host
mac_address: 02:42:ac:11:65:43

privileged: true


read_only: true
shm_size: 64M
stdin_open: true
tty: true

Specifying durations

2.5s
10s
1m30s
2h32m
5h34m56s

Volume configuration reference

version: "3"

services:
  db:
    image: db
    volumes:
      - data-volume:/var/lib/db
  backup:
    image: backup-service
    volumes:
      - data-volume:/var/lib/backup/data

volumes:
  data-volume:
driver: foobar
driver_opts:
  foo: "bar"
  baz: 1
volumes:
  data:
    external: true
labels:
  com.example.description: "Database volume"
  com.example.department: "IT/Ops"
  com.example.label-with-empty-value: ""

labels:
  - "com.example.description=Database volume"
  - "com.example.department=IT/Ops"
  - "com.example.label-with-empty-value"
volumes:
  data:
    external:
      name: actual-name-of-volume

name

version: '3.4'
volumes:
  data:
    name: my-app-data
version: '3.4'
volumes:
  data:
    external: true
    name: my-app-data

Network configuration reference

driver: overlay

host OR none

用于 docker stack,如果使用 docker-compose 请使用 network_mode

类似于 docker run --net=host

services:
  web:
    ...
    networks:
      hostnet: {}

networks:
  hostnet:
    external:
      name: host

类似于 docker run --net=none

services:
  web:
    ...
    networks:
      nonet: {}

networks:
  nonet:
    external:
      name: none

driver_opts

driver_opts:
  foo: "bar"
  baz: 1

attachable

networks:
  mynet1:
    driver: overlay
    attachable: true

ipam

ipam:
  driver: default
  config:
    - subnet: 172.28.0.0/16

name

3.5

version: '3.5'
networks:
  network1:
    name: my-app-net
version: '3.5'
networks:
  network1:
    external: true
    name: my-app-net

configs configuration reference

configs:
  my_first_config:
    file: ./config_data
  my_second_config:
    external: true

3.5

configs:
  my_first_config:
    file: ./config_data
  my_second_config:
    external:
      name: redis_config

secrets configuration reference

secrets:
  my_first_secret:
    file: ./secret_data
  my_second_secret:
    external: true

3.5

secrets:
  my_first_secret:
    file: ./secret_data
  my_second_secret:
    external:
      name: redis_secret

Variable substitution

db:
  image: "postgres:${POSTGRES_VERSION}"

.env 文件或系统变量中读取变量,来替换 compose 文件中的变量。

docker stack deploy 不支持变量读取。

$VAR ${VAR} 这两种格式都支持。

${VARIABLE:-default} 如果 VARIABLEunset 或为空 (empty) 时设置为 default

${VARIABLE-default} 如果 VARIABLEunset 时设置为 default

使用 $$ 避免解析变量

web:
  build: .
  command: "$$VAR_NOT_INTERPOLATED_BY_COMPOSE"

Extension fields

version: '2.1'
x-custom:
  items:
    - a
    - b
  options:
    max-size: '12m'
  name: "custom"
logging:
  options:
    max-size: '12m'
    max-file: '5'
  driver: json-fi
version: '2.1'
x-logging:
  &default-logging
  options:
    max-size: '12m'
    max-file: '5'
  driver: json-file

services:
  web:
    image: myapp/web:latest
    logging: *default-logging
  db:
    image: mysql:latest
    logging: *default-logging
version: '2.1'
x-volumes:
  &default-volume
  driver: foobar-storage

services:
  web:
    image: myapp/web:latest
    volumes: ["vol1", "vol2", "vol3"]
volumes:
  vol1: *default-volume
  vol2:
    << : *default-volume
    name: volume02
  vol3:
    << : *default-volume
    driver: default
    name: volume-local

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