grafana酷炫图表

Grafana 可视化大型测量数据工具

############################################################
# $Name:         grafana可视化大型测量数据工具
# $Author:       zhangshoufu
# $organization: https://blog.51cto.com/13447608
# $Create Date:  2018-10-14
############################################################

grafana是什么?

1)grafana是用于可视化大型测量数据的开源程序,他提供了强大和优雅的方式去创建、共享、浏览数据。dashboard中显示了你不同metric数据源中的数据。 2)grafana最常用于因特网基础设施和应用分析,但在其他领域也有机会用到,比如:工业传感器、家庭自动化、过程控制等等。 3)grafana有热插拔控制面板和可扩展的数据源,目前已经支持Graphite、InfluxDB、OpenTSDB、Elasticsearch。

安装,配置Grafana软件

1,安装grafana软件 [grafana官网安装说明](http://docs.grafana.org/installation/rpm/) 我们这里介绍5.1.4版本的grafana的安装,如果需要其他版本请点击上述连接到官网自行下载安装

sudo yum install https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/grafana-releases/release/grafana-5.1.4-1.x86_64.rpm
//granfan软件的目录结构
/usr/sbin/grafana-server 安装的二进制文件,可执行的命令
/etc/sysconfig/grafana-server 默认和软件相关的环境变量
/etc/grafana/grafana.ini  默认的配置文件
/var/log/grafana/grafana.log 默认的日志文件
/var/lib/grafana/grafana.db 默认使用的时候是sqlite3数据库,里面存放的连接信息,刚安装好服务没启动之前这个文件是不存在的
systemctl start grafana-server.service  //启动服务
systemctl enable grafana-server.service //把服务加入开机启动文件中

说明:

1,默认是以grafana用户来启动grafana的,默认监听在3000端口。 2,默认的登录用户是admin/admin 3,我们可以通过http://IP:3000来访问grafana的web界面 4,默认使用的数据库是sqlite3

2,配置grafana软件 1)/etc/sysconfig/grafana-server 环境变量配置文件说明

[root@zabbix grafana]# cat /etc/sysconfig/grafana-server
GRAFANA_USER=grafana
 // 启动grafana的用户身份
GRAFANA_GROUP=grafana
// 启动grafana的用户组身份
GRAFANA_HOME=/usr/share/grafana
// garfana软件默认的目录
LOG_DIR=/var/log/grafana
// grafana日志文件存放的位置
DATA_DIR=/var/lib/grafana
// grafana默认数据存放的位置,sqlite3数据库
MAX_OPEN_FILES=10000
// 最大打开的文件数
CONF_DIR=/etc/grafana
// 默认配置文件存在的目录
CONF_FILE=/etc/grafana/grafana.ini
// 默认的配置文件
RESTART_ON_UPGRADE=true
// 从新启动升级开启
PLUGINS_DIR=/var/lib/grafana/plugins
// 插件存放的目录
PROVISIONING_CFG_DIR=/etc/grafana/provisioning

# Only used on systemd systems
PID_FILE_DIR=/var/run/grafana
// 软件启动pid号存放的在那个文件中

// 我们更改上述信息重启grafana生效

2)解读/etc/grafana/grafana.ini默认的配置文件,优先级高于上个文件

这个文件中 ; 代表注释,注释的值代表默认的值
[root@zabbix /]# cat /etc/grafana/grafana.ini
##################### Grafana Configuration Example #####################
#
# Everything has defaults so you only need to uncomment things you want to
# change

# possible values : production, development
;app_mode = production

# instance name, defaults to HOSTNAME environment variable value or hostname if HOSTNAME var is empty
;instance_name = ${HOSTNAME}
// 设置grafana-server实例的名称如果HOSTNAME的值为空默认使用HOSTNAME的环境变量或者主机名
#################################### Paths ####################################
[paths]
# Path to where grafana can store temp files, sessions, and the sqlite3 db (if that is used)
;data = /var/lib/grafana
// grafana存放数据的地方,默认存放的sqlite3和session会话信息(如果你使用sqlite3)
# Directory where grafana can store logs
;logs = /var/log/grafana
// 默认日志信息存放的位置
# Directory where grafana will automatically scan and look for plugins
;plugins = /var/lib/grafana/plugins
// 插件存放的文职
# folder that contains provisioning config files that grafana will apply on startup and while running.
;provisioning = conf/provisioning
// 包含grafana将在启动时和运行时应用的配置配置文件的文件夹。
#################################### Server ####################################
[server]
# Protocol (http, https, socket)
;protocol = http
// 使用的http协议
# The ip address to bind to, empty will bind to all interfaces
;http_addr =
// 监听的地址
# The http port  to use
;http_port = 3000
// 监听的端口
# The public facing domain name used to access grafana from a browser
;domain = localhost
// 使用的域名
# Redirect to correct domain if host header does not match domain
# Prevents DNS rebinding attacks
;enforce_domain = false
// 如果主机头与域名不匹配,则重定向到正确的域名防止DNS重新绑定***
# The full public facing url you use in browser, used for redirects and emails
# If you use reverse proxy and sub path specify full url (with sub path)
;root_url = http://localhost:3000
// 网站默认首页的URL,如果我们更改上面的domain和port这个也要改成对应的

# Log web requests
;router_logging = false
// 默认不记录web请求
# the path relative working path
;static_root_path = public
// web静态文件存放的路径
# enable gzip
;enable_gzip = false
// 是否开始http传输时候的gzip压缩,默认不使用
# https certs & key file
;cert_file =
;cert_key =
// 使用https加密协议的时候证书和存放的证书和key的位置
# Unix socket path
;socket =

#################################### Database ####################################
[database]
// 连接数据库的配置文件,应该都能看懂,不解释
# You can configure the database connection by specifying type, host, name, user and password
# as separate properties or as on string using the url properties.

# Either "mysql", "postgres" or "sqlite3", it's your choice
;type = sqlite3
;host = 127.0.0.1:3306
;name = grafana
;user = root
# If the password contains # or ; you have to wrap it with triple quotes. Ex """#password;"""
;password =
// 如果密码包含#或;您必须用三重引号包装它。"""#password;"""

# Use either URL or the previous fields to configure the database
# Example: mysql://user:secret@host:port/database
;url =

# For "postgres" only, either "disable", "require" or "verify-full"
;ssl_mode = disable

# For "sqlite3" only, path relative to data_path setting
;path = grafana.db

# Max idle conn setting default is 2
;max_idle_conn = 2

# Max conn setting default is 0 (mean not set)
;max_open_conn =

# Connection Max Lifetime default is 14400 (means 14400 seconds or 4 hours)
;conn_max_lifetime = 14400

# Set to true to log the sql calls and execution times.
log_queries =

#################################### Session ####################################
[session]
# Either "memory", "file", "redis", "mysql", "postgres", default is "file"
;provider = file

# Provider config options
# memory: not have any config yet
# file: session dir path, is relative to grafana data_path
# redis: config like redis server e.g. `addr=127.0.0.1:6379,pool_size=100,db=grafana`
# mysql: go-sql-driver/mysql dsn config string, e.g. `user:password@tcp(127.0.0.1:3306)/database_name`
# postgres: user=a password=b host=localhost port=5432 dbname=c sslmode=disable
;provider_config = sessions

# Session cookie name
;cookie_name = grafana_sess

# If you use session in https only, default is false
;cookie_secure = false

# Session life time, default is 86400
;session_life_time = 86400

#################################### Data proxy ###########################
[dataproxy]

# This enables data proxy logging, default is false
;logging = false

#################################### Analytics ####################################
[analytics]
# Server reporting, sends usage counters to stats.grafana.org every 24 hours.
# No ip addresses are being tracked, only simple counters to track
# running instances, dashboard and error counts. It is very helpful to us.
# Change this option to false to disable reporting.
;reporting_enabled = true

# Set to false to disable all checks to https://grafana.net
# for new vesions (grafana itself and plugins), check is used
# in some UI views to notify that grafana or plugin update exists
# This option does not cause any auto updates, nor send any information
# only a GET request to http://grafana.com to get latest versions
;check_for_updates = true

# Google Analytics universal tracking code, only enabled if you specify an id here
;google_analytics_ua_id =

#################################### Security ####################################
[security]
# default admin user, created on startup
;admin_user = admin
// 默认登录网站的用户名

# default admin password, can be changed before first start of grafana,  or in profile settings
;admin_password = admin
// 默认使用的密码
# used for signing
;secret_key = SW2YcwTIb9zpOOhoPsMm
// 用于签署一些数据源设置
# Auto-login remember days
;login_remember_days = 7  //记住登录的天数
;cookie_username = grafana_user //用户cookie记录的文件
;cookie_remember_name = grafana_remember

# disable gravatar profile images
;disable_gravatar = false
// 禁用个人图片文件
# data source proxy whitelist (ip_or_domain:port separated by spaces)
;data_source_proxy_whitelist =

# disable protection against brute force login attempts
;disable_brute_force_login_protection = false

#################################### Snapshots ###########################
[snapshots]
# snapshot sharing options
;external_enabled = true
;external_snapshot_url = https://snapshots-origin.raintank.io
;external_snapshot_name = Publish to snapshot.raintank.io

# remove expired snapshot
;snapshot_remove_expired = true

#################################### Dashboards History ##################
[dashboards]
# Number dashboard versions to keep (per dashboard). Default: 20, Minimum: 1
;versions_to_keep = 20

#################################### Users ###############################
[users]
# disable user signup / registration
;allow_sign_up = true
// 设置为false就禁止用户注册/创建用户了,但是管理员还是能操作

# Allow non admin users to create organizations
;allow_org_create = true
// false禁止用户创建组织
# Set to true to automatically assign new users to the default organization (id 1)
;auto_assign_org = true
// 设置为true自动将新用户添加到主组织(标识1)。设置为时false,新用户将自动为该新用户创建新组织。
# Default role new users will be automatically assigned (if disabled above is set to true)
;auto_assign_org_role = Viewer
// 将为主组织分配新用户的角色
# Background text for the user field on the login page
;login_hint = email or username

# Default UI theme ("dark" or "light")
;default_theme = dark

# External user management, these options affect the organization users view
;external_manage_link_url =
;external_manage_link_name =
;external_manage_info =

# Viewers can edit/inspect dashboard settings in the browser. But not save the dashboard.
;viewers_can_edit = false

[auth]
# Set to true to disable (hide) the login form, useful if you use OAuth, defaults to false
;disable_login_form = false

# Set to true to disable the signout link in the side menu. useful if you use auth.proxy, defaults to false
;disable_signout_menu = false

#################################### Anonymous Auth ##########################
[auth.anonymous]
# enable anonymous access
;enabled = false

# specify organization name that should be used for unauthenticated users
;org_name = Main Org.

# specify role for unauthenticated users
;org_role = Viewer

#################################### Github Auth ##########################
[auth.github]
;enabled = false
;allow_sign_up = true
;client_id = some_id
;client_secret = some_secret
;scopes = user:email,read:org
;auth_url = https://github.com/login/oauth/authorize
;token_url = https://github.com/login/oauth/access_token
;api_url = https://api.github.com/user
;team_ids =
;allowed_organizations =

#################################### Google Auth ##########################
[auth.google]
;enabled = false
;allow_sign_up = true
;client_id = some_client_id
;client_secret = some_client_secret
;scopes = https://www.googleapis.com/auth/userinfo.profile https://www.googleapis.com/auth/userinfo.email
;auth_url = https://accounts.google.com/o/oauth2/auth
;token_url = https://accounts.google.com/o/oauth2/token
;api_url = https://www.googleapis.com/oauth2/v1/userinfo
;allowed_domains =

#################################### Generic OAuth ##########################
[auth.generic_oauth]
;enabled = false
;name = OAuth
;allow_sign_up = true
;client_id = some_id
;client_secret = some_secret
;scopes = user:email,read:org
;auth_url = https://foo.bar/login/oauth/authorize
;token_url = https://foo.bar/login/oauth/access_token
;api_url = https://foo.bar/user
;team_ids =
;allowed_organizations =

#################################### Grafana.com Auth ####################
[auth.grafana_com]
;enabled = false
;allow_sign_up = true
;client_id = some_id
;client_secret = some_secret
;scopes = user:email
;allowed_organizations =

#################################### Auth Proxy ##########################
[auth.proxy]
;enabled = false
;header_name = X-WEBAUTH-USER
;header_property = username
;auto_sign_up = true
;ldap_sync_ttl = 60
;whitelist = 192.168.1.1, 192.168.2.1

#################################### Basic Auth ##########################
[auth.basic]
;enabled = true

#################################### Auth LDAP ##########################
[auth.ldap]
;enabled = false
;config_file = /etc/grafana/ldap.toml
;allow_sign_up = true

#################################### SMTP / Emailing ##########################
[smtp]
;enabled = false
;host = localhost:25
;user =
# If the password contains # or ; you have to wrap it with trippel quotes. Ex """#password;"""
;password =
;cert_file =
;key_file =
;skip_verify = false
;from_address = admin@grafana.localhost
;from_name = Grafana
# EHLO identity in SMTP dialog (defaults to instance_name)
;ehlo_identity = dashboard.example.com

[emails]
;welcome_email_on_sign_up = false

#################################### Logging ##########################
[log]
# Either "console", "file", "syslog". Default is console and  file
# Use space to separate multiple modes, e.g. "console file"
;mode = console file

# Either "debug", "info", "warn", "error", "critical", default is "info"
;level = info

# optional settings to set different levels for specific loggers. Ex filters = sqlstore:debug
;filters =

# For "console" mode only
[log.console]
;level =

# log line format, valid options are text, console and json
;format = console

# For "file" mode only
[log.file]
;level =

# log line format, valid options are text, console and json
;format = text

# This enables automated log rotate(switch of following options), default is true
;log_rotate = true

# Max line number of single file, default is 1000000
;max_lines = 1000000

# Max size shift of single file, default is 28 means 1 << 28, 256MB
;max_size_shift = 28

# Segment log daily, default is true
;daily_rotate = true

# Expired days of log file(delete after max days), default is 7
;max_days = 7

[log.syslog]
;level =

# log line format, valid options are text, console and json
;format = text

# Syslog network type and address. This can be udp, tcp, or unix. If left blank, the default unix endpoints will be used.
;network =
;address =

# Syslog facility. user, daemon and local0 through local7 are valid.
;facility =

# Syslog tag. By default, the process' argv[0] is used.
;tag =

#################################### Alerting ############################
[alerting]
# Disable alerting engine & UI features
;enabled = true
# Makes it possible to turn off alert rule execution but alerting UI is visible
;execute_alerts = true

#################################### Internal Grafana Metrics ##########################
# Metrics available at HTTP API Url /metrics
[metrics]
# Disable / Enable internal metrics
;enabled           = true

# Publish interval
;interval_seconds  = 10

# Send internal metrics to Graphite
[metrics.graphite]
# Enable by setting the address setting (ex localhost:2003)
;address =
;prefix = prod.grafana.%(instance_name)s.

#################################### Distributed tracing ############
[tracing.jaeger]
# Enable by setting the address sending traces to jaeger (ex localhost:6831)
;address = localhost:6831
# Tag that will always be included in when creating new spans. ex (tag1:value1,tag2:value2)
;always_included_tag = tag1:value1
# Type specifies the type of the sampler: const, probabilistic, rateLimiting, or remote
;sampler_type = const
# jaeger samplerconfig param
# for "const" sampler, 0 or 1 for always false/true respectively
# for "probabilistic" sampler, a probability between 0 and 1
# for "rateLimiting" sampler, the number of spans per second
# for "remote" sampler, param is the same as for "probabilistic"
# and indicates the initial sampling rate before the actual one
# is received from the mothership
;sampler_param = 1

#################################### Grafana.com integration  ##########################
# Url used to to import dashboards directly from Grafana.com
[grafana_com]
;url = https://grafana.com

#################################### External image storage ##########################
[external_image_storage]
# Used for uploading images to public servers so they can be included in slack/email messages.
# you can choose between (s3, webdav, gcs, azure_blob, local)
;provider =

[external_image_storage.s3]
;bucket =
;region =
;path =
;access_key =
;secret_key =

[external_image_storage.webdav]
;url =
;public_url =
;username =
;password =

[external_image_storage.gcs]
;key_file =
;bucket =
;path =

[external_image_storage.azure_blob]
;account_name =
;account_key =
;container_name =

[external_image_storage.local]
# does not require any configuration

用户认证方式的位置:garfana几种用户认证方式

3)修改配置文件

// grafana默把数据存在sqlite3里,我们更改到mysql重
[root@zabbix /]# grep "^[a-z]" /etc/grafana/grafana.ini
domain = test.garfana.com
root_url = http://test.garfana.com:3000
type = mysql
host = 172.16.1.51:3306
name = grafana
user = grafana
password = "zsf123.com"
log_queries =
admin_user = zsf
admin_password = "zsf123.com"

4)mysql创建库和用户并授权

MariaDB [(none)]> create database grafana ;
MariaDB [(none)]> grant all privileges on grafana.* to grafana@"172.16.1.71" identified by 'zsf123.com';
MariaDB [(none)]> flush privileges;

5)重启grafana使其配置生效,登录web界面连接配置,安装Plugin插件

通过grafana与zabbix的配合使用来介绍grafana的使用方式

1)安装zabbix插件,进入grafana-web首页---> install apps & Plugin安装zabbix插件

选择Zabbix插件

[root@zabbix /]#
[root@zabbix /]# grafana-cli plugins install alexanderzobnin-zabbix-app
installing alexanderzobnin-zabbix-app @ 3.9.1
from url: https://grafana.com/api/plugins/alexanderzobnin-zabbix-app/versions/3.9.1/download
into: /var/lib/grafana/plugins

✔ Installed alexanderzobnin-zabbix-app successfully

Restart grafana after installing plugins . <service grafana-server restart>
// 安装完插件之后重启一下grafana端
[root@zabbix /]# systemctl restart grafana-server.service

2)然后进入到web首页点击

进入启用zabbix插件

3)添加一个报表的数据源

4)查看模版的信息 到首页点击home

5)指定义指示盘

先创建一个garfana的行来归类

创建一个图表

大概页面就是这么一个情况,

添加一个饼图插件 和安装Zabbix插件是一样的过程

grafana-cli plugins install grafana-piechart-panel
installing grafana-piechart-panel @ 1.3.3
from url: https://grafana.com/api/plugins/grafana-piechart-panel/versions/1.3.3/download
into: /var/lib/grafana/plugins

✔ Installed grafana-piechart-panel successfully

Restart grafana after installing plugins . <service grafana-server restart>
[root@zabbix /]# systemctl restart grafana-server.service

安装完成之后就能在添加模块的地方看到饼图了,即可创建,内存的饼图

安装插件介绍到这,基本使用已经能正常了,后期继续推出相关教程

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