Linux 磁盘分区、格式化、目录挂载

实验环境: Citrix虚拟化, RHEL6.4系统环境 本文目的: 熟悉Linux的基本磁盘分区、格式化、目录挂载。

  1. 显示当前主机目录
  2. 磁盘分区
  3. 磁盘格式化
  4. 挂载目录

1. 显示当前主机目录

命令df -h

[root@localhost ~]# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root
                       26G  2.9G   22G  13% /
tmpfs                 1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /dev/shm
/dev/xvda1            485M   32M  428M   7% /boot

2. 磁盘分区

2.1 显示机器当前的磁盘:

命令fdisk -l

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk -l /dev/xvdb 

Disk /dev/xvdb: 53.7 GB, 53687091200 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6527 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x00000000

注:这里知道新增磁盘为/dev/xvdb,就直接指定了,缩减显示篇幅。

2.2 fdisk 分区 /dev/xvdb:

fdisk /dev/xvdb 根据帮助提示分区,这里是把/dev/xvdb分成一个区.

[root@localhost ~]# fdisk /dev/xvdb
Device contains neither a valid DOS partition table, nor Sun, SGI or OSF disklabel
Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x0adfd119.
Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.
After that, of course, the previous content won't be recoverable.

Warning: invalid flag 0x0000 of partition table 4 will be corrected by w(rite)

WARNING: DOS-compatible mode is deprecated. It's strongly recommended to
         switch off the mode (command 'c') and change display units to
         sectors (command 'u').

Command (m for help): m
Command action
   a   toggle a bootable flag
   b   edit bsd disklabel
   c   toggle the dos compatibility flag
   d   delete a partition
   l   list known partition types
   m   print this menu
   n   add a new partition
   o   create a new empty DOS partition table
   p   print the partition table
   q   quit without saving changes
   s   create a new empty Sun disklabel
   t   change a partition's system id
   u   change display/entry units
   v   verify the partition table
   w   write table to disk and exit
   x   extra functionality (experts only)

Command (m for help): n
Command action
   e   extended
   p   primary partition (1-4)
p
Partition number (1-4): 1
First cylinder (1-6527, default 1): 
Using default value 1
Last cylinder, +cylinders or +size{K,M,G} (1-6527, default 6527): 
Using default value 6527

Command (m for help): p

Disk /dev/xvdb: 53.7 GB, 53687091200 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 6527 cylinders
Units = cylinders of 16065 * 512 = 8225280 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
Disk identifier: 0x0adfd119

    Device Boot      Start         End      Blocks   Id  System
/dev/xvdb1               1        6527    52428096   83  Linux

Command (m for help): w
The partition table has been altered!

Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.
Syncing disks.

3. 磁盘格式化

命令mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvdb1分区为ext4的文件系统格式。

[root@localhost ~]# mkfs.ext4 /dev/xvdb1 
mke2fs 1.41.12 (17-May-2010)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
3276800 inodes, 13107024 blocks
655351 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=4294967296
400 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
        32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208, 
        4096000, 7962624, 11239424

Writing inode tables: done                            
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

This filesystem will be automatically checked every 28 mounts or
180 days, whichever comes first.  Use tune2fs -c or -i to override.

4.挂载目录

4.1 手工挂载

新建目录/u01mkdir -p /u01 挂载设备到目录/u01mount /dev/xvdb1 /u01

[root@localhost ~]# mkdir -p /u01
[root@localhost ~]# mount /dev/xvdb1 /u01

4.2 开机自动挂载

修改/etc/fstab配置文件,末尾添加一行:

/dev/xvdb1              /u01                    ext4    defaults        0 0

显示当前目录,已成功挂载/u01目录:

[root@localhost ~]# df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/VolGroup-lv_root
                       26G  2.9G   22G  13% /
tmpfs                 1.9G     0  1.9G   0% /dev/shm
/dev/xvda1            485M   32M  428M   7% /boot
/dev/xvdb1             50G  180M   47G   1% /u01

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